Natural Gas


Natural Gas Weekly Update

Weekly average spot and futures prices of natural gas. (archived versions)

Short-Term Energy Outlook - Natural Gas Section

Released: August 12, 2014

Short-term forecasts of natural gas supply, demand, and price projections.

Market Prices and Uncertainty Report

Released: August 12, 2014

A regular monthly supplement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook with analysis of crude oil, petroleum products, natural gas, and propane prices.

Natural Gas Monthly

Released: July 31, 2014

Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported. (archived versions)

Natural Gas Issues and Trends

Released: February 7, 2014

The Energy Information Administration's Natural Gas Issues and Trends provides timelier information and analyses on natural gas markets. (archived versions)

Natural Gas Annual

Released: December 12, 2013

Provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the United States. Production, transmission, storage, deliveries, and price data are published by state for the current year. Summary data are presented for each state for the previous 5 years. (archived versions)

Winter Fuels Outlook 2013

Released: October 8, 2013

Heating costs for most households are forecast to rise from last winter’s level.

Cost of Natural Gas Used in Manufacturing Sector Has Fallen

Released: September 6, 2013

Natural gas has been an important exception to the trend of rising prices for energy sources used by manufacturers. Production of natural gas in the United States increased rapidly beginning in 2007 as a result of resources found in shale formations. That increase in supply has in turn lowered the price of natural gas to manufacturers

Northeastern Summer Electricity Market Alert

Released: July 17, 2013

The National Weather Service declared an excessive-heat warning for much of the Mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, including major electric markets covering Philadelphia, Boston, Washington, D.C., and New York City. This report highlights the wholesale electricity market activity occurring in response to the higher-than-normal electricity demand caused by the heat wave.

Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Constraints in New England likely to affect regional energy prices this winter

Released: January 18, 2013

Since November, New England has had the highest average spot natural gas prices in the nation. Average prices at the Algonquin Citygate trading point, a widely used index for New England natural gas buyers, have been $3 per million British thermal units (MMBtu) higher than natural gas prices at the Henry Hub, and more than $2 per MMBtu higher than average spot price at Transco Zone 6 NY, which serves New York City and has historically traded at prices similar to those in New England.

Annual Energy Outlook - Natural Gas Section

Released: June 25, 2012

Natural gas projections to 2040.

Fuel Competition in Power Generation and Elasticities of Substitution

Released: June 21, 2012

This report analyzes the competition between coal, natural gas and petroleum used for electricity generation by estimating what is referred to by economists as the elasticity of substitution among the fuels.

What Were the Key Energy Commodity Price Trends in 2011?

Released: February 14, 2012

Energy commodity price trends varied widely during 2011. Crude oil and petroleum products prices increased during 2011, while natural gas, coal, and electricity prices declined. This article provides an overview of key energy commodity price trends in 2011 based on prices seen in futures markets.

Analysis of Impacts of a Clean Energy Standard as requested by Chairman Bingaman

Released: November 30, 2011

This report addresses an August 2011 request to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) from Senator Jeff Bingaman, Chairman of the U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, for an analysis of the impacts of a Clean Energy Standard (CES).

Factors Affecting the Relationship between Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices (released in AEO2010)

Released: May 11, 2010

Over the 1995-2005 period, crude oil prices and U.S. natural gas prices tended to move together, which supported the conclusion that the markets for the two commodities were connected. Figure 26 illustrates the fairly stable ratio over that period between the price of low-sulfur light crude oil at Cushing, Oklahoma, and the price of natural gas at the Henry Hub on an energy-equivalent basis.

Probabilities of Possible Future Prices (Released in the STEO April 2010)

Released: April 1, 2010

The Energy Information Administration introduced a monthly analysis of energy price volatility and forecast uncertainty in the October 2009 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO). Included in the analysis were charts portraying confidence intervals around the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) futures prices of West Texas Intermediate (equivalent to light sweet crude oil) and Henry Hub natural gas contracts.

