Petroleum & Other Liquids

All Reports

Today in Energy - Petroleum

Short, timely articles with graphs about recent petroleum issues and trends.

This Week in Petroleum

Data and analysis of recent events affecting the petroleum industry and markets. (archived versions)

 
Heating Oil and Propane Update

Weekly residential, wholesale, and spot prices; and production, demand, and stocks of heating fuels. (Weekly heating oil and propane prices are only collected during the heating season which extends from October through March.)

Weekly Petroleum Status Report

The petroleum supply situation in the context of historical information and selected prices. (archived versions)

 
Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update

Gasoline and diesel fuel prices released weekly.

Availability and Price of Petroleum and Petroleum Products Produced in Countries Other Than Iran, The

Released: August 28, 2014

This report was prepared in fulfillment of Section 1245(d)(4)(A) of the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2012, which requires that, not later than 60 days from enactment and every 60 days thereafter, the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) "submit to Congress a report on the availability and price of petroleum and petroleum products produced in countries other than Iran in the 60-day period preceding the submission of the report." (archived versions)

 
Monthly/Annual Energy Review - Petroleum Section

Released: August 27, 2014

Monthly and latest annual time-series and recent statistics on petroleum supply and demand.

Monthly Energy Review

Released: August 27, 2014

The Monthly Energy Review (MER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's primary report of recent energy statistics. Included are total energy production, consumption, and trade; energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international petroleum; carbon dioxide emissions; and data unit conversions.

 
Prime Supplier Report

Released: August 21, 2014

Measures primary petroleum product deliveries into the states where they are locally marketed and consumed. (archived versions)

Market Prices and Uncertainty Report

Released: August 12, 2014

A regular monthly supplement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook with analysis of crude oil, petroleum products, natural gas, and propane prices. (archived versions)

 
Short-Term Energy Outlook

Released: August 12, 2014

Short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections through 2015 for the United States and international oil forecasts.

 
Short-Term Energy Outlook - Petroleum Section

Released: August 12, 2014

Short-term petroleum supply, demand, and price projections.

Drilling Productivity Report

Released: August 11, 2014

Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

 
Petroleum Marketing Monthly

Released: August 1, 2014

Provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products, including statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales. (archived versions)

 
Monthly Biodiesel Production Report

Released: July 31, 2014

Presents monthly data on inventory held by biodiesel producers, production capacity, production, and sales quantities. Production capacity is reported at the national and state levels.

 
Company Level Imports

Released: July 30, 2014

Import data at the company level collected from the EIA-814 Monthly Imports Report.

Petroleum Supply Monthly

Released: July 30, 2014

Supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products on a national and regional level. The data series describe production, imports and exports, movements and inventories. (archived versions)

 
Issues in International Energy Consumption Analysis: Chinese Transportation Fuel Demand

Released: July 1, 2014

 
Refinery Capacity Report

Released: June 25, 2014

Data series include fuel, electricity, and steam purchased for consumption at the refinery; refinery receipts of crude oil by method of transportation; and current and projected atmospheric crude oil distillation, downstream charge, and production capacities. Respondents are operators of all operating and idle petroleum refineries (including new refineries under construction) and refineries shut down during the previous year, located in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and other U.S. possessions. The Refinery Capacity Report does not contain working and shell storage capacity data. This data is now being collected twice a year as of March 31 and September 30 on the Form EIA-810, "Monthly Refinery Report", and is now released as a separate report Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity. (archived versions)

 
Sales of Fossil Fuels Produced from Federal and Indian Lands, FY 2003 through FY 2013

Released: June 19, 2014

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that total sales of fossil fuels from production1 on federal and Indian lands decreased by 7% during fiscal year 2013. The decrease in production on federal lands alone was also 7%. Sales from production on Indian lands, which account for less than 7% of total federal and Indian lands production, increased by 9%.

 
Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook

Released: June 11, 2014

This report presents the major assumptions of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) used to generate the projections in the Annual Energy Outlook, including general features of the model structure, assumptions concerning energy markets, and the key input data and parameters that are the most significant in formulating the model results.

 
Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity

Released: May 29, 2014

Working and Net Available Shell Storage Capacity is the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) report containing storage capacity data for crude oil, petroleum products, and selected biofuels. The report includes tables detailing working and net available shell storage capacity by type of facility, product, and Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PAD District). Net available shell storage capacity is broken down further to show the percent for exclusive use by facility operators and the percent leased to others. Crude oil storage capacity data are also provided for Cushing, Oklahoma, an important crude oil market center. Data are released twice each year near the end of May (data for March 31) and near the end of November (data for September 30). (archived versions)

 
U.S. Crude Oil Production Forecast-Analysis of Crude Types

Released: May 29, 2014

This paper provides a short-term forecast of domestic production by crude type, supplementing the overall production forecast provided in STEO. Forecasts of production by crude type matter for several reasons. First, U.S. crude streams vary widely in quality. Second, the economics surrounding various options for the domestic use of additional domestic oil production are directly dependent on crude quality characteristics. Third, actual or potential export values also vary significantly with quality characteristics.

 
Annual Energy Outlook

Released: May 7, 2014

The projections in the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014) focus on the factors that shape the U.S. energy system over the long term. Under the assumption that current laws and regulations remain unchanged throughout the projections, the AEO2014 Reference case provides the basis for examination and discussion of energy production, consumption, technology, and market trends and the direction they may take in the future. It also serves as a starting point for analysis of potential changes in energy policies.

U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves

Released: April 10, 2014

U.S. crude oil proved reserves rose for the fourth consecutive year in 2012, increasing by 15% to 33 billion barrels, according to the U.S. Crude Oil and Natural Gas Proved Reserves (2012) report released April 10 by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. U.S. crude oil and lease condensate proved reserves were the highest since 1976, and the 2012 increase of 4.5 billion barrels was the largest annual increase since 1970, when 10 billion barrels of Alaskan crude oil were added to U.S. proved reserves.

 
Outlook for Refinery Outages and Available Refinery Capacity

Released: February 27, 2014

With this report, EIA resumes regular semiannual reporting on refinery outages and their potential implications for available refinery capacity and petroleum product markets. EIA believes dissemination of such analyses can be beneficial to market participants who may otherwise be unable to access information regarding planned refinery outages.

 
Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas

Released: January 30, 2014

The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Liquid Fuels and Natural Gas in the Americas report, published today, is a Congressionally-requested study examining the energy trends and developments in the Americas over the past decade. The report focuses on liquid fuels and natural gas—particularly reserves and resources, production, consumption, trade, and investment—given their scale and significance to the region.

 
Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales

Released: November 15, 2013

Provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No.1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off-highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses.

Winter Fuels Outlook 2013

Released: October 8, 2013

Heating costs for most households are forecast to rise from last winter’s level.

 
Petroleum Supply Annual, Volume 2

Released: September 27, 2013

Final monthly data for the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. (archived versions)

 
Petroleum Supply Annual, Volume 1

Released: September 27, 2013

Final annual data for the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. (archived versions)

 
Genealogy Of Major U.S. Refiners

Released: September 18, 2013

The structure of the U.S. petroleum refining industry has changed substantially over the past several years. This genealogy presents a visual of the transactions from the past 25 years.

 
International Energy Outlook - Petroleum Section

Released: July 25, 2013

International petroleum projections through 2040.

International Energy Outlook

Released: July 25, 2013

This report presents international energy projections through 2040, prepared by the Energy Information Administration, including outlooks for major energy fuels and associated carbon dioxide emissions. (archived versions)

 
Gulf of Mexico Fact Sheet

Released: July 1, 2013

Updated data and maps of energy infrastructure in the Gulf of Mexico, and updated information on past energy disruptions in the United States. (archived versions)

OPEC Revenues Fact Sheet

Released: June 22, 2013

This report includes estimates of OPEC net oil export revenues, based on historical estimates and forecasts from the latest Energy Information Administration (EIA) Short-Term Energy Outlook.

