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International Energy Outlook 2004

Chapter References

World Energy and Economic Outlook

1.  D.F. Barnes et al., “Tackling the Rural Energy Problem in Developing Countries,” Finance & Development, Vol. 34, No. 2 (June 1997), pp. 11-15. 

2.  A. Kirby, “Russia’s Climate Tussle Spins On,” BBC News Online (December 4, 2003). 

3.  A.C. Revkin, “Into Thin Air: Kyoto Accord May Not Die (or Matter),” The New York Times (December 4, 2003), p. A6. 

4.  The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, “President Announces Clear Skies & Global Climate Change Initiatives” (Press Release, February 14, 2002), web site www.whitehouse.gov/news/ releases/2002/02/20020214-5.html. 

5.  Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2004, DOE/EIA-0383(2004) (Washington, DC, January 2004); and Global Insight, Inc., World Overview (Lexington, MA, September 2003). India’s GDP growth rates were adjusted downward, based on the judgment of EIA analysts. 

6.  International Monetary Fund, “Economic Prospects and Policy Issues,” in World Economic Outlook: Public Debt in Emerging Markets (Washington, DC, September 2003), p. 25, web site www.imf.org/ external/pubs/ft/weo/2003/02/. 

7.  Global Insight, Inc., World Overview (Lexington, MA, September 2003), pp. 19-35. 

8.  M. Mussa, “A Global Growth Rebound: How Strong for How Long?” (Institute for International Economics, September 9, 2003), web site www.iie. com/publications/papers/mussa0903.pdf. 

9.  International Monetary Fund, “Economic Prospects and Policy Issues,” in World Economic Outlook: Public Debt in Emerging Markets (Washington, DC, September 2003), p. 28, web site www.imf.org/ external/pubs/ft/weo/2003/02/. 

10.  United Nations, World Economic and Social Survey 2003 (New York, NY: United Nations Publications, January 2003), Chapter 1, p. 9, web site www.un. org/esa/policy/wess/. 

11.  “Moving Forward—If United States Can Keep Pace,” Washington Post (November 16, 2003), p. F2. 

12.  Global Insight, Inc., Asia and Oceania: Quarterly Review and Outlook (Lexington, MA, Third Quarter 2003). 

13.  United Nations, World Economic and Social Survey 2003 (New York, NY: United Nations Publications, January 2003), Chapter 1, p. 10, web site www.un. org/esa/policy/wess/. 

14.  Global Insight, Inc., Asia and Oceania: Quarterly Review and Outlook (Lexington, MA, Third Quarter 2003), pp. 9-15. 

15.  World Bank, Global Economic Prospects 2004: Realizing the Development Promise of the Doha Agenda (Washington, DC, September 2003), Appendix 1, “Regional Economic Prospects,” web site www. worldbank.org/prospects/gep2004/full.pdf. 

16.  World Bank, Global Economic Prospects 2004: Realizing the Development Promise of the Doha Agenda (Washington, DC, September 2003), Appendix 1, “Regional Economic Prospects,” p. 239, web site www.worldbank.org/prospects/gep2004/ full.pdf. 

17.  International Monetary Fund, “Economic Prospects and Policy Issues,” in World Economic Outlook: Public Debt in Emerging Markets (Washington, DC, September 2003), p. 37, web site www.imf.org/ external/pubs/ft/weo/2003/02/. 

18. “Making a Splash,” The Economist (August 7, 2003). 

19.  United Nations, World Economic and Social Survey 2003 (New York, NY: United Nations Publications, January 2003), Chapter 1, web site www.un.org/ esa/policy/wess/. 

20.  World Bank, Global Economic Prospects 2004: Realizing the Development Promise of the Doha Agenda (Washington, DC, September 2003), Appendix 1, “Regional Economic Prospects,” p. 244, web site www.worldbank.org/prospects/gep2004/ full.pdf. 

21.  World Bank, Global Economic Prospects 2004: Realizing the Development Promise of the Doha Agenda (Washington, DC, September 2003), Appendix 1, “Regional Economic Prospects,” p. 253, web site www.worldbank.org/prospects/gep2004/ full.pdf. 

22.  International Monetary Fund, “Economic Prospects and Policy Issues,” in World Economic Outlook: Public Debt in Emerging Markets (Washington, DC, September 2003), p. 47, web site www.imf.org/ external/pubs/ft/weo/2003/02/. 

23.  World Bank, Global Economic Prospects 2004: Realizing the Development Promise of the Doha Agenda (Washington, DC, September 2003), Appendix 1, “Regional Economic Prospects,” pp. 251-253, web site www.worldbank.org/prospects/gep2004/full.pdf.


World Oil Markets

1. Energy Information Administration, Short-Term Energy Outlook, March 2004 on-line version, web site www.eia.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents. html.

2. FACTS Inc., Asia-Pacific Databook 1: Supply, Demand and Prices (Honolulu, HI, Fall 2003), p. 3, web site www.factsinc.net/products/databooks.shtml.

3. Federal Register, (Washington, DC) Volume 68, No. 66, Monday, April 7, 2003, pp.16868-16900.

4. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2004, DOE/EIA-0383(2004) (Washington, DC, January 2004), Table A7, p. 144, web site www. eia.doe.gov/oiaf/aeo/.

5. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2004, DOE/EIA-0383(2004) (Washington, DC, January 2004), p. 13, web site www.eia.doe. gov/oiaf/aeo/.

6. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2004, DOE/EIA-0383(2004) (Washington, DC, January 2004), web site www.eia.gov/ oiaf/aeo/.

7. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report: Canada” (January 30, 2004), web site www.wmrc. com.

8. International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2002 (Paris, France, September 2002), p. 164, web site www.worldenergyoutlook.org.