Revisions in Natural Gas Monthly Consumption and Price Data, 2004 - 2007

Released: December 31, 2009

This report summarizes the method in which natural gas consumption data are collected and processed for publication and details the most notable revisions in natural gas consumption data for the period 2004 to 2007. It is intended to assist data users in evaluating the quality of the monthly consumption and price data for residential, commercial, and industrial consumers of natural gas.

Energy Price Volatility and Forecast Uncertainty (Released in the STEO October 2009)

Released: October 6, 2009

The Energy Information Administration measures price uncertainty in oil and natural gas markets.

Implications of Lower Natural Gas Prices for Electric Generators in the Southeast, The

Released: May 12, 2009

This supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) May 2009 Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) focuses on changes in the utilization of coal- and natural-gas-fired generation capacity in the electric utility sector as the differential between delivered fuel prices narrows.

Natural Gas and Crude Oil Prices in AEO (released in AEO2009)

Released: March 31, 2009

If oil and natural gas were perfect substitutes in all markets where they are used, market forces would be expected to drive their delivered prices to near equality on an energy-equivalent basis. The price of West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil generally is denominated in terms of barrels, where 1 barrel has an energy content of approximately 5.8 million Btu. The price of natural gas (at the Henry Hub), in contrast, generally is denominated in million Btu. Thus, if the market prices of the two fuels were equal on the basis of their energy contents, the ratio of the crude oil price (the spot price for WTI, or low-sulfur light, crude oil) to the natural gas price (the Henry Hub spot price) would be approximately 6.0. From 1990 through 2007, however, the ratio of natural gas prices to crude oil prices averaged 8.6; and in the Annual Energy Outlook 2009 projections from 2008 through 2030, it averages 7.7 in the low oil price case, 14.6 in the reference case, and 20.2 in the high oil price case.

Natural Gas: Major Legislative and Regulatory Actions (1935 - 2008)

Released: January 30, 2009

This special report Web-based product presents a chronology of some of the key federal legislative and regulatory actions that have helped shape the natural gas market, with particular emphasis on policy directives from 1978 to October 2008. Separate reports provide brief descriptions of specific legislation, regulations, or policies, and their impacts on the natural gas market.

Hurricane Impacts on the U.S. Oil and Natural Gas Markets

Released: September 26, 2008

Report on hurricane impacts on the U.S. oil and natural gas markets.

Analysis of Price Volatility in Natural Gas Markets

Released: August 17, 2007

This article presents an analysis of price volatility in the spot natural gas market, with particular emphasis on the Henry Hub in Louisiana.

Impact of Higher Natural Gas Prices on Local Distribution Companies and Residential Customers

Released: August 15, 2007

This report examines some of the problems faced by natural gas consumers as a result of increasing heating bills in recent years and problems associated with larger amounts of uncollectible revenue and lower throughput for the local distribution companies (LDCs) supplying the natural gas.

Natural Gas Marketer Prices and Sales To Residential and Commercial Customers: 2002-2005

Released: June 29, 2007

This report compares residential and commercial prices collected from natural gas marketers and local distribution companies in Maryland, New York, Ohio and Pennsylvania from 2002-2005 and gives the history and status of natural gas choice programs in those states.

Relationship Between Crude Oil and Natural Gas Prices, The

Released: October 2, 2006

This paper examines the time series econometric relationship between the Henry Hub natural gas price and the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil price.

Natural Gas Industry and Markets

Released: March 3, 2006

This special report provides an overview of the supply and disposition of natural gas in 2004 and is intended as a supplement to the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Natural Gas Annual 2004 (NGA). Unless otherwise stated, all data and figures in this report are based on summary statistics published in the NGA 2004. (archived versions)

Assessment of Prices of Natural Gas Futures Contracts As A Predictor of Realized Spot Prices, An

Released: October 28, 2005

This article compares realized Henry Hub spot market prices for natural gas during the three most recent winters with futures prices as they evolve from April through the following February, when trading for the March contract ends.