Technically Recoverable Shale Oil and Shale Gas Resources: An Assessment of 137 Shale Formations in 41 Countries Outside the United States

Released: June 10, 2013

This report provides an initial assessment of shale oil resources and updates a prior assessment of shale gas resources issued in April 2011. It assesses 137 shale formations in 41 countries outside the United States, expanding on the 69 shale formations within 32 countries considered in the prior report.

 
Oil and Gas Field Code Master List

Released: May 8, 2013

Provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and gas fields in the United States for use in conjunction with the Energy Information Administration’s proved reserves estimation and allied analytical programs. Other federal and state government agencies, as well as industry, also use it as the standard for domestic field identification. (archived versions)

U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity

Released: May 2, 2013

This is the third release of U.S. Energy Information Administration data on fuel ethanol production capacity. This report contains production capacity data for all operating U.S. fuel ethanol production plants as of January 1, 2013.

Annual Energy Outlook - Petroleum Section

Released: May 2, 2013

Petroleum projections to 2040.

Supplemental Tables to the Annual Energy Outlook

Released: May 1, 2013

The Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) Supplemental tables were generated for the reference case of the AEO using the National Energy Modeling System, a computer-based model which produces annual projections of energy markets. Most of the tables were not published in the AEO, but contain regional and other more detailed projections underlying the AEO projections.

Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Products Supply Module

Released: May 1, 2013

The Petroleum Products Supply Module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model provides forecasts of petroleum refinery inputs (crude oil, unfinished oils, pentanes plus, liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline blending components, and aviation gasoline blending components) and refinery outputs (motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuel, residual fuel, liquefied petroleum gas, and other petroleum products).

 
Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Key drivers for EIA's short-term U.S. crude oil production outlook

Released: February 14, 2013

Crude oil production increased by 790,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) between 2011 and 2012, the largest increase in annual output since the beginning of U.S. commercial crude oil production in 1859. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects U.S. crude oil production to continue rising over the next two years represented in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

 
Comparison of Selected EIA-782 Data With Other Data Sources

Released: December 12, 2012

This article compares annual average prices reported from the EIA-782 survey series for residential No. 2 distillate, on-highway diesel fuel, retail regular motor gasoline, refiner No. 2 fuel oil for resale, refiner No. 2 diesel fuel for resale, refiner regular motor gasoline for resale, and refiner kerosene-type jet fuel for resale with annual average prices reported by other sources. In terms of volume, it compares EIA-782C Prime Supplier annual volumes for motor gasoline (all grades), distillate fuel oil, kerosene-type jet fuel and residual fuel oil with annual volumes from other sources. (archived versions)

 
Explaining EIA Crude Oil and Petroleum Product Price Data and Comparing with Other U.S. Government Data Sources, 2001 to 2010

Released: November 30, 2012

This article describes the sampling frames and basic data collection methods for petroleum price data reported by Energy Information Administration (EIA) and other Government agencies. In addition, it compares and contrasts annual average prices reported by EIA with comparable prices from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) CPI (Consumer Price Indexes) for the retail prices of residential No. 2 distillate, on-highway diesel fuel and motor gasoline (all grades.) Further, it compares refiner wholesale/resale prices for No. 2 fuel oil, No. 2 diesel fuel, motor gasoline (all grades,) kerosene-type jet fuel and residual fuel oil reported by EIA with comparable prices from the BLS PPI (Producer Price Index.) A discussion of the various crude oil prices and spot/futures prices published by EIA and other Government agencies is also included in the article.

 
New York City Metropolitan Area Retail Motor Gasoline Supply Report

Released: November 9, 2012

Final report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) emergency survey, which was started on Friday, November 2, 2012, to monitor the vehicle fuel supply conditions in the New York City metropolitan area on a temporary basis after Hurricane Sandy.

Biofuels Issues and Trends

Released: October 15, 2012

This report presents data on biofuels consumption, production, imports and exports, including data collected by others than the U.S. Energy Information Administration. It also discusses important developments in biofuels markets.

 
Hurricane Isaac

Released: August 31, 2012

Overview, data, and map on energy infrastructure and potential supply disruptions from Hurricane Isaac.

World Oil Transit Chokepoints

Released: August 22, 2012

Chokepoints are narrow channels along widely used global sea routes, some so narrow that restrictions are placed on the size of vessel that can navigate through them. They are a critical part of global energy security due to the high volume of oil traded through their narrow straits.

Fuel Competition in Power Generation and Elasticities of Substitution

Released: June 21, 2012

This report analyzes the competition between coal, natural gas and petroleum used for electricity generation by estimating what is referred to by economists as the elasticity of substitution among the fuels.

 
What's Changing in East Coast Fuels Markets?

Released: April 17, 2012

The U.S. East Coast petroleum product market is undergoing fundamental changes from the standpoint of supply and demand. In addition to the announced idling and potential closure of several major refineries, a number of Northeastern states plan a transition to ultra-low sulfur diesel for heating oil use beginning with New York in the summer of 2012. This article provides an overview of the Energy Information Administration's recent analyses related to East Coast fuels markets.

Who Are the Major Players Supplying the World Oil Market?

Released: March 15, 2012

Energy in Brief article on the world supply of oil through ownership of national oil companies and, for some governments, their membership in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets

Released: February 27, 2012

Potential Impacts of Reductions in Refinery Activity on Northeast Petroleum Product Markets is an update to a previous Energy Information Administration (EIA) report, Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets, released in December 2011. This update analyzes possible market responses and impacts in the event Sunoco's Philadelphia refinery closes this summer, in addition to the recently idled refineries on the East Coast and in the U.S. Virgin Islands.

 
What Were the Key Energy Commodity Price Trends in 2011?

Released: February 14, 2012

Energy commodity price trends varied widely during 2011. Crude oil and petroleum products prices increased during 2011, while natural gas, coal, and electricity prices declined. This article provides an overview of key energy commodity price trends in 2011 based on prices seen in futures markets.

Reductions in Northeast Refining Activity: Potential Implications for Petroleum Product Markets

Released: December 23, 2011

This report is the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) initial effort to provide information and analysis on the potential impacts on petroleum product markets from reductions in Northeast petroleum refining activity.

 
Energy & Financial Markets: What Drives Crude Oil Prices?

Released: December 14, 2011

An assessment of the various factors that may influence oil prices - physical market factors as well as those related to trading and financial markets. The analysis describes seven key factors that could influence oil markets and explores possible linkages between each factor and oil prices, and includes regularly updated graphs that depict aspects of those relationships.

What Are the Major Sources and Users of Energy in the United States?

Released: October 25, 2011

Energy in Brief article on energy sources in the United States.

Review of Emerging Resources: U.S. Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays

Released: July 8, 2011

To gain a better understanding of the potential U.S. domestic shale gas and shale oil resources, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) commissioned INTEK, Inc. to develop an assessment of onshore lower 48 states technically recoverable shale gas and shale oil resources. This paper briefly describes the scope, methodology, and key results of the report and discusses the key assumptions that underlie the results.

 
How dependent are we on foreign oil?

Released: June 24, 2011

Energy in Brief article on petroleum dependency.

Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers

Released: February 25, 2011

The information and analyses in Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers is intended to provide a critical review, and promote an understanding, of the possible motivations and apparent consequences of investment decisions made by some of the largest corporations in the energy industry.

 
Financial News for Major Energy Companies

Released: January 5, 2011

The "Financial News for Major Energy Companies" is issued quarterly to report recent trends in the financial performance of the major energy companies. (archived versions)

 
Increasing Distillate Production at U.S. Refineries

Released: November 18, 2010

Paper explores the potential for U.S. refiners to create more distillate and less gasoline without major additional investments beyond those already planned.

 
Financial News for Independent Energy Companies

Released: September 21, 2010

The report reviews recent trends in the financial performance of independent energy companies, which are typically smaller than the majors and do not have integrated production/refining operations. (archived versions)

 
Historical/Selected Significant U.S. Energy Disruptions

Released: August 31, 2010

Special reports of selected significant energy disruption events.