9. M. Jorss, B. Wiesman, and C. Wolff, The McKinsey Quarterly (Fourth Quarter, 2003).

10. Central Intelligence Agency, World Factbook, web site www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook; and The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders Limited, SMMT World Automotive Statistics 2002, web site www.autoindustry.co.uk/statistics.

11. World Markets Research Centre, “Automotive Sector Analysis: Japan” (September 23, 2003), web site www.wmrc.com.

12. Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Energy: National and State Projections to 2019-20 (Canberra, Australia, June 2003), pp. 28-30, web site www.abareconomics. com.

13. S.C. Davis and S.W. Diegel, Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 23, ORNL-6970 (Oak Ridge, TN: Oak Ridge National Laboratory October 2003), Tables 3.1 and 3.2, web site www-cta.ornl.gov/ data/Index.html.

14. International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2002 (Paris, France, September 2002), web site www.worldenergyoutlook.org.

15. Beijing Evening News (November 10, 2003), web site www.ben.com.cn.

16. “The Great Car Crush,” Far Eastern Economic Review (November 27, 2003), web site www.feer.com.

17. World Markets Research Centre, “Automotive Sector Analysis: China” (September 23, 2003), web site www.wmrc.com.

18. World Markets Research Centre, “Automotive Sector Analysis: India” (September 23, 2003), web site www.wmrc.com.

19. Central Intelligence Agency, World Factbook, web site www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook; and The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders Limited, SMMT World Automotive Statistics 2002, web site www.autoindustry.co.uk/statistics.

20. World Markets Research Centre, “Automotive Sector Analysis: India” (September 23, 2003), web site www.wmrc.com.

21. FACTS Inc., Asia-Pacific Databook 1: Supply, Demand and Prices (Honolulu, HI, Fall 2003), web site www.factsinc.net/products/databooks.shtml.

22. Central Intelligence Agency, World Factbook, web site www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook; and The Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders Limited, SMMT World Automotive Statistics 2002, web site www.autoindustry.co.uk/statistics.

23. N.C. Leung, J. Penhirin, and L.A. Yee, “Securing Hong Kong’s Future,” The McKinsey Quarterly, 2003 No. 4, p. 1, web site www.mckinseyquarterly.com.

24. Business Monitor International, Emerging Markets Monitor (January 12, 2004), web site www. businessmonitor.com.

25. FACTS Inc., Asia-Pacific Databook 1: Supply, Demand and Prices (Honolulu, HI, Fall 2003), web site www.factsinc.net/products/databooks.shtml.

26. FACTS Inc., “Middle East Products: Iran Affects the Regional Balance,” FACTS Energy Advisory, No. 287 (January 2004), web site www.factsinc.net/ products/energy_oil_reports.shtml.

27. J. Sach, “A Rich Nation, a Poor Continent,” New York Times (July 9, 2003).

28. Cambridge Energy Research Associates, Refined Products Watch (Cambridge, MA, Winter 2004), p. 29, web site www.cera.com.

29. “A Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production,” Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 100, No. 49 (December 22, 2003), pp. 46-47.

30. DRI/McGraw-Hill, Oil Market Outlook (Lexington, MA, July 1995), Table 1, p. 10.

31. Energy Information Administration, Oil Production Capacity Expansion Costs for the Persian Gulf, DOE/EIA-TR/0606 (Washington, DC, February 1996).


Natural Gas

1. BP, p.l.c., BP Statistical Review of World Energy (London, UK, June 2003), pp. 25 and 28.

2. “Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production,” Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 101, No. 49 (December 22, 2003), pp. 46-47.

3. M. Radler, “Worldwide Reserves Grow; Oil Production Climbs in 2003,” Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 101, No. 49 (December 22, 2003), pp. 44-45.

4. BP, p.l.c., BP Statistical Review of World Energy (London, UK, June 2003), p. 20.

5. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2004, DOE/EIA-0383(2004) (Washington, DC, January 2004).

6. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2004, DOE/EIA-0383(2004) (Washington, DC, January 2004).

7. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2004, DOE/EIA-0383(2004) (Washington, DC, January 2004).

8. Energy Information Administration, “Country Analysis Briefs: United Kingdom,” web site www. eia.doe.gov (February 2003).

9. “Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production,” Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 101, No. 49 (December 22, 2003), pp. 46-47.

10. Energy Information Administration, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook, DOE/ EIA-0637(2003) (Washington, DC, December 2003).

11. Energy Information Administration, “Country Analysis Briefs: Japan,” web site www.eia.gov (July 2003).

12. Asian Pacific Energy Research Centre, Institute of Energy Economics, Natural Gas Market Reform in the APEC Region (Tokyo, Japan, 2003), pp. 89-91.

13. World Markets Research Centre, “Energy Brief: Japan,” web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com (August 27, 2003).

14. International Energy Agency, Energy Balances of OECD Countries, 2000-2001 (Paris, France, 2003).

15. “Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production,” Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 101, No. 49 (December 22, 2003), pp. 46-47.

16. Energy Information Administration, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook, DOE/ EIA-0637(2003) (Washington, DC, December 2003).

17. BP, p.l.c., BP Statistical Review of World Energy (London, UK, June 2003), p. 20.

18. Cedigaz, “2002 Natural Gas Statistics: Estimates of Gross and Marketed Natural Gas Production” (April 2003), Table 2, web site www.cedigaz.com.

19. Cedigaz, “2002 Natural Gas Statistics: Estimates of Gross and Marketed Natural Gas Production” (April 2003), Tables 5 and 9, web site www.cedigaz. com.

20. Energy Information Administration, “Country Analysis Briefs: Russia,” web site www.eia.gov (September 2003).

21. “Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production,” Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 101, No. 49 (December 22, 2003), pp. 46-47.

22. Energy Information Administration, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook, DOE/ EIA-0637(2003) (Washington, DC, December 2003).

23. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219(2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003).

