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Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program (Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program Fuel Carbon Dioxide Emission Coefficients)


Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program
Fuel Emission Coefficients

Table 1: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion
Table 2: Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Transportation Fuels
Table 3: Generic Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Stationary Fuel Combustion
Table 4: Specific Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Biogenic Fuel Sources
Table 5: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Factors for Highway Vehicles
Table 6: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Alternative Fuel Vehicles
Table 7: Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Non-Highway Mobile Combustion

1. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Stationary Combustion1
Fuel Emission Factor Units
Coal by Rank2

Anthracite

103.69 kg CO2 / MMBtu

Bituminous

93.28 kg CO2 / MMBtu

Sub-bituminous

97.17 kg CO2 / MMBtu

Lignite

97.72 kg CO2 / MMBtu
Coal by Sector2

Electric Power Sector

95.52 kg CO2 / MMBtu

Industrial Coking

93.71 kg CO2 / MMBtu

Other Industrial

93.98 kg CO2 / MMBtu

Residential/Commercial

95.35 kg CO2 / MMBtu
Natural Gas3

Pipeline Natural Gas

HHV of 975 - 1000 Btu/scf

 
54.01 kg CO2 / MMBtu
5.401 kg CO2 / therm

HHV of 1000 - 1025 Btu/scf

 
52.91 kg CO2 / MMBtu
5.291 kg CO2 / therm

HHV of 1025 - 1050 Btu/scf

 
53.06 kg CO2 / MMBtu
5.306 kg CO2 / therm

HHV of 1050 - 1075 Btu/scf

 
53.46 kg CO2 / MMBtu
5.346 kg CO2 / therm

HHV of 1075 - 1100 Btu/scf

 
53.72 kg CO2 / MMBtu
5.372 kg CO2 / therm

Weighted National Average (1029¬ Btu/scf)

 
53.06 kg CO2 / MMBtu
5.306 kg CO2 / therm

Flared Natural Gas

54.71 kg CO2 / MMBtu
5.471 kg CO2 / therm
Petroleum Fuels3

Middle Distillate Fuels (No. 1, No. 2, No. 4 fuel oil, diesel, home heating oil)

73.15 kg CO2 / MMBtu
10.15 kg CO2 / gallon

Jet Fuel ( Jet A, JP-8)

70.88 kg CO2 / MMBtu
9.57 kg CO2 / gallon

Kerosene

72.31 kg CO2 / MMBtu
9.76 kg CO2 / gallon

Heavy Fuel Oil (No. 5, 6 fuel oil), bunker fuel

78.80 kg CO2 / MMBtu
11.80 kg CO2 / gallon

Ethane

59.59 kg CO2 / MMBtu
4.14 kg CO2 / gallon

Propane

63.07 kg CO2 / MMBtu
5.74 kg CO2 / gallon

Isobutane

65.07 kg CO2 / MMBtu
6.45 kg CO2 / gallon

n-Butane

64.95 kg CO2 / MMBtu
6.69 kg CO2 / gallon

Unspecified LPG

62.28 kg CO2 / MMBtu
- kg CO2 / gallon

Refinery (Still) Gas

64.20 kg CO2 / MMBtu
9.17 kg CO2 / gallon

Crude Oil

74.54 kg CO2 / MMBtu
10.29 kg CO2 / gallon

Petroleum Coke

102.12 kg CO2 / MMBtu
14.65 kg CO2 / gallon
Other Fuels

Tires/Tire Derived Fuel 4

85.97 kg CO2 / MMBtu

Waste Oil5,6

9.98 kg CO2 / gallon

Waste Oil Blended with Residual Fuel Oil5

66.53 kg CO2 / MMBtu

Waste Oil Blended with Distillate Fuel Oil5

71.28 kg CO2 / MMBtu

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)7,8

417.04 kg CO2 / short ton MSW

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)7,8

41.70 kg CO2 / MMBtu MSW

Plastics Portion of MSW7

2,539.80 kg CO2 / short ton plastics
1All factors assume 100 percent combustion except those for MSW, which assume 98 percent combustion.
2U. S. Energy Information Administration, Documentation for Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2008, DOE/EIA-0638 (2006), October 2008, Table 6-2, p. 183.
3Energy Information Administration, Documentation for Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2005, DOE/EIA-0638 (2005), October 2007, Tables 6-1, 6-2, 6-4, and 6-5.
4U.S. Department of Energy, Technical Guidelines Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases (1605(b)) Program, Chapter 1, Part C, Stationary Source Combustion, January 2007.
5U.S. EPA, AP 42, Fifth Edition, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume 1: Stationary Point and Area Sources, http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/ch01/final/c01s11.pdf.
6To convert to an energy basis (kg/MMBtu), divide by the heating value of the oil in units of MMBtu/gal, if known. If the heating value is not known, use the default values below depending on whether the waste oil is blended with residual or distillate fuel oil.
7Emissions factors for components of MSW calculated from 2006 data in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2006, Public Review Draft, February 22, 2008, Section 3.9 and Annex 3.6. Weighted emission factor based on MSW composition for 2006 reported in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2006 MSW Characterization Data Tables, http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/non-hw/muncpl/pubs/06data.pdf.
8Emissions from other components of municipal solid waste are excluded because they are considered to be biogenic.


2. Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors for Transportation Fuels1
Transportation Fuel Emission Factors
Kilograms CO2 Per
Unit of Volume
Kilograms CO2 Per
Million Btu
Aviation Gasoline 8.32 per gallon 69.19
Biodiesel

-B100

0.00 per gallon 0.00

-B20

8.12 per gallon 59.44

-B10

9.13 per gallon 66.35

-B5

9.64 per gallon 69.76

-B2

9.94 per gallon 71.80
Diesel Fuel (No. 1 and No. 2) 10.15 per gallon 73.15
Ethanol/Ethanol Blends

-E100

0.00 per gallon 0.00

-E85

1.34 per gallon 14.79

-E10 (Gasohol)

8.02 per gallon 66.30
Methanol/Methanol Blends

-M100

4.11 per gallon 63.62

-M85

4.83 per gallon 65.56
Motor Gasoline 8.91 per gallon 71.26
Jet Fuel, Kerosene 9.57 per gallon 70.88
Natural Gas 54.60 per Mcf 53.06
Propane 5.74 per gallon 63.07
Residual Fuel (No. 5 and No. 6 Fuel Oil) 11.79 per gallon 78.80
1Emissions factors calculated from data in: (1) Energy Information Administration, Documentation for Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U.S. 2005, DOE/EIA-0638 (2005), October 2007, Tables 6-1, 6-4, and 6-5.¬  (Non-biogenic carbon content and gross heat of combustion for motor gasoline and diesel (distillate fuel)). (2) U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Alternative Fuels & Advanced Vehicles Data Center, Fuel Properties web page (http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/fuels/properties.html). (Biodiesel gross heat of combustion). (3) Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2006, DOE/EIA-0384(2006), June 2007, Table A3, p. 361. (Gross heat of combustion for ethanol). (4) Stacy C. Davis and Susan W. Diegel, Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 26, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL-6978, 2007, Table B.7 Tables¬  6.7 and B.4. (Density and gross heat of combustion of methanol.)

3. Generic Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Stationary Fuel Combustion
Source Methane Nitrous Oxide
(g /MMBtu) (g/MMBtu)
Coal

Residential

301 1.5

Commercial

10 1.5

Industry

10 1.5

Electricity Generation

1 1.5
Petroleum

Residential 

10 0.6

Commercial

10 0.6

Industry

3 0.6

Electricity Generation

3 0.6
Natural Gas

Residential

5 0.1

Commercial

5 0.1

Industry

1 0.1

Electricity Generation

1 0.1
Wood

Residential

253 3.2

Commercial

253 3.2

Industry

25 3.2

Electricity Generation

25 3.2
Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, pp. 2.16 - 2.23, Tables 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5¬  (Revised April 2007).
Note: Energy units are in higher heating value (HHV). Lower heating value (LHV) assumed to be 5 percent lower than HHV for coal and petroleum, 10 percent lower for natural gas, and 20 percent lower for wood.

4. Specific Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Biogenic Fuel Sources
Source Methane Nitrous Oxide
Wood residue (industrial)1 0.0953 kg / MMBtu residue 0.0059 kg / MMBtu
Conventional wood stove (non-catalytic)1 15 kg / metric ton wood NA
Wood stove (non-catalytic)1 8 kg / metric ton wood NA
Wood stove (catalytic)1 5.8 kg / metric ton wood NA
Residential fireplace1 NA 0.15 kg / metric ton
Charcoal manufacture1 55 kg / metric ton charcoal NA
Municipal solid waste (MSW)2 NA 0.044 kg / metric ton
Sources:
1
Environmental Protection Agency, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42), Fifth Edition, Volume I: Stationary Point and Area Sources.
2 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2006, EPA 430-R-08-005, April 15, 2008, Section 3.9.NA=not available.

5. Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Factors for Highway Vehicles
Vehicle Type/ Control Technology Model Year N2O CH4 N2O CH4
(g/mi) (g/mi) (g/km) (g/km)
Gasoline Passenger Cars