Aspects of Hess' Acquisition of American Oil & Gas

Released: August 2, 2010

On July 27, 2010, Hess Corporation announced that it had agreed to acquire American Oil & Gas, Inc. in a stock-only transaction worth as much as $488 million (based on Hess' closing price of $53.30/share, anticipated number of newly issued shares, and $30 million credit facility extended to American Oil & Gas prior to closing).

Energy Market and Economic Impacts of the American Power Act of 2010

Released: July 16, 2010

This report responds to a request from Senators Kerry, Graham, and Lieberman for an analysis of the American Power Act of 2010 (APA). APA, as released by Senators Kerry and Lieberman on May 12, 2010, regulates emissions of greenhouse gases through market-based mechanisms, efficiency programs, and other economic incentives.

 
2010 Outlook for Hurricane-Related Production Outages in the Gulf of Mexico - Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement:

Released: June 1, 2010

Projected impacts to Gulf of Mexico crude oil and natural gas production for the 2010 Atlantic hurricane season.

 
World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2010 (released in AEO2010)

Released: May 11, 2010

In Annual Energy Outlook 2010, the price of light, low-sulfur (or "sweet") crude oil delivered at Cushing, Oklahoma, is tracked to represent movements in world oil prices. The Energy Information Administration makes projections of future supply and demand for "total liquids,"" which includes conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil, natural gas plant liquids, and refinery gain -- in addition to unconventional liquids, which include biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

CAFE Standards (released in AEO2010)

Released: May 11, 2010

Pursuant to the Presidents announcement of a National Fuel Efficiency Policy, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the EPA have promulgated nationally coordinated standards for tailpipe Carbon Dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions and fuel economy for light-duty vehicles (LDVs), which includes both passenger cars and light-duty trucks. In the joint rulemaking, the Environmental Protection Agency is enacting CO2-equivalent emissions standards under the Clean Air Act (CAA), and NHTSA is enacting companion Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007.

Factors Affecting the Relationship between Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices (released in AEO2010)

Released: May 11, 2010

Over the 1995-2005 period, crude oil prices and U.S. natural gas prices tended to move together, which supported the conclusion that the markets for the two commodities were connected. Figure 26 illustrates the fairly stable ratio over that period between the price of low-sulfur light crude oil at Cushing, Oklahoma, and the price of natural gas at the Henry Hub on an energy-equivalent basis.

Aspects of Apache's Acquisition of Mariner Energy and Selected Devon Energy Assets

Released: April 15, 2010

The Energy Information Administration reviews mergers, acquisitions, and alliances by companies that are respondents to Form EIA-28 (Financial Reporting System (FRS)), or that result in a company that meets the FRS reporting criteria.

Acquisitions and Divestitures by Foreign Direct Investors in U.S. Energy

Released: April 1, 2010

This report reviews acquisitions of U.S. energy assets by foreign investors in 2007. (archived versions)

 
Probabilities of Possible Future Prices (Released in the STEO April 2010)

Released: April 1, 2010

The Energy Information Administration introduced a monthly analysis of energy price volatility and forecast uncertainty in the October 2009 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO). Included in the analysis were charts portraying confidence intervals around the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) futures prices of West Texas Intermediate (equivalent to light sweet crude oil) and Henry Hub natural gas contracts.

 
Outlook for Non-OPEC Oil Supply in 2010-2011 (Released in the STEO January 2010)

Released: January 2, 2010

Two large categories define the world's producing countries of crude oil and other liquid fuels (hereafter liquids): those that are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and those that are outside that group (non-OPEC). This article takes a closer look at the latter category.

 
Aspects of Exxon Mobil Corporation's Acquisition of XTO Energy Inc

Released: December 16, 2009

A summary presentation to inform discussion of the recently announced acquisition of XTO Energy Inc. by Exxon Mobil Corporation, a transaction which is reportedly $41 billion in value. "Aspects of Exxon Mobil Corporation's Acquisition of XTO Energy Inc" presents non-proprietary company-level oil and gas production and reserve data and the relevant U.S. aggregate data published by the Energy Information Administration.

 
Downstream Petroleum Mergers and Acquisitions by U.S. Major Oil Companies

Released: December 2, 2009

A summary presentation of mergers and acquisitions by U.S. major oil companies (including the U.S. affiliates of foreign major oil companies). The presentation focuses on petroleum refining over the last several years through late 2009.

Arctic Oil and Natural Gas Potential

Released: October 19, 2009

This paper examines the discovered and undiscovered Arctic oil and natural gas resource base with respect to their location and concentration. The paper also discusses the cost and impediments to developing Arctic oil and natural gas resources, including those issues associated with environmental habitats and political boundaries.

 
Energy Price Volatility and Forecast Uncertainty (Released in the STEO October 2009)

Released: October 6, 2009

The Energy Information Administration measures price uncertainty in oil and natural gas markets.

 
2009 Outlook for Hurricane Production Outages in the Gulf of Mexico, The (Released in the STEO June 2009)

Released: June 1, 2009

Projected impacts to Gulf of Mexico crude oil and natural gas production for the 2009 Atlantic hurricane season.

 
Aspects of Holly Corporation's Acquisition of Sunoco Inc.'s Tulsa, Oklahoma Refinery

Released: April 22, 2009

The Energy Information Administration has produced a review of aspects of the Holly's acquisition of Sunoco's 85,000-barrels-per-day Tulsa refinery.

 
Impact of Limitations on Access to Oil and Natural Gas Resources in the Federal Outer Continental Shelf (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 31, 2009

The U.S. offshore is estimated to contain substantial resources of both crude oil and natural gas, but until recently some of the areas of the lower 48 states Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) have been under leasing moratoria. The Presidential ban on offshore drilling in portions of the lower 48 OCS was lifted in July 2008, and the Congressional ban was allowed to expire in September 2008, removing regulatory obstacles to development of the Atlantic and Pacific OCS.

California's Move Toward E10 (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 31, 2009

In Annual Energy Outlook 2009, (AEO) E10–a gasoline blend containing 10% ethanol–is assumed to be the maximum ethanol blend allowed in California erformulated gasoline (RFG), as opposed to the 5.7% blend assumed in earlier AEOs. The 5.7% blend had reflected decisions made when California decided to phase out use of the additive methyl tertiary butyl ether in its RFG program in 2003, opting instead to use ethanol in the minimum amount that would meet the requirement for 2.0% oxygen content under the Clean Air Act provisions in effect at that time.

Natural Gas and Crude Oil Prices in AEO (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 31, 2009

If oil and natural gas were perfect substitutes in all markets where they are used, market forces would be expected to drive their delivered prices to near equality on an energy-equivalent basis. The price of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil generally is denominated in terms of barrels, where 1 barrel has an energy content of approximately 5.8 million Btu. The price of natural gas (at the Henry Hub), in contrast, generally is denominated in million Btu. Thus, if the market prices of the two fuels were equal on the basis of their energy contents, the ratio of the crude oil price (the spot price for WTI, or low-sulfur light, crude oil) to the natural gas price (the Henry Hub spot price) would be approximately 6.0. From 1990 through 2007, however, the ratio of natural gas prices to crude oil prices averaged 8.6; and in the Annual Energy Outlook 2009 projections from 2008 through 2030, it averages 7.7 in the low oil price case, 14.6 in the reference case, and 20.2 in the high oil price case.

Expectations for Oil Shale Production (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 31, 2009

Oil shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain relatively large amounts of kerogen, which can be converted into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons (petroleum liquids, natural gas liquids, and methane) by heating the rock, usually in the absence of oxygen, to 650 to 700 degrees Fahrenheit (in situ retorting) or 900 to 950 degrees Fahrenheit (surface retorting). (Oil shale is, strictly speaking, a misnomer in that the rock is not necessarily a shale and contains no crude oil.) The richest U.S. oil shale deposits are located in Northwest Colorado, Northeast Utah, and Southwest Wyoming. Currently, those deposits are the focus of petroleum industry research and potential future production. Among the three states, the richest oil shale deposits are on federal lands in northwest Colorado.