24. “Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production,” Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 101, No. 49 (December 22, 2003), pp. 46-47.

25. World Markets Research Centre, “Brazil: Petrobras’ Santos Discovery Could Triple Brazil’s Gas Reserves,” web site www.worldmarketsanalysis. com (September 4, 2003).

26. “Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production,” Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 101, No. 49 (December 22, 2003), pp. 46-47.

27. Energy Information Administration, “Country Analysis Briefs: Brazil,” web site www.eia.gov (July 2003).

28. “Brazilian Government Acknowledges Threat of New Energy Crisis,” Alexander’s Gas & Oil Connections, Vol. 8, No. 15 (August 8, 2003).

29. “Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production,” Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 101, No. 49 (December 22, 2003), pp. 46-47.

30. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219(2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003); and “Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production,” Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 101, No. 49 (December 22, 2003), pp. 46-47.

31. International Energy Agency, South American Gas: Daring to Tap the Bounty (Paris, France, 2003), p. 44.

32. “Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production,” Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 101, No. 49 (December 22, 2003), pp. 46-47.

33. U.S. Geological Survey, World Petroleum Assessment 2000, web site http://greenwood.cr.usgs.gov/ energy/WorldEnergy/DDS-60.

34. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219(2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003).

35. World Markets Research Centre, “Venezuela: Venezuelan Oil Sector Shrinks by 2.9% in Q2 2003,” web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com (September 3, 2003).

36. Energy Information Administration, “Country Analysis Briefs: Venezuela,” web site www.eia.doe. gov (May 2003).

37. International Energy Agency, South American Gas: Daring to Tap the Bounty (Paris, France, 2003), p. 70.

38. International Energy Agency, South American Gas: Daring to Tap the Bounty (Paris, France, 2003), p. 193.

39. “Unitization MOU with Venezuela to Have Far Reaching Consequences,” Cedigaz News Report, Vol. 42, No. 35 (September 8, 2003), p. 4.

40. World Markets Research Centre, “Bolivian Unions Call General Strike in Solidarity with Gas Protests,” web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com (September 26, 2003).

41. “US, Mexico Gas Progress,” World Gas Intelligence, Vol. 14, No. 35 (August 20, 2003).

42. Petrochina, Overview of Petrochina’s Business and Production (2001).

43. China National Offshore Corporation, “Upstream Business Review,” web site www.cnooc.com.cn/ english/business/index. html.

44. “Construction Commences on Xhongxian-Wuhan Gas Pipeline,” Oil & Gas Journal Online (September 2, 2003), web site www.ogj.com.

45. “Platts Features—Natural Gas: LNG Asia-Pacific: China,” Platts Global Energy, web site www.platts. com (2003).

46. International Energy Agency, Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, 2000-2001 (Paris, France, 2003).

47. “Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production,” Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 101, No. 49 (December 22, 2003), pp. 46-47.

48. Indian Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, “Natural Gas: Overview,” web site http:// petroleum.nic.in/ng.htm (2003).

49. World Markets Research Centre, “Indian Government Releases Gas Pipeline Policy,” web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com (September 30, 2003).

50. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—India (Energy): Oil and Gas,” web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com (May 27, 2003).

51. “RasGas Tran-III to India to Go On Stream in 2004,” Project Monitor (September 27, 2003).

52. Energy Information Administration, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook, DOE/ EIA-0637(2003) (Washington, DC, December 2003).

53. U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Government Reform, Minority Office, “Fact Sheet: Background on Enron’s Dabhol Power Project,” web site www.house.gov/reform/min (February 22, 2002).

54. I. Na, K. Yongduk, et al., Quarterly Energy Outlook: 2Q03 (Seoul, South Korea: Korean Energy Institute, August 5, 2003).

55. Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS), “Natural Gas Sales by Sector, 2001,” web site www.kogas.or.kr (2001).

56. “Platts Features—Natural Gas: LNG Asia-Pacific: China,” Platts Global Energy, web site www.platts. com (2003).

57. Energy Information Administration, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook, DOE/ EIA-0637(2003) (Washington, DC, December 2003).

58. T. Suzuki and T. Morikawa, Natural Gas Supply Trends in the Asia Pacific Region (Tokyo, Japan: Institute of Energy Economics, October 2003).

59. Energy Information Administration, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook, DOE/ EIA-0637(2003) (Washington, DC, December 2003).

60. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219(2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003).

61. “Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production,” Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 99, No. 52 (December 21, 2001), pp. 126-127.

62. Energy Information Administration, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook, DOE/ EIA-0637(2003) (Washington, DC, December 2003).

63. “Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production,” Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 101, No. 49 (December 22, 2003), pp. 46-47.

64. International Energy Agency, Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, 2000-2001 (Paris, France, 2003).

65. Energy Information Administration, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook, DOE/ EIA-0637(2003) (Washington, DC, December 2003).

66. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219(2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003).

67. International Energy Agency, Energy Balances of Non-OECD Countries, 2000-2001 (Paris, France, 2003).

68. TotalFinaElf, “South Pars: A Giant Gas Field Off the Iranian Coast,” Webzine 04, web site www.total. com/webzin4/anglais/index.htm (2004).

69. Petroenergy Information Network, “South Pars Exports Over 35m Barrels of Gas Condensates,” web site www.shana.ir (October 11, 2003).

70. Saudi Aramco, “Gas Operations: Latest Developments,” web site www.saudiaramco.com (2003).

71. Saudi Aramco, “Gas Operations: Challenges,” web site www.saudiaramco.com (2003).

72. Energy Information Administration, “Country Analysis Briefs: Saudi Arabia,” web site www.eia. doe.gov (June 2003).

73. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219(2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003).

74. “Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production,” Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 101, No. 49 (December 22, 2003), pp. 46-47.

75. Energy Information Administration, “Country Analysis Briefs: Oman,” web site www.eia.gov (October 2003).

76. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Brief: Oman, Energy,” web site www. worldmarketsanalysis.com (October 2, 2003).