Derivatives and Risk Management in the Petroleum, Natural Gas, and Electricity Industries

Released: October 1, 2002

In February 2002 the Secretary of Energy directed the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to prepare a report on the nature and use of derivative contracts in the petroleum, natural gas, and electricity industries. Derivatives are contracts ('financial instruments') that are used to manage risk, especially price risk.

U.S. Natural Gas Markets: Relationship Between Henry Hub Spot Prices and U.S. Wellhead Prices

Released: July 1, 2002

This analysis examines the relationship between U.S. wellhead gas prices and Henry Hub spot prices.

U.S. Natural Gas Markets: Mid-Term Prospects for Natural Gas Supply

Released: December 1, 2001

This service report describes the recent behavior of natural gas markets with respect to natural gas prices, their potential future behavior, the potential future supply contribution of liquefied natural gas and increased access to federally restricted resources, and the need for improved natural gas data.

U.S. Natural Gas Markets: Recent Trends and Prospects for the Future

Released: May 1, 2001

The purpose of this study is to examine recent trends and prospects for the future of the U.S. natural gas market. Natural gas prices rose dramatically in 2000 and remained high through the first part of 2001, raising concerns about the future of natural gas prices and potential for natural gas to fuel the growth of the U.S. economy.

Next Generation * Natural Gas (NG)2 Information Requirements--Executive Summary

Released: October 1, 2000

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has initiated the Next Generation * Natural Gas (NG)2 project to design and implement a new and comprehensive information program for natural gas to meet customer requirements in the post-2000 time frame.

Natural Gas Winter Outlook 2000-2001

Released: October 1, 2000

This article is based on the Winter Fuels Outlook published in the 4th Quarter Short-Term Energy Outlook and discusses the supply and demand outlook from October 2000 through March 2001.

Accelerated Depletion: Assessing Its Impacts on Domestic Oil and Natural Gas Prices and Production

Released: July 1, 2000

Analysis of the potential impacts of accelerated depletion on domestic oil and natural gas prices and production.

Northeast Heating Fuel Market The, Assessment and Options

Released: May 1, 2000

In response to the President's request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of the energy markets in the Northeast

Natural Gas: A Preliminary Summary 1999

Released: May 1, 2000

This special report provides preliminary natural gas data for 1999 which were reported on monthly surveys of the industry through December.

Natural Gas: A Preliminary Summary 1998

Released: April 1, 1999

This special report provides preliminary natural gas data for 1998 which were reported on monthly surveys of the industry through December.

Revisions to Monthly Natural Gas Data

Released: July 1, 1998

Revisions to reporting of monthly natural gas data for 1994, 1995, and 1996. (archived versions)

Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices

Released: December 1, 1997

This article focuses primarily on conditions and developments in the East Consuming Region and their connection to prices at the Henry Hub in the Producing Region.

Natural Gas Residential Pricing Developments During the 1996-97 Winter

Released: August 1, 1997

This article is intended to provide an understanding the reasons behind the sharp rise in residential gas bills during the 1996-97 winter.

Consumer Prices Reflect Benefits of Restructuring

Released: December 1, 1996

Examines the differences in prices paid by final consumers for natural gas services in 1990 and 1995.

Emergence of Natural Gas Market Centers

Released: December 1, 1996

Discusses the value of market centers in today's marketplace, highlighting their importance in capacity and financial transactions.

Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection

Released: June 1, 1996

The Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Reserves and Natural Gas Division has undertaken an in-depth reevaluation of its programs in an effort to improve the focus and quality of the natural gas data that it gathers and reports. This article is to inform natural gas data users of proposed changes and of the opportunity to provide comments and input on the direction that EIA is taking to improve its data.

Natural Gas 1995: Preliminary Highlights

Released: April 1, 1996

This special report provides preliminary natural gas data for 1995.

Energy Policy Act Transportation Study: Interim Report on Natural Gas Flows and Rates

Released: October 1, 1995

This report, summarized data and studies that could be used to address the impact of legislative and regulatory actions on natural gas transportation rates and flow patterns.


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