World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2009 (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 31, 2009

The oil prices reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO) represent the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil in 2007 dollars. Projections of future supply and demand are made for "liquids," a term used to refer to those liquids that after processing and refining can be used interchangeably with petroleum products. In AEO2009, liquids include conventional petroleum liquids -- such as conventional crude oil and natural gas plant liquids -- in addition to unconventional liquids, such as biofuels, bitumen, coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquids (GTL), extra-heavy oils, and shale oil.

Regulations Related to the Outer Continental Shelf Moratoria and Implications of Not Renewing the Moratoria (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 13, 2009

From 1982 through 2008, Congress annually enacted appropriations riders prohibiting the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior from conducting activities related to leasing, exploration, and production of oil and natural gas on much of the federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). Further, a separate executive ban (originally put in place in 1990 by President George H.W. Bush and later extended by President William J. Clinton through 2012) also prohibited leasing on the OCS, with the exception of the Western Gulf of Mexico, portions of the Central and Eastern Gulf of Mexico, and Alaska. In combination, those actions prohibited drilling along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and in portions of the central Gulf of Mexico. The Gulf of Mexico Energy Security Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-432) imposed yet a third ban on drilling through 2022 on tracts in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico that are within 125 miles of Florida, east of a dividing line known as the Military Mission Line, and in the Central Gulf of Mexico within 100 miles of Florida.

Accuracy of Petroleum Supply Data

Released: February 27, 2009

Accuracy of published data in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report, the Petroleum Supply Monthly, and the Petroleum Supply Annual. (archived versions)

 
Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles: Market Issues and Potential Energy and Emissions Impacts

Released: February 1, 2009

This report responds to a request from Senator Jeff Sessions for an analysis of the environmental and energy efficiency attributes of light-duty diesel vehicles. Specifically, the inquiry asked for a comparison of the characteristics of diesel-fueled vehicles with those of similar gasoline-fueled, E85-fueled, and hybrid vehicles, as well as a discussion of any technical, economic, regulatory, or other obstacles to increasing the use of diesel-fueled vehicles in the United States.

 
Hurricane Impacts on the U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Markets

Released: September 26, 2008

Report on hurricane impacts on the U.S. oil and natural gas markets.

Impacts of Uncertainty in Energy Project Costs (released in AEO2008)

Released: September 24, 2008

From the late 1970s through 2002, steel, cement, and concrete prices followed a general downward trend. Since then, however, iron and steel prices have increased by 8% in 2003, 10% in 2004, and 31% in 2005. Although iron and steel prices declined in 2006, early data for 2007 show another increase. Cement and concrete prices, as well as the composite cost index for all construction commodities, have shown similar trends but with smaller increases in 2004 and 2005.

Impact of Increased Use of Hydrogen on Petroleum Consumption and Carbon Dioxide Emissions, The

Released: September 12, 2008

This report responds to a request from Senator Byron L. Dorgan for an analysis of the impacts on U.S. energy import dependence and emission reductions resulting from the commercialization of advanced hydrogen and fuel cell technologies in the transportation and distributed generation markets.

 
World Oil Prices and Production Trends in AEO2008 (released in AEO2008)

Released: June 26, 2008

Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO) defines the world oil price as the price of light, low-sulfur crude oil delivered in Cushing, Oklahoma. Since 2003, both "above ground" and "below ground" factors have contributed to a sustained rise in nominal world oil prices, from $31 per barrel in 2003 to $69 per barrel in 2007. The AEO2008 reference case outlook for world oil prices is higher than in the AEO2007 reference case. The main reasons for the adoption of a higher reference case price outlook include continued significant expansion of world demand for liquids, particularly in non-OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, which include China and India; the rising costs of conventional non-OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) supply and unconventional liquids production; limited growth in non-OPEC supplies despite higher oil prices; and the inability or unwillingness of OPEC member countries to increase conventional crude oil production to levels that would be required for maintaining price stability. The Energy Information Administration will continue to monitor world oil price trends and may need to make further adjustments in future AEOs.

2008 Outlook for Hurricane Production Outages in the Gulf of Mexico - Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement

Released: June 10, 2008

The Energy Information Administration estimates of expected production shut-ins of crude oil and natural gas in the U.S. Gulf Coast during the upcoming hurricane season (June through November).

 
Analysis of Crude Oil Production in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

Released: May 22, 2008

This report responds to a request from Senator Ted Stevens that the Energy Information Administration provide an assessment of federal oil and natural gas leasing in the coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Alaska.

 
Motor Gasoline Consumption 2008 - Historical Perspective and Short-Term Projections

Released: April 8, 2008

This report reviews how gasoline markets relate to population, income, prices, and the growing role of ethanol. It also analyzes the structural shift in motor gasoline markets that took place in the late 1990s.

 
Motor Gasoline Market Spring 2007 and Implications for Spring 2008

Released: April 8, 2008

This report focuses on the major factors that drove the widening difference between wholesale gasoline and crude oil prices in 2007 and explores how those factors might impact gasoline prices in 2008.

 
Insights into Spring 2008 Gasoline Prices

Released: April 4, 2008

Gasoline prices rose rapidly in spring 2007 due a variety of factors, including refinery outages and lower than expected imports. This report explores those factors and looks at the implications for 2008.

Outlook for Non-OPEC Oil Supply Growth in 2008-2009 (Released in the STEO February 2008)

Released: February 1, 2008

In 2008-2009, the Energy Information Administration expects that non-OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) petroleum supply growth will surpass that in recent years because of the large number of new oil projects scheduled to come online during the forecast period.

 
Oil and Natural Gas Market Supply and Renewable Portfolio Standard Impacts of Selected Provisions of H.R. 3221

Released: December 4, 2007

This paper responds to an October 31, 2007, request from Representatives Barton, McCrery, and Young.

 
Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Why Are Oil Prices So High?

Released: November 6, 2007

Feature article on the reasons for high oil prices.

 
2007 Outlook for Hurricane Impacts on Gulf of Mexico Crude Oil & Natural Gas Production, The

Released: June 13, 2007

Projected impacts to Gulf of Mexico crude oil and natural gas production for the 2007 Atlantic hurricane season.

 
Refinery Outages: Description and Potential Impact on Petroleum Product Prices

Released: March 27, 2007

This report responds to a July 13, 2006 request from Chairman Jeff Bingaman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources requested that the Energy Information Administration conduct a study of the impact that refinery shutdowns have had on the price of oil and gasoline.

 
Fuel Economy Standards for New Light Trucks (released in AEO2007)

Released: February 22, 2007

In March 2006, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) finalized Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards requiring higher fuel economy performance for light-duty trucks in model year (MY) 2008 through 2011. Unlike the proposed CAFE standards discussed in Annual Energy Outlook 2006, which would have established minimum fuel economy requirements by six footprint size classes, the final reformed CAFE standards specify a continuous mathematical function that determines minimum fuel economy requirements by vehicle footprint, defined as the wheelbase (the distance from the front axle to the center of the rear axle) times the average track width (the distance between the center lines of the tires) of the vehicle in square feet.

World Oil Prices in AEO2007 (released in AEO2007)

Released: February 22, 2007

Over the long term, the Annual Energy Outlook 2007 (AEO) projection for world oil prices -- defined as the average price of imported low-sulfur, light crude oil to U.S. refiners -- is similar to the AEO2006 projection. In the near term, however, AEO2007 projects prices that are $8 to $10 higher than those in AEO2006.

Federal and State Ethanol and Biodiesel Requirements (released in AEO2007)

Released: February 22, 2007

The Energy Policy Act 2005 requires that the use of renewable motor fuels be increased from the 2004 level of just over 4 billion gallons to a minimum of 7.5 billion gallons in 2012, after which the requirement grows at a rate equal to the growth of the gasoline pool. The law does not require that every gallon of gasoline or diesel fuel be blended with renewable fuels. Refiners are free to use renewable fuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, in geographic regions and fuel formulations that make the most sense, as long as they meet the overall standard. Conventional gasoline and diesel can be blended with renewables without any change to the petroleum components, although fuels used in areas with air quality problems are likely to require adjustment to the base gasoline or diesel fuel if they are to be blended with renewables.