77. “UAE and Oman Gas Networks to be Connected Soon,” Alexander’s Gas & Oil Connections, Vol. 8, No. 19 (October 2, 2003).

78. Energy Information Administration, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook, DOE/ EIA-0637(2003) (Washington, DC, December 2003).

79. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Brief: Oman, Energy,” web site www. worldmarketsanalysis.com (October 2, 2003).

80. Associated Press, “Greece and Turkey Sign Gas Pipeline Deal,” News Release (March 20, 2003).

81. Energy Information Administration, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook, DOE/ EIA-0637(2003) (Washington, DC, December 2003).

82. Cedigaz, “2002 Natural Gas Statistics: Estimates of Gross and Marketed Natural Gas Production” (April 2003), Table 9, web site www.cedigaz.com.

83. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219(2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003).

84. “Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production,” Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 101, No. 49 (December 22, 2003), pp. 46-47.

85. World Markets Research Centre, “Algeria Puts Draft Oil Reform Bill on Hold,” web site www. worldmarketsanalysis.com (April 7, 2003).

86. Energy Information Administration, Energy in Africa, DOE/EIA-0633(99) (Washington, DC, December 1999).

87. Energy Information Administration, “Country Analysis Briefs: Algeria,” web site www.eia.doe. gov (January 2003).

88. World Markets Research Centre, “BP Teams Up with Sonatrach in Major LNG Venture,” web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com (October 27, 2003).

89. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219(2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003).

90. “Worldwide Look at Reserves and Production,” Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 101, No. 49 (December 22, 2003), pp. 46-47.

91. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—Nigeria (Energy),” web site www. worldmarketsanalysis.com (October 16, 2003).

92. Energy Information Administration, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook, DOE/ EIA-0637(2003) (Washington, DC, December 2003).

93. Energy Information Administration, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook, DOE/ EIA-0637(2003) (Washington, DC, December 2003).

94. Energy Information Administration, The Global Liquefied Natural Gas Market: Status & Outlook, DOE/ EIA-0637(2003) (Washington, DC, December 2003).

95. World Markets Research Centre, “Middle East Gas Pipeline Project Enters Phase Two,” web site www. worldmarketsanalysis.com (September 8, 2003).

96. Cedigaz, “2002 Natural Gas Statistics: Estimates of Gross and Marketed Natural Gas Production” (April 2003), web site www.cedigaz.com.

97. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report: Angola, Energy,” web site www. worldmarketsanalysis.com (October 7, 2003).

98. “Natural Gas: LNG Africa,” Platts Global Energy, web site www.platts.com (2003).

99. Cedigaz, “2002 Natural Gas Statistics: Estimates of Gross and Marketed Natural Gas Production” (April 2003), web site www.cedigaz.com.


Coal

1.  Web site www.worldsteel.org.

2. Energy Information Administration, System for the Analysis of Global Energy Markets (2004).

3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Fact Sheet: EPA To Regulate Mercury And Other Air Toxics Emissions From Coal- And Oil-Fired Power Plants” (Washington, DC, December 14, 2000), web site www.epa.gov.

4. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219 (2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003), Table 2.5.

5. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219 (2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003), Tables 2.5 and 5.4.

6. International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2001 (Paris, France, September 2001), pp. II.21-II.23.

7. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2002, DOE/EIA-0384 (2002) (Washington, DC, October 2003), Table A5.

8. Web site www.worldsteel.org.

9. “Shell Technology Will Be Used in China’s Coal-to-Oil Project in Inner Mongolia,” Interfax (March 30, 2004), web site www.interfax.com.

10. DRI-WEFA, Inc., Asia/Pacific World Energy Global Energy Market Research & Analysis 2001 (Lexington, MA, 2002), p. 75, Table 28.

11.  “China’s Three Gorges Generates 32 pct More Electricity Than Planned-Report,” AFX Asia (December 30, 2003); “Three Gorges to Change China’s Power Supply Patterns-Experts,” Asia Pulse (September 16, 2003); and “Integrated National Power Grid in China to Take Shape,” Asia Pulse (November 20, 2003).

12.  “China’s East-West Gas Pipeline Ready for Trial Run,” China Chemical Reporter (September 26, 2003); and “Natural Gas Reaches East China in Trial Run of Largest Pipeline,” BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific (December 18, 2003).

13. DRI-WEFA, Inc., Asia/Pacific World Energy Global Energy Market Research & Analysis 2001 (Lexington, MA, 2001), p. 105, Table 28.

14. Web site www.ntpc.co.in.

15. “India’s NTPC: Could It Become an Importer In the Future?” International Coal Trade, No. 1378 (April 15, 2002), p. 5.

16. “Asia Won’t Yet Kick the Coal Habit,” Petroleum Intelligence Weekly (July 9, 2001), p. 4; S. Johari, “Tenaga Seeks To Delay Two Coal-Fired Plant Projects,” Business Times (Malaysia) (July 4, 2001), p. 4; Z. Abdullah, “TNB To Rely More on Coal,” The New Straits Times (August 25, 2001), Section 2, p. 21; Y. Praiwan, “Plants Essential To Avoid Serious Fall in Reserves,” Bangkok Post (September 28, 2001).

17. “Korea: 5th Long-Term Power Development Plan,” International Market Insight Reports (February 10, 2001); “Malaysia To Raise Coal Generation Despite Gas Deposits, Says TNB Head,” Coal Week International (January 8, 2001), p. 8; D. A. Bakar, “TNB Gives Approval for Relocation of Coal-Fired Plant,” The New Straits Times (August 25, 2001), Section 2, p. 1; “Coal Imports To Grow as Thailand Brings on New Power Plants,” Coal Week International (March 12, 2001), p. 5; “BLCP To Begin Work on Thai Coal Plant Next Year,” Coal Week International (August 20, 2001), p. 3; Y. Praiwan, “Plants Essential To Avoid Serious Fall in Reserves,” Bangkok Post (September 28, 2001).