EPA Tier 2

2004 and Later 0.0036 0.0173 0.0022 0.0108

Low Emission Vehicles

2000-2003 0.0150 0.0105 0.0093 0.0065

EPA Tier 1

1995-1999 0.0429 0.0271 0.0267 0.0168

EPA Tier 0

1981-1994 0.0647 0.0704 0.0402 0.0437

Oxidation Catalyst

1975-1980 0.0504 0.1355 0.0313 0.0842

Non-Catalyst

1973-1974 0.0197 0.1696 0.0122 0.1054

Uncontrolled

1972 and Earlier 0.0197 0.1780 0.0122 0.1106
Gasoline Light-Duty Trucks

EPA Tier 2

2005 and Later 0.0066 0.0163 0.0041 0.0101

Low Emission Vehicles

2001-2004 0.0157 0.0148 0.0098 0.0092

EPA Tier 1

1995-2000 0.0871 0.0452 0.0541 0.0281

EPA Tier 0

1986-1994 0.1056 0.0776 0.0656 0.0482

Oxidation Catalyst

1975-1985 0.0639 0.1516 0.0397 0.0942

Non-Catalyst

1973-1974 0.0218 0.1908 0.0135 0.1186

Uncontrolled

1972 and Earlier 0.0220 0.2024 0.0137 0.1258
Gasoline Heavy-Duty Vehicles          

EPA Tier 2

2004 and Later 0.0134 0.0333 0.0083 0.0207

Low Emission Vehicles 

1998-2003 0.0320 0.0303 0.0199 0.0188

EPA Tier 1

1996-2003 0.1750 0.0655 0.1087 0.0407

EPA Tier 0

1996 and Later 0.2135 0.2630 0.1327 0.1634

Oxidation Catalyst

1996 and Later 0.1317 0.2356 0.0818 0.1464

Non-Catalyst Control

1985-1995 0.0473 0.4181 0.0294 0.2598

Uncontrolled

1984 and Earlier 0.0497 0.4604 0.0309 0.2861
Diesel Passenger Cars

Advanced

1996 and Later 0.0010 0.0005 0.0006 0.0003

Moderate

1983-1995 0.0010 0.0005 0.0006 0.0003

Uncontrolled

1982 and Earlier 0.0012 0.0006 0.0008 0.0004
Diesel Light-Duty Trucks

Advanced

1996 and Later 0.0015 0.0010 0.0009 0.0006

Moderate

1983-1995 0.0014 0.0009 0.0009 0.0006

Uncontrolled

1982 and Earlier 0.0017 0.0011 0.0011 0.0007
Diesel Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Advanced

1996 and Later 0.048 0.0051 0.030 0.0032

Moderate

1983-1995 0.048 0.0051 0.030 0.0032

Uncontrolled

1982 and Earlier 0.048 0.0051 0.030 0.0032
Motorcycles

Non-Catalyst Control

1996 and Later 0.0069 0.0672 0.0043 0.0418

Uncontrolled

1995 and Earlier 0.0087 0.0899 0.0054 0.0559
Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2005, EPA 430-R-07-002, Annex 3.2, (April 2007), web site: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport.html.

6. Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Alternative Fuel Vehicles
Vehicle Type/Control Technology N2O (g/mi) CH4 (g/mi) N2O (g/km) CH4 (g/km)
Light Duty Vehicles

Methanol

0.067 0.018 0.0416 0.0112

CNG

0.050 0.737 0.0311 0.4580

LPG

0.067 0.037 0.0416 0.0230

Ethanol

0.067 0.055 0.0416 0.0342
Heavy Duty Vehicles

Methanol

0.175 0.066 0.1087 0.0410

CNG

0.175 1.966 0.1087 1.2216

LNG

0.175 1.966 0.1087 1.2216

LPG

0.175 0.066 0.1087 0.0410

Ethanol

0.175 0.197 0.1087 0.1224
Buses

Methanol

0.175 0.066 0.1087 0.0410

CNG

0.175 1.966 0.1087 1.2216

Ethanol

0.175 0.197 0.1087 0.1224
Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2005, EPA 430-R-07-002, Annex 3.2, (April 2007), web site: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport.html.

7. Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission Factors for Non-Highway Mobile Combustion
Vehicle Type/Fuel Type N2O CH4 N2O CH4
(g/kg fuel) (g/kg fuel) (g/gal fuel) (g/gal fuel)
Ships and Boats

Residual

0.08 0.23 0.30 0.86

Distillate

0.08 0.23 0.26 0.74

Gasoline

0.08 0.23 0.22 0.65

Locomotives

       

Diesel

0.08 0.25 0.26 0.80
Agricultural Equipment

Gas

0.08 0.45 0.22 1.26

Diesel

0.08 0.45 0.26 1.44

Construction

       

Gas

0.08 0.18 0.22 0.51

Diesel

0.08 0.18 0.26 0.58
Other Non-Highway

All "Other" Categories1

0.08 0.18 0.22 0.51
Aircraft

Jet Fuel

0.10 0.09 0.31 0.27

Aviation Gasoline

0.04 2.64 0.11 7.05
1"Other" includes snowmobiles and other recreational equipment, logging equipment, lawn and garden equipment, railroad equipment, airport equipment, commercial equipment, and industrial equipment. (Assumes gasoline fuel.)
Source: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2005,  EPA 430-R-07-002, Annex 3.2, (April 2007), web site: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/emissions/usinventoryreport.html.

Last updated January 31, 2011