Impacts of Rising Construction and Equipment Costs on Energy Industries (released in AEO2007)

Released: February 22, 2007

Costs related to the construction industry have been volatile in recent years. Some of the volatility may be related to higher energy prices. Prices for iron and steel, cement, and concrete -- commodities used heavily in the construction of new energy projects -- rose sharply from 2004 to 2006, and shortages have been reported. How such price fluctuations may affect the cost or pace of new development in the energy industries is not known with any certainty, and short-term changes in commodity prices are not accounted for in the 25-year projections in Annual Energy Outlook 2007. Most projects in the energy industries require long planning and construction lead times, which can lessen the impacts of short-term trends.

Impacts of Increased Access to Oil & Natural Gas Resources in the Lower 48 Federal Outer Continental Shelf (released in AEO2007)

Released: February 22, 2007

This analysis was updated for Annual Energy Outlook 2009 (AEO): Impact of Limitations on Access to Oil and Natural Gas Resources in the Federal Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). The OCS is estimated to contain substantial resources of crude oil and natural gas; however, some areas of the OCS are subject to drilling restrictions. With energy prices rising over the past several years, there has been increased interest in the development of more domestic oil and natural gas supply, including OCS resources. In the past, federal efforts to encourage exploration and development activities in the deep waters of the OCS have been limited primarily to regulations that would reduce royalty payments by lease holders. More recently, the states of Alaska and Virginia have asked the federal government to consider leasing in areas off their coastlines that are off limits as a result of actions by the President or Congress. In response, the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the U.S. Department of the Interior has included in its proposed 5-year leasing plan for 2007-2012 sales of one lease in the Mid-Atlantic area off the coastline of Virginia and two leases in the North Aleutian Basin area of Alaska. Development in both areas still would require lifting of the current ban on drilling.

Genealogy of Major U.S. Oil and Gas Producers

Released: January 18, 2007

Summarizes the mergers and acquisitions of the U.S. major oil companies that have occurred, in some cases, over approximately the last 20 years.

 
Technology-Based Oil and Natural Gas Plays: Shale Shock! Could There Be Billions in the Bakken?

Released: November 8, 2006

This report presents information about the Bakken Formation of the Williston Basin: its location, production, geology, resources, proved reserves, and the technology being used for development. This is the first in a series intending to share information about technology-based oil and natural gas plays.

 
Relationship Between Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices, The

Released: October 2, 2006

This paper examines the time series econometric relationship between the Henry Hub natural gas price and the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price.

 
Aspects of Western Refining, Inc.'s Proposed Acquisition of Giant Industries, Inc.

Released: September 12, 2006

Presentation of company-level, non-proprietary data and relevant aggregate data for U.S. refinery capacity and gasoline marketing of Western Refining and Giant Industries to inform discussions of Western Refining Inc.'s proposed acquisition of Giant Industries Inc. for a total of $1.5 billion, which was announced August 28, 2006.

Alaska Prudhoe Bay Crude Oil Shut-in Report

Released: August 10, 2006

Background and facts on Alaska's crude oil reserves, production, and transportation with the Energy Information Administration's analysis of potential shut-in impacts on U.S. oil markets.

Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Why Are Oil Prices So High?

Released: August 6, 2006

Feature article on the reasons for high oil prices.

 
Summer 2006 Motor Gasoline Prices (Released in the STEO July 2006)

Released: July 1, 2006

This supplement to the July 2006 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) examines the various factors that have contributed to this summer's high gasoline prices and discusses how they may continue to impact markets over the next several months.

 
United States Producing and Nonproducing Crude Oil and Natural Gas Reserves From 1985 Through 2004

Released: July 1, 2006

This report discusses the regional and temporal trends in producing and nonproducing crude oil and natural gas reserves using the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) categorization of reserves. The report first focuses on EIA's collection and reporting of crude oil and natural gas reserves data, followed by a discussion of the natural gas reserve trends, and then the crude oil reserve trends.

 
Anadarko's Proposed Acquisition of Kerr-McGee and Western Gas Resources

Released: June 23, 2006

Presentation of company-level, non-proprietary data and relevant aggregate data for worldwide oil and natural gas reserves and production of Anadarko, Kerr-McGee, and Western Gas Resources to inform discussions of Anadarko Petroleum Corp.'s proposed acquisition of both Kerr-McGee Corp. and Western Gas Resources Inc. for a total of $23.3 billion, which was announced June 23, 2006.

 
Overview of the Federal Offshore Royalty Relief Program

Released: June 23, 2006

This special report briefly explains the set of laws that govern royalty payments for federal offshore oil and natural gas production.

 
Impact of Tropical Cyclones on Gulf of Mexico Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, The

Released: June 7, 2006

This is a special analysis report on hurricanes and their effects on oil and natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico region.

 
Eliminating MTBE in Gasoline in 2006

Released: February 22, 2006

A review of the market implications resulting from the rapid change from methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) to ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline (RFG) on the East Coast and in Texas. Strains in ethanol supply and distribution will increase the potential for price volatility in these regions this summer.

 
Economic Effects of High Oil Prices (released in AEO2006)

Released: February 1, 2006

The Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections of future energy market conditions reflect the effects of oil prices on the macroeconomic variables that affect oil demand, in particular, and energy demand in general. The variables include real gross domestic product (GDP) growth, inflation, employment, exports and imports, and interest rates.

Nonconventional Liquid Fuels (released in AEO2006)

Released: February 1, 2006

Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections.

World Oil Prices in AEO2006 (released in AEO2006)

Released: February 1, 2006

World oil prices in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO) reference case are substantially higher than those in the AEO2005 reference case. In the AEO2006 reference case, world crude oil prices, in terms of the average price of imported low-sulfur, light crude oil to U.S. refiners, decline from current levels to about $47 per barrel (2004 dollars) in 2014, then rise to $54 per barrel in 2025 and $57 per barrel in 2030. The price in 2025 is approximately $21 per barrel higher than the corresponding price projection in the AEO2005 reference case.

Changing Trends in the Refining Industry (released in AEO2006)

Released: February 1, 2006

There have been some major changes in the U.S. refining industry recently, prompted in part by a significant decline in the quality of imported crude oil and by increasing restrictions on the quality of finished products. As a result, high-quality crudes, such as the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude that serves as a benchmark for oil futures on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), have been trading at record premiums to the OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) Basket price.

Update on Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel (released in AEO2006)

Released: February 1, 2006

On November 8, 2005, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator signed a direct final rule that will shift the retail compliance date for offering ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) for highway use from September 1, 2006, to October 15, 2006. The change will allow more time for retail outlets and terminals to comply with the new 15 parts per million (ppm) sulfur standard, providing time for entities in the diesel fuel distribution system to flush higher sulfur fuel out of the system during the transition. Terminals will have until September 1, 2006, to complete their transitions to ULSD. The previous deadline was July 15, 2006.

Energy Technologies on the Horizon (released in AEO2006)

Released: February 1, 2006

A key issue in mid-term forecasting is the representation of changing and developing technologies. How existing technologies will evolve, and what new technologies might emerge, cannot be known with certainty. The issue is of particular importance in Annual Energy Outlook 2006 (AEO), the first AEO with projections out to 2030.

Comparisons of Independent Petroleum Supply Statistics

Released: October 24, 2005

Compares final petroleum data published in the Petroleum Supply Annual with similar petroleum data obtained from other sources. Data comparisons are presented for 1994 through 2003. (archived versions)

 
Regional Comparisons, Spatial Aggregation, and Asymmetry of Price Pass-Through

Released: August 3, 2005

Spot to retail price pass-through behavior of the U.S. gasoline market was investigated at the national and regional levels, using weekly wholesale and retail motor gasoline prices from January 2000 to the present.