18. “Korea: 5th Long-Term Power Development Plan,” International Market Insight Reports (February 10, 2001); “Formosa Plastic Says Tender Filled 9 Million MT Coal Needed for 2001,” Coal Week International (January 22, 2001), p. 8; “Taiwan’s Ho-Ping Power To Start Test Runs in 1st Unit Wednesday,” Dow Jones Newswires (July 31, 2001); “S Korea Posco to Liquidate Posenergy Unit,” Dow Jones International News (May 27, 2001).

19. “Asia Won’t Yet Kick the Coal Habit,” Petroleum Intelligence Weekly (July 9, 2001), p. 4; N.B. Srinivasan, “Gas Versus Coal: It’s No Contest,” The Bangkok Post (October 25, 2001), p. 1; “Thai New Power Development Plan To Focus on Natural Gas,” Dow Jones Newswires (March 15, 2001).

20. “Prime Minister Rules Out Coal for Controversial Power Plants,” Organization of Asia-Pacific News Agencies (March 15, 2003); “Order for Coal-Fired Power Plant from BLCP Power of Thailand,” News Release—Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd (September 19, 2003), web site www.mhi.co.jp; “EGAT Approves Construction of Two 1,400 MW Power Plants,” Thai News Service (February 25, 2003); B. Treerapongpichit, “Banpu Unit Gets Nod for Coal-Fired Plant,” Bangkok Post (June 26, 2002), p. 12.

21. “Order for Coal-Fired Power Plant from BLCP Power of Thailand,” News Release—Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd (September 19, 2003), web site www.mhi.co.jp; “EGAT Approves Construction of Two 1,400 MW Power Plants,” Thai News Service (February 25, 2003); B. Treerapongpichit, “Banpu Unit Gets Nod for Coal-Fired Plant,” Bangkok Post (June 26, 2002), p. 12.

22. “EGAT Plans Gas and Coal Plants,” Power in Asia, No. 387 (October 2, 2003), p. 14.

23. International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2003 (Paris, France, November 2003), Table 3.3a.

24. “Queensland Premier Opens First of Three New Coal-Fired Stations,” Coal Week International (July 9, 2001), p. 3.

25. “Griffin Group Will Build Coal-Fired Plant in Australia,” International Coal Trade, No. 1383 (May 20, 2002), p. 6.

26. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219 (2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003), Table 1.4.

27. Web site www.worldsteel.org; and International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2001 (Paris, France, September 2001), Tables 3.9 and 3.10.

28. International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2003 (Paris, France, November 2003), Table 3.3d.

29. H. Tagawa, Manager, Coal Fuel Department, Tokyo Electric Power Company, “Coal-Fired Power Generation in Japan and Expectations Toward U.S. Western Coal.” Paper presented at the Western Coal Council’s 2001 Spring Pacific Coal Forum (Park City, UT, June 4-6, 2001).

30. International Energy Agency, “Databases for the Electricity Information 2003,” web site http://data. iea.org.

31. “German RWE Says It Will Replace Up to 10% of Its Power Plants From 2008,” European Daily Electricity Markets (November 21, 2003); and “RWE Shelves Plans for New Lignite Power Plant for Now,” Dow Jones International News (February 26, 2004).

32. “EU States Yet to Submit Any Emissions Quota Data,” Reuters News (March 4, 2004).

33. UK Department of Trade and Industry, Energy Paper 68: Energy projections for the UK (London, UK: March 2000), pp. 32-44.

34. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219(2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003), Table 1.4.

35. “Spain’s Fenosa Presses on With Meirama Power Plant Refit,” Platts Commodity News (March 20, 2002); “Endesa Prepares Plant for Imports,” Platts International Coal Report, No. 606 (March 31, 2003), p. 11; and “Endesa to Invest Euro 274 Million to Transform As Pontes 1,400 MW Coal Power Plant and Extend 20 Years Its Useful Life,” ENDESA Press Release (March 26, 2003), web site www.endesa. com.

36. N. Ballisoy and H. W. Schiffer, RWE Rheinbraun, Lignite in Europe, Edition 2001 (September 2001), pp. 15-16.

37.  “Coal-Fired Competition Hots up in France; Endesa’s Overpayment in SNET May Have Let Others Into the French Coal Picture,” Power in Europe, No. 411 (October 13, 2003), p. 8.

38.  International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2003 (Paris, France, November 2003), Tables 3.2 and 3.3b; and “Coal-Fired Competition Hots up in France; Endesa’s Overpayment in SNET May Have Let Others Into the French Coal Picture,” Power in Europe, No. 411 (October 13, 2003), p. 8.

39.  International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2003 (Paris, France, November 2003), Table 3.3b.

40. E. Ewart and R. Marston, “Marketwatch: World Coal Trade and the Impact of Global Environmental Regulation,” Coal Age (September 1, 2001).

41. International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2002 (Paris, France, September 2002), Table 3.3a.

42. “Enel to Switch From Oil to Coal,” McCloskey Coal Report, No. 42 (August 23, 2002), p. 1; “Enel’s CEO Wants More Coal,” International Coal Trade, No. 1397 (August 26, 2002), p. 8; “Endesa Continues Fiume Santo Conversion,” McCloskey Coal Report, No. 69 (September 19, 2003), p. 18; and “Fiume Santo Fires Up Early,” McCloskey Coal Report, No. 71 (October 17, 2003), p. 24.

43. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Report of the Conference of Parties on Its Third Session, Held at Kyoto from 1 to 10 December 1997, Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, FCCC/CP/1997/L.7/ Add.1 (December 10, 1997), web site www.unfccc.de.