 
Overview of U.S. Legislation and Regulations Affecting Offshore Natural Gas and Oil Activity

Released: August 1, 2005

This article presents a summary of the legislative and regulatory regime that affects natural gas and oil exploration and production in offshore regions of the United States. It discusses the role and importance of these areas as well as the competing interests surrounding ownership, production, exploration and conservation.

 
Impacts of Modeled Provisions of H.R. 6 EH: The Energy Policy Act of 2005

Released: July 1, 2005

This report responds to a May 2, 2005, request by Chairman Pete Domenici and Ranking Member Jeff Bingaman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for an assessment of the energy supply, consumption, import, price, and macroeconomic impacts of H.R. 6 EH, the Energy Policy Act of 2005, as passed by the U.S. House of Representatives on April 21, 2005.

 
World Oil Price Cases (released in AEO2005)

Released: February 1, 2005

World oil prices in Annual Energy Outlook 2005 are set in an environment where the members of OPEC (Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries) are assumed to act as the dominant producers, with lower production costs than other supply regions or countries. Non-OPEC oil producers are assumed to behave competitively, producing as much oil as they can profitability extract at the market price for oil. As a result, the OPEC member countries will be able effectively to set the price of oil when they can act in concert by varying their aggregate production. Alternatively, OPEC members could target a fixed level of production and let the world market determine the price.

Biodiesel Performance, Costs, and Use

Released: June 1, 2004

Biodiesel fuel for diesel engines is produced from vegetable oil or animal fat by the chemical process of esterification. This paper presents a brief history of diesel engine technology and an overview of biodiesel, including performance characteristics, economics, and potential demand. The performance and economics of biodiesel are compared with those of petroleum diesel.

 
Update of Summer Reformulated Gasoline Supply Assessment for New York and Connecticut

Released: May 1, 2004

In October 2003, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) published a review of the status of the methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) ban transition in New York (NY) and Connecticut (CT) that noted significant uncertainties in gasoline supply for those states for the summer of 2004. To obtain updated information, EIA spoke to major suppliers to the two states over the past several months as the petroleum industry began the switch from winter- to summer-grade gasoline.

 
Analysis of Senate Amendment 2028, the Climate Stewardship Act of 2003

Released: May 1, 2004

On May 11, 2004, Senator Landrieu asked the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to evaluate SA 2028. This paper responds to that request, relying on the modeling methodology, data sources, and assumptions used to analyze the original bill, as extensively documented in EIA's June 2003 report.

 
Analysis of Oil and Gas Production in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

Released: March 1, 2004

This study analyzed the impact on future oil imports and expenditures of opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) to petroleum development. High, low, and mean ANWR oil resource case projections were compared to the Annual Energy Outlook 2004 reference case. The study also examined whether potential synergies exist in opening ANWR to petroleum development and the construction of an Alaska gas pipeline from the North Slope to the lower 48 states.

 
Analysis of Five Selected Tax Provisions of the Conference Energy Bill of 2003

Released: February 1, 2004

This special report was undertaken at the January 29, 2004, request of Senator John Sununu to perform an assessment of five specific tax provisions of the Conference Energy Bill of 2003.

 
Summary Impacts of Modeled Provisions of the 2003 Conference Energy Bill

Released: February 1, 2004

This service report was undertaken at the February 2, 2004, request of Senator John Sununu to perform an assessment of the Conference Energy Bill of 2003. This report summarizes the CEB provisions that can be analyzed using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and have the potential to affect energy consumption, supply, and prices. The impacts are estimated by comparing the projections with the CEB provisions to the AEO2004 Reference Case.

 
Inquiry into August 2003 Gasoline Price Spike

Released: December 1, 2003

U.S. Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham requested that the Energy Information Administration conduct an inquiry into the causes of the price increases of gasoline in July and August of 2003.

 
Preparations for Meeting New York and Connecticut MTBE Bans

Released: October 1, 2003

In response to a Congressional request, the Energy Information Administration examined the progress being made to meet the bans on the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) being implemented in New York and Connecticut at the end of 2003.

 
Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss

Released: September 1, 2003

This assessment of the Venezuelan petroleum loss examines two areas. The first part of the analysis focuses on the impact of the loss of Venezuelan crude production on crude oil supply for U.S. refiners who normally run a significant fraction of Venezuelan crude oil. The second part of the analysis looks at the impact of the Venezuelan production loss on crude markets in general, with particular emphasis on crude oil imports, refinery crude oil throughput levels, stock levels, and the changes in price differences between light and heavy crude oils.

Analysis of S.139, the Climate Stewardship Act of 2003

Released: June 1, 2003

On January 9, 2003, Senators John McCain and Joseph I. Lieberman introduced Senate Bill 139 (S.139), the Climate Stewardship Act of 2003, in the U.S. Senate. S.139 would require the Administrator of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to promulgate regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions. On January 28, 2003, Senator James M. Inhofe requested that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) perform a comprehensive analysis of S.139. On April 2, 2003, Senators McCain and Lieberman, cosponsors of S.139, made a further request for analyses of their bill. This Service Report responds to both requests.

 
Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability 1995-2001

Released: May 1, 2003

This report assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations during the 1995 to 2001 period. This study is a follow-up to the October 1997 publication entitled The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability, that focused on the financial impacts of U.S. refining pollution abatement investment requirements in the 1988 to1995 period.

 
California Gasoline Price Study, 2003 Preliminary Findings

Released: May 1, 2003

This is the preliminary report to Congressman Ose describing the factors driving California's spring 2003 gasoline price spike and the subsequent price increases in June and August.

 
California Gasoline Price Study, 2003

Released: May 1, 2003

This is the final report to Congressman Ose describing the factors driving California's spring 2003 gasoline price spike and the subsequent price increases in June and August.

 
Forecasting Crude Oil Spot Price Using OECD Petroleum Inventory Levels

Released: March 1, 2003

This paper presents a short-term monthly forecasting model of West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot price using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) petroleum inventory levels.

 
Status and Impacts of State MTBE Bans

Released: March 1, 2003

This paper describes legislation passed in 16 states banning or restricting the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) in gasoline. Analysis of the status and impact of these state MTBE bans is provided concerning the supply and potential price changes of gasoline.

 
Gasoline Price Pass-through

Released: January 1, 2003

Over the past several years, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has extensively studied the relationships between wholesale and retail markets for transportation fuels. This article represents a return to gasoline markets, where EIA first performed this type of analysis and modeling in 1997. The current effort takes advantage of improvements and enhancements to our approach over the intervening years, resulting in more detailed and accurate results.

Derivatives and Risk Management in the Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Electricity Industries

Released: October 1, 2002

In February 2002 the Secretary of Energy directed the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare a report on the nature and use of derivative contracts in the petroleum, natural gas, and electricity industries. Derivatives are contracts ('financial instruments') that are used to manage risk, especially price risk.

 
Gasoline Type Proliferation and Price Volatility

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper focuses on the potential effect/role of implementation of a national menu of fuels to address the proliferation of boutique fuels.

 
Potential Supply Impacts of Removal of 1-Pound RVP Waiver

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper provides background on the 1-pound waiver and how It can affect gasoline volumes.

 
Reformulated Gasoline Use Under the 8-Hour Ozone Rule

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper focuses on the impact on gasoline price and supply when additional ozone non-attainment areas come under the new 8-hour ozone standard.

 
Renewable Motor Fuel Production Capacity Under H.R.4

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper analyzes renewable motor fuel production capacity with the assumption that ethanol will be used to meet the renewable fuels standard.

 
Review of Transportation Issues & Comparison of Infrastructure Costs for a Renewable Fuels Standard

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper analyzes the inter-regional transportation issues and associated costs for increased distribution of renewable fuels with the assumption that ethanol will be used to meet the standards.