44. International Energy Agency, “Databases for the Electricity Information 2003,” web site http://data. iea.org.

45. “Kapros: Greek Pool to Boost IPPs,” Power in Europe, No. 413 (November 10, 2003), p. 4; and “A New Power Plant is to Begin Operations in the North, Near Florina,” Athens News Agency (July 29, 2003).

46. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219(2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003), Table 2.5.

47. SSY Consultancy and Research Ltd, SSY’s Coal Trade Forecast, Vol. 12, No. 4 (September 2003).

48. J. Chadwick, “CIS Coal,” The Mining Journal (June 1998); PlanEcon, Inc., Energy Outlook for Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Republics (Washington, DC, October 1999), pp. 13-14.

49. I. Artimiev and M. Haney, The Privatization of the Russian Coal Industry: Policies and Processes in the Transformation of a Major Industry, World Bank Working Paper 2820 (Washington, DC, April 2002), web site www.worldbank.org; “World Bank Approves Coal-Privatization Loan to Russia,” BBC Monitoring Former Soviet Union—Economic (November 23, 2001).

50. “‘Reform Or Perish’ Message to Coal Operators,” McCloskey Coal Report, No. 56 (March 21, 2003), p. 11; “Ukraine—An Industry Defying Reality,” McCloskey Coal Report, No. 58 (April 18, 2003), p. 13.

51. “Ukraine—An Industry Defying Reality,” McCloskey Coal Report, No. 58 (April 18, 2003), p. 13.

52. International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2003 (Paris, France, November 2003), Table 6.4.

53. “Country Report: Russia (Energy),” World Markets Analysis Online, web site www.worldmarkets analysis.com (February 24, 2004); “Country Report: Kazakhstan (Energy),” World Markets Analysis Online, web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com (February 25, 2004); and “Country Report: Ukraine (Energy),” World Markets Analysis Online, web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com (January 15, 2004).

54. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219(2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003), Tables 1.4 and 2.5.

55. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219(2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003), Table 1.4.

56. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219(2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003), Tables 2.5 and 5.4.

57. SSY Consultancy and Research, Ltd., SSY’s Coal Trade Forecast, Vol. 12, No. 4 (September 2003).

58. International Energy Agency, “Databases for the Electricity Information 2003,” web site http://data. iea.org.

59. “Polish Exports Threatened by Closures,” McCloskey Coal Report, No. 68 (September 5, 2003), pp. 1-4; “World Bank Won’t Lend Poland $300 Million, Says Restructuring Too Slow,” International Coal Report, No. 640 (November 24, 2003), p. 7; “Polish Expert Group Reportedly Backs Closing of 12 out of 33 Total Coal Mines by 2020,” Interfax Poland Business News Service (May 7, 2003); “New Polish Coal-Overhaul Plan Would Involve Pln 14 Bln in Debt Restructuring, Lay Offs of 28,000,” Interfax Poland Weekly Business Report (August 11, 2003); and “Poland Threatens Unions With a Withdrawal of Coal Subsidies,” Platts International Coal Report, No. 618 (June 23, 2003), p. 8.

60. “Poland: Energy and Electricity Forecast,” Economist Intelligence Unit: Executive Briefing, No. 310 (January 13, 2004), p. 4.

61. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219(2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003), Table 1.4.

62. International Energy Agency, “Databases for the Electricity Information 2003,” web site http://data. iea.org.

63. “Czech Republic Industry: Too Little, Too Late for Coal Mines,” Economist Intelligence Unit: ViewsWire, No. 301 (June 25, 2003); and “CEZ Sees Electricity Output Rise 13% in 2003 to All-Time High,” Interfax Czech Republic & Slovakia Weekly Business Report (February 6, 2004); and “Finns Push on With Europe’s First Nuke in Decade,” Energy Compass (December 18, 2003).

64. “Government Approves Country’s Long-Term Energy Policy,” Interfax Czech Republic Business News Service (March 10, 2004); and “CEA Embraces State Energy Expansion Plan But Is in No Rush To Build N-Plant,” European Spot Gas Markets (March 11, 2004).

65. “Czech Republic Will Add New Coal-Fired Capability,” Coal Americas, No. 15 (April 21, 2003), p. 8; “Czech Republic To Rebuild Coal-Fired Power Plants,” Coal Americas, No. 17 (May 19, 2003), p. 17.

66. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2004, DOE/EIA-0383(2004) (Washington, DC, January 2004), Table A8.

67. “Bruce Nuclear Back Online After Months of Delays in Time for Cold Snap,” The Canadian Press (January 9, 2004); “Bruce unit 3 resumes electricity production; Lengthy retrofit adds 6-8 years to reactor’s life Province not ‘out of the woods,’ Energy Probe  says,” The Toronto Star (January 10, 2004), p. D5; and “OPG Officers Ousted; Coal Could Get Boost,” Platts Coal Outlook, Vol. 27, No. 49 (December 8, 2003), p. 1.

68. “Nuclear Fallout,” The Toronto Star (September 27, 2003), p. D1.

69. “Ontario Liberal Leader Threatens to Shut Coal Plants by 2007,” Platts International Coal Report, No. 635 (October 20, 2003), p. 9.

70. Canada’s Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force, Tough Choices: Addressing Ontario’s Power Needs, Final Report to the Minister (January 2004), Figure 2.F, web site www.energy.gov.on.ca.

71. A. Lindgren, “Liberals Begin to Phase Out Coal Plants,” CanWest News Service (January 21, 2004); and Ontario Power Generation Inc., Annual Information Form for the Year Ended December 31, 2002 (March 31, 2003), web site www.opg.com.