 
Analysis of Selected Transportation Fuel Issues Associated with Proposed Energy Legislation -Summary

Released: September 1, 2002

Summary of a series of 8 papers discussing the market impacts the Senate-passed fuels provisions of H.R.4, the Energy Policy Act of 2002.

 
Supply Impacts of an MTBE Ban

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper analyzes the supply impacts of removing methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) from gasoline.

 
Timing of Startups of the Low-Sulfur and RFS Programs

Released: September 1, 2002

This paper focuses on whether supply problems could be reduced during the startup stage phases of these programs through timing changes.

 
Impact of Renewable Fuels Standard/MTBE Provisions of S. 1766

Released: March 12, 2002

This service report addresses the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS)/methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) provisions of S. 1766. The 'S. 1766' Case reflects provisions of S. 1766 including a renewable fuels standard (RFS) reaching five billion gallons by 2012, a complete phase-out of MTBE within four years, and the option for states to waive the oxygen requirement for reformulated gasoline (RFG).

 
Effects of Alaska Oil and Natural Gas Provisions of H. R. 4 and S. 1766 on U.S. Energy Markets

Released: March 1, 2002

On December 20, 2001, Sen. Frank Murkowski, the Ranking Minority Member of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources requested an analysis of selected portions of Senate Bill 1766 (S. 1766, the Energy Policy Act of 2002) and House Bill H.R. 4 (the Securing America's Future Energy Act of 2001). In response, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has prepared a series of analyses showing the impacts of each of the selected provisions of the bills on energy supply, demand, and prices, macroeconomic variables where relevant, import dependence, and emissions. The analysis provided is based on the Annual Energy Outlook 2002 (AEO2002) midterm forecasts of energy supply, demand, and prices through 2020.

 
Effects of Alaska Oil and Natural Gas Provisions of H. R. 4 and S. 1766 on U.S. Energy Markets, Addendum

Released: March 1, 2002

This addendum provides projections on the increase in U.S. oil production from opening the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, the decease in net petroleum imports, and the change in net petroleum expenditures across a range of cases.

 
Methodology for the Assessment of the Macroeconomic Impacts of Stricter CAFE Standards - Addendum

Released: March 1, 2002

This assessment of the economic impacts of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ) standards marks the first time the Energy Information Administration has used the new direct linkage of the DRI-WEFA Macroeconomic Model to the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) in a policy setting. This methodology assures an internally consistent solution between the energy market concepts forecast by NEMS and the aggregate economy as forecast by the DRI-WEFA Macroeconomic Model of the U.S. Economy.

 
Analysis of Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards for Light Trucks and Increased Alternative Fuel Use

Released: March 1, 2002

Sen. Frank Murkowski, the Ranking Minority Member of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources requested an analysis of selected portions of Senate Bill 1766 (S. 1766, the Energy Policy Act of 2002), House Resolution 4 (the Securing America's Future Energy Act of 2001) and Senate Bill 517 (S. 517, the Energy Policy Act of 2002). In response, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) has prepared a series of analyses showing the impacts of each of the selected provisions of the bills on energy supply, demand, and prices, macroeconomic variables where feasible, import dependence, and emissions.

 
Restructuring: The Changing Face of Motor Gasoline Marketing

Released: November 1, 2001

This report reviews the U.S. motor gasoline marketing industry during the period 1990 to 1999, focusing on changes that occurred during the period. The report incorporates financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS), motor gasoline outlet counts collected by the National Petroleum News from the states, and U.S. Census Bureau salary and employment data published in County Business Patterns.

Oil Market Assessment

Released: September 12, 2001

Based on Energy Information Administration (EIA) contacts and trade press reports, overall U.S. and global oil supplies appear to have been minimally impacted by yesterday's terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.

Why Are Gasoline Prices Falling So Rapidly?

Released: September 1, 2001

Brief analysis of falling gasoline prices in the fall of 2001.

Analysis of Strategies for Reducing Multiple Emissions from Electric Power Plants: SO2, Nox, CO2

Released: July 1, 2001

This report responds to a request received from Senator David McIntosh on June 29, 2000 to analyze the impacts on energy consumers and producers of coordinated strategies to reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon dioxide at U.S. power plants.

 
Electricity Shortage in California: Issues for Petroleum and Natural Gas Supply

Released: June 1, 2001

This report addresses the potential impact of rotating electrical outages on petroleum product and natural gas supply in California.

Future Oil Production for the Alaska North Slope

Released: May 1, 2001

An analysis of plausible scenarios for the North Slope area of Alaska.

 
Transition to Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel: Effects on Prices and Supply, The

Released: May 1, 2001

This report discusses the implications of the new regulations for vehicle fuel efficiency and examines the technology, production, distribution, and cost implications of supplying diesel fuel to meet the new standards.

 
Propane - A Mid-Heating Season Assessment

Released: January 1, 2001

This report will analyze some of the factors leading up to the rapid increase in propane demand and subsequent deterioration in supply that propelled propane prices to record high levels during December and early January.

Long Term World Oil Supply

Released: August 1, 2000

Analysis of long term world oil supply.

 
Accelerated Depletion: Assessing Its Impacts on Domestic Oil and Natural Gas Prices and Production

Released: July 1, 2000

Analysis of the potential impacts of accelerated depletion on domestic oil and natural gas prices and production.

 
Northeast Heating Fuel Market The, Assessment and Options

Released: May 1, 2000

In response to the President's request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of the energy markets in the Northeast

 
Potential Oil Production from Coastal Plain of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Updated Assessment

Released: May 1, 2000

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) received a letter (dated March 10, 2000) from Senator Frank H. Murkowski as Chairman of the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources requesting an EIA Service Report with plausible scenarios for the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) supply development consistent with the most recent U.S. Geological Survey resource assessments. This service report is prepared in response to the request of Senator Murkowski. It focuses on the ANWR coastal plain, a region currently restricted from exploration and development, and updates EIA's 1987 ANWR assessment.

 
U.S. Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry, The

Released: July 15, 1999

Overviews crude oil and natural gas production for the years 1987 to 1997, focusing on 1997.

Petroleum: An Energy Profile 1999

Released: July 1, 1999

Explains in layman's terms the major components and operations of the U.S. petroleum industry that include: petroleum products, resources and reserves, drilling and exploration, refining, storage and transportation, imports, exports, and petroleum marketing.

 
Demand and Price Outlook for Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, 2000

Released: May 19, 1999

Phase 2 of the U.S. reformulated gasoline program begins at the end of this year. This article, published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly, April 1999, provides a forecast and analysis of the demand and price for Phase 2 reformulated gasoline for the year 2000.

 
Offshore Oil and Gas Recovery Technology

Released: April 1, 1999

Resources and reserves, exploration and production technologies are described.

 
Price Changes in the Gasoline Market - Are Midwestern Gasoline Prices Downward Sticky?

Released: February 1, 1999

The report concentrates on regional gasoline prices in the Midwest from October 1992 through June 1998.

 
EIA Completes Corrections to Drilling Activity Estimates Series

Released: January 1, 1999

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has published monthly and annual estimates of oil and gas drilling activity since 1978. These data are key information for many industry analysts, serving as a leading indicator of trends in the industry and a barometer of general industry status.

 
What Does the Kyoto Protocol Mean to U.S. Energy Markets and the U.S. Economy?

Released: October 1, 1998

A briefing paper on the Energy Information Administration's analysis and report prepared for the Committee on Science, U.S. House of Representatives.

 
Why Do Motor Gasoline Prices Vary Regionally? California Case Study

Released: July 15, 1998

Analysis of the difference between the retail gasoline prices in California and the average U.S. retail prices.

Environmental Regulations and Changes in Petroleum Refining Operations (Released in the STEO June 1998)

Released: June 1, 1998

Changes in domestic refining operations are identified and related to the summer Reid vapor pressure (RVP) restrictions and oxygenate blending requirements. This analysis uses published Energy Information Administration survey data and linear regression equations from the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts appearing in the Short-Term Energy Outlook.