72. “Ontario’s IMO Forecasts Province’s Electricity Supply Secure for Next 10 Years,” Foster Electric Report (September 5, 2001); M. Mittelstaedt, “New Life for Old Reactors Fans Fears for Safety,” The Globe and Mail (May 28, 2001), p. A1; Energy Information Administration, Nuclear Power Generation and Fuel Cycle Report 1997, DOE/EIA-0436 (97) (Washington, DC, September 1997), Table D1.

73. “Brooks Power Project Makes It Official With Alberta Govt,” International Coal Trade, No. 1350 (October 1, 2001), p. 10; “Fording Inc. Lays Groundwork for Coal-Fired Units in Alberta,” Coal Week International (October 1, 2001), p. 4.

74. “TransAlta Receives Green Light For Plant Expansion,” International Coal Trade, No. 1370 (February 18, 2002), p. 7; S. Thomas, “TransAlta Buys Half Of EPCOR Genesee Phase 3 Proj,” Dow Jones Newswires (January 13, 2003).

75. “SaskPower To Rebuild Coal-Fired Plant,” Coal Americas, No. 1 (October 7, 2002), p. 15; “McCloskey’s News Round-up,” McCloskey Coal Report, No. 45 (October 4, 2002), p. 25; SaskPower, “Upgrades at Boundary Dam Power Station Worth $80 Million,” News Release (Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada, October 1, 2002), web site www. saskpower.com.

76. F.G. Jáuregui D., “Steam Coal Requirements of CFE.” Paper presented at the Western Coal Council’s Pacific Coal Forum (Park City, UT, June 23-26, 1997).

77. R. Brindal, “Xstrata Coal Australia Wins US$75M Mexico Supply Contract,” Dow Jones Newswires (December 4, 2002).

78. “International Market Report,” King’s International Coal Trade, No. 1194 (September 11, 1998), pp. 2-3.

79. “Another Coal-Fired Power Plant Is On the Drawing Board In Mexico,” Coal Americas, No. 19 (June 16, 2003), p. 18; A. Harrup, “Mexico’s State Utility Plans New Coal-Fired Power Plant,” Dow Jones Newswires (July 3, 2001).

80. International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2001 (Paris, France, September 2001), pp. III.37-III.38.

81. International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2001 (Paris, France, September 2001), pp. III.36; Energy Information Administration, “Country Analysis Brief: South Africa,” web site www.eia.gov (December 2000).

82. “Kenya: Energy Ministry Sets Aside Money for Coal Prospecting,” BBC Monitoring Africa—Political (November 20, 2000).

83. C. Akunna, “Ezeife Urges Igbo To Produce Coal-Fired Electricity,” Africa News Service (December 14, 2001); K.U. Kalu, “Future of Coal Industry,” Africa News Service (October 5, 2001); E. Imisim, “Government Gets $100m World Bank Credit for NEPA Reforms,” Africa News Service (August 2, 2001).

84. “Tanzania: Government Plans To Develop Coal-Fired Power Station,” BBC Monitoring Africa—Political (September 7, 2000).

85. “Largest IPP in Africa, Middle East Is Completed,” Power, Vol. 145, No. 5 (September/October 2001), p. 16.

86. Web site www.worldsteel.org.

87. International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2001 (Paris, France, September 2001), pp. I.88 and I.97; AME Research, web site www.ame.com.au.

88. “Tractabel’s Gerasul Advances 350-MW Jacui; Will Boost Capital by $65-Million,” Global Power Report (July 20, 2001), p. 12; D. Clifford, “Brazil—A Modern Mining Giant,” Mining Magazine (July 1, 2001), p. 6.

89. “Brazil’s Inepar To Exit Distributor’s Celpa, Cemat, and Maybe Generation,” Electric Utility Week (May 7, 2001), p. 21.

90. “AES 454MW Guayama Project Starts Commercial Operations,” Dow Jones Newswires (December 2, 2002).

91. “AES Looks for 3-Year Supply,” McCloskey Coal Report, No. 19 (October 4, 2001), p. 18; B.K. Schimmoller, “Fuel and Materials Handling: Moving It Without Losing It,” Power Engineering (March 1, 2001), pp. 44-48.

92. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2001, DOE/EIA-0219 (2001) (Washington, DC, February 2003), Tables 2.5 and 5.4; International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2001 (Paris, France, September 2001), p. II.23.

93. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy, Energy Overview of Turkey, web site www.fe.doe.gov (accessed January 21, 2004); IEA Coal Research, CoalPower 4 Database (October 2001); “Steag Markets New Coal Station Design,” McCloskey’s Coal Report, No 73 (November 14, 2003), pp. 16-17; and S. Atalay, “Turkish Govt Signs $1.62 Bln Loan for 1400MW Power Project,” Dow Jones Newswires (October 15, 1999).

94. M. Ersoy, Turkish Coal Enterprises, “Current Status of Turkish Lignite Sector,” presentation at the United Nation’s Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) Ad Hoc Meeting of Experts on Coal in Sustainable Development, Geneva, Switzerland (November 17-18, 2003), web site www.unece.org; “EUAS Modifies Afsin-Elbistan B Lignite Project,” IBS Research & Consultancy Energy Line (December 2, 2002) web site www.ibsresearch.com; and “Steag Opens 1,210 MW Coal Plant in Turkey,” European Daily Electricity Markets (November 24, 2003).

95. “New Plant On Line,” Coal Week International (February 26, 2001), p. 9; “Israel Looking to Asia, U.S., To Meet Growing Steam Coal Need,” Coal Week International (November 13, 2000), p. 4.

96. “1,200-MW Ashkelon Plant On Line in 2007,” International Coal Report, No. 594 (January 6, 2003), pp. 1,6; T. Muscal, “Gov’t Okays New Coal Power Plant,” The Jerusalem Post (December 30, 2002).

97. International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2003 (Paris, France, November 2003), Tables 3.1b and 3.1c.