Assessment of Summer 1997 Motor Gasoline Price Increase

Released: May 1, 1998

Assesses the 1997 late summer gasoline market and some of the important issues surrounding that event.

 
EIA Corrects Errors in Its Drilling Activity Estimates Series

Released: March 1, 1998

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has published monthly and annual estimates of oil and gas drilling activity since 1978. These data are key information for many industry analysts, serving as a leading indicator of trends in the industry and a barometer of general industry status.

 
Oxygenate Supply/Demand Balances in the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting Model (Released in the STEO March 1998)

Released: March 1, 1998

The blending of oxygenates, such as fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), into motor gasoline has increased dramatically in the last few years because of the oxygenated and reformulated gasoline programs. Because of the significant role oxygenates now have in petroleum product markets, the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) was revised to include supply and demand balances for fuel ethanol and MTBE. The STIFS model is used for producing forecasts in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. A review of the historical data sources and forecasting methodology for oxygenate production, imports, inventories, and demand is presented in this report.

Refiners Switch to RFG Complex Model

Released: January 2, 1998

On January 1, 1998, domestic and foreign refineries and importers must stop using the "simple" model and begin using the "complex" model to calculate emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), toxic air pollutants (TAP), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from motor gasoline. The primary differences between application of the two models is that some refineries may have to meet stricter standards for the sulfur and olefin content of the reformulated gasoline (RFG) they produce and all refineries will now be held accountable for NOx emissions. Requirements for calculating emissions from conventional gasoline under the anti-dumping rule similarly change for exhaust TAP and NOx. However, the change to the complex model is not expected to result in an increase in the price premium for RFG or constrain supplies.

Reformulated Gasoline Foreign Refinery Rules (Released in the STEO January 1998)

Released: January 2, 1998

On August 27, 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated revised the rules that allow foreign refiners to establish and use individual baselines, but it would not be mandatory (the optional use of an individual refinery baseline is not available to domestic refiners.) If a foreign refiner did not establish and use an individual baseline, the gasoline they export to the United States would be regulated through the importer, and subject to the importer's baseline (most likely the statutory baseline). Specific regulatory provisions are implemented to ensure that the option to use an individual baseline would not lead to adverse environmental impacts. This involves monitoring the average quality of imported gasoline, and if a specified benchmark is exceeded, remedial action would be taken by adjusting the requirements applicable to imported gasoline.

Propane Market Assessment for Winter

Released: December 1, 1997

1997-1998 Final issue of this report. This article reviews the major components of propane supply and demand in the United States and their status entering the 1997-1998 heating season. (archived versions)

 
Contrast Between Distillate Fuel Oil Markets in Autumn 1996 and 1997, A

Released: December 1, 1997

A contrast between distillate fuel oil markets in autumn 1996 and 1997.

 
Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

Released: November 1, 1997

Provides an assessment of the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The report was prepared in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is part of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP).

 
Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability

Released: October 1, 1997

Assesses the effects of pollution abatement requirements on the financial performance of U.S. petroleum refining and marketing operations. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS).

 
Petroleum 1996: Issues and Trends

Released: September 1, 1997

Examines historical trends and focuses on major petroleum issues and the events they represent. It analyzes different dimensions of the petroleum industry and related markets in terms of how they relate to the volatility in petroleum markets.

 
Motor Gasoline Assessment, Spring 1997

Released: July 1, 1997

Analyzes the factors causing the run up of motor gasoline prices during spring 1996 and the different market conditions during spring 1997 that caused prices to decline.

 
Intricate Puzzle of Oil and Gas Reserves Growth

Released: July 1, 1997

This article begins with a background discussion of the methods used to estimate proved oil and gas reserves and ultimate recovery, which is followed by a discussion of the factors that affect the ultimate recovery estimates of a field or reservoir.

 
Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1996-1997

Released: June 15, 1997

This article describes findings of an analysis of the current low level of distillate stocks which are available to help meet the demand for heating fuel this winter, and presents a summary of the Energy Information Administration's distillate fuel oil outlook for the current heating season under two weather scenarios.

 
Analysis of U.S. Propane Markets Winter 1996-97, An

Released: June 1, 1997

This study constitutes an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends. The Energy Information Administration's approach focused on identifying the underlying reasons for the tight supply/demand balance in the fall of 1996, and on examining the potential for a recurrence of these events next year.

 
Recent Trends in Crude Oil Stock Levels

Released: October 1, 1996

This article, the third in a series of three on petroleum stocks, attempts to identify the components of the decline in the EIA crude oil stock data.

 
Impacts on U.S. Energy Markets and the Economy of Reducing Oil Imports

Released: September 1, 1996

This study was undertaken at the request of the General Accounting Office (GAO). Its purpose is to evaluate the impacts on U.S. energy markets and the economy of reducing oil imports. The approach and assumptions underlying this report were specified by GAO and are attached as an Appendix. The study focuses on two approaches: (1) a set of cases with alternative world crude oil price trajectories and (2) two cases which investigate the use of an oil import tariff to achieve a target reduction in the oil imports. The analysis presented uses the National Energy Modeling System, which is maintained by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting within the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and the DRI/McGraw Hill Macroeconomic Model of the U.S. Economy, a proprietary model maintained by DRI and subscribed to by EIA.

 
Analysis of Gasoline Markets Spring 1996, An

Released: June 1, 1996

The factors causing the run up of motor gasoline prices during spring 1996.

 
Oil Production Capacity Expansion Costs for the Persian Gulf

Released: January 1, 1996

Provides estimates of development and operating costs for various size fields in countries surrounding the Persian Gulf. In addition, a forecast of the required reserve development and associated costs to meet the expected demand through the year 2010 is presented.

 
Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

Released: January 1, 1996

This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

 
Oil Supply: U.S. Perspective on a Global Market

Released: January 1, 1996

Supply issues in a global market.

 
Oil and Gas Development in the United States in the Early 1990's

Released: October 15, 1995

An analysis of the growing prominence of smaller energy companies in U.S. oil and natural gas production.

 
U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization

Released: October 1, 1995

This article briefly reviews recent trends in domestic refining capacity utilization and examines in detail the differences in reported crude oil distillation capacities and utilization rates among different classes of refineries.

 
Measuring Dependence on Imported Oil

Released: August 1, 1995

U.S. dependence on imported oil can be measured in at least two ways. The differences hinge largely on whether oil imports are defined as net imports (total imports minus exports) or as total imports. EIA introduces a revised table that expresses dependence on imports in terms of both measures.

 
Oil and Gas Resources of the Fergana Basin (Uzbekistan, Tadzhikistan, and Kyrgysztan)

Released: December 1, 1994

Provides the most comprehensive assessment publicly available for oil and gas resources in the Fergana Basin. Includes projections of potential oil supply and U.S. Geological Survey estimates of undiscovered recoverable oil and gas.

 
Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Reformulated Motor Gasoline 1995

Released: July 1, 1994

Provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 designed to reduce ground-level ozone will increase the demand for reformulated motor gasoline in a number of U.S. metropolitan areas. This article discusses the effects of the new regulations on the motor gasoline market and the refining industry.

 
International Oil and Gas Exploration and Development

Released: November 1, 1993

Presents country level data on oil reserves, oil production, active drilling rigs, seismic crews, wells drilled, oil reserve additions, and oil reserve to production ratios (R/P ratios) for about 85 countries, where available, from 1970 through 1991. World and regional summaries are given in both tabular and graphical form.

 
Demand, Supply, and Price Outlook for Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel

Released: August 1, 1993

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 established a new, sharply lower standard for the maximum sulfur content of on-highway diesel fuel, to take effect October 1, 1993.

 
Drilling Sideways - A Review of Horizontal Well Technology and Its Domestic Application

Released: April 1, 1993

Focuses primarily on domestic horizontal drilling applications, past and present, and on salient aspects of current and near-future horizontal drilling and completion technology.

 
Review of Valdez Oil Spill Market Impacts, A

Released: March 1, 1989

A review of the Valdez oil spill market impacts.

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