98. Monthly Shipping Review SSY (December 6, 2002), p. 5; “Coal Price Lows,” Monthly Shipping Review SSY (August 12, 2002), p. 4; “2002—The Year of the Bear,” Platts International Coal Report, No. 594 (January 6, 2003), pp. 2-3; A. Roberts, “Price Volatility Persists,” Petroleum Economist (October 2, 2002).

99. U.S. Federal Reserve Bank, “Foreign Exchange Rates (Monthly),” web site www.federalreserve. gov; International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics Yearbook (Washington, DC, various issues).

100. SSY Consultancy and Research Ltd, SSY’s Coal Trade Forecast, Vol. 12, No. 4 (London, United Kingdom, September 2003); and International Energy Agency, Databases for the Coal Information 2003, web site data.iea.org.

101. “Chinese 2002 Thermal Imports Likely to Reach 10 Million mt,” Platts International Coal Report, No. 593 (December 23, 2002), p. 3.

102. “Seaborne Coal Trade Matrix,” Monthly Shipping Review SSY (December 15, 2003), p. 5; and Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, “Monthly Report EM 522."

103. “Ocean Freight Rates Continue to Soar, Little Relief in Sight,” Coal Americas, Energy Publishing LLC, No. 29 (November 3, 2003), p. 1.

104. “Steel/Iron Ore: Iron Ore Imports, Iron Ore Exports and Steel Production,” Monthly Shipping Review SSY (December 15, 2003), p. 7.

105. “Freights Set in for the Long Run,” McCloskey’s Coal Report, No. 75 (December 12, 2003), pp. 20-21.

106. “Freights Set in for the Long Run,” McCloskey’s Coal Report, No. 75 (December 12, 2003), pp. 20-21.

107. “McCloskey Coal Information Services (MCIS) Key Physical Prices,” McCloskey’s Coal Report, No. 75 (December 12, 2003), p. 1; and “McCloskey Coal Information Services (MCIS) Key Physical Prices,” McCloskey’s Coal Report, No. 77 (January 23, 2004), p. 1.

108. J. Chessell, “Coalminers Sitting Pretty in Price Talks,” The Sydney Morning Herald (January 21, 2004); and N. Todd, “Slow Burn for Thermal Coal Talks,” Herald Sun (January 22, 2004).

109. International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2003 (Paris, France, November 2003), Tables 2.6 and 2.11.

110. U.S. Federal Reserve Bank, “Foreign Exchange Rates (Monthly),” web site www.federalreserve. gov.

111. “Coal Exports Decrease in Year 2004,” China Coal Newsletter, AAA Minerals International, Vol. 1, No. 2 (January 20, 2004); X. Yie, “Coal Exports Decrease to Satisfy High Domestic Demand,” China Daily (January 5, 2004); and “China’s Output Growth Seen Slowing in 2004 Despite Soaring Demand,” AFX Asia (December 29, 2003).

112. “Coal Export Tax is Reduced in 2004,” China Coal Newsletter, AAA Minerals International, Vol. 1, No. 1 (January 5, 2004).

113. “Coal Exports Decrease in Year 2004,” China Coal Newsletter, AAA Minerals International, Vol. 1, No. 2 (January 20, 2004); and “Beijing to Regulate Prices,” McCloskey’s Coal Report, No. 75 (December 12, 2003), p. 18.

114. “Met Coke Prices Soar as High as the Sky,” Coal Americas, Energy Publishing LLC, No. 30 (November 17, 2003), p. 10.

115. International Energy Agency, Databases for the Coal Information 2003, web site data.iea.org.

116. “Japanese Discuss New Coke Ovens as Demand Increases, Ovens Age,” Platts International Coal Report, No. 634 (October 13, 2003), p. 9; and “Hill’s Met Coke Price Indicator,” Coal Americas, Energy Publishing LLC, No. 35 (January 26, 2004), p. 1; and “Chinese Coke Licenses for 2.3 Million mt Issued, Buyers Disappointed,” Platts International Coal Report, No. 646 (January 12, 2004), p. 9.

117. World Coal Institute, “Coal in the Steel Industry,” in Coal: Power for Progress, Fourth Edition, web site www.wci-coal.com (March 2000).

118. “Japanese Discuss New Coke Ovens as Demand Increases, Ovens Age,” Platts International Coal Report, No. 634 (October 13, 2003), p. 9.

119. SSY Consultancy and Research Ltd, SSY’s Coal Trade Forecast, Vol. 12, No. 4 (London, United Kingdom, September 2003).

120. SSY Consultancy and Research Ltd, SSY’s Coal Trade Forecast, Vol. 12, No. 4 (London, United Kingdom, September 2003); and Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2002, DOE/ EIA-0384(2002) (Washington, DC, October 2003), Table 7.4.

121. SSY Consultancy and Research Ltd, SSY’s Coal Trade Forecast, Vol. 12, No. 4 (London, United Kingdom, September 2003); Energy Information Administration, National Energy Modeling System run IEO2004.D022304A.

122. International Energy Agency, Coal Information 2003 (Paris, France, November 2003), p. I.191; and SSY Consultancy and Research Ltd, SSY’s Coal Trade Forecast, Vol. 12, No. 4 (London, United Kingdom, September 2003).

123. SSY Consultancy and Research Ltd, SSY’s Coal Trade Forecast, Vol. 12, No. 4 (London, United Kingdom, September 2003.

124. “Malaysian Coal Project Advances,” Power in Asia (June 12, 2003), p. 4; “TNB to Set Ceiling on Coal Prices,” Coal Americas, Energy Publishing LLC, No. 16 (May 5, 2003), p. 20.

125. “Order for Coal-Fired Power Plant from BLCP Power of Thailand,” News Release—Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd (September 19, 2003), web site www.mhi.co.jp; “EGAT Approves Construction of Two 1,400 MW Power Plants,” Thai News Service (February 25, 2003); B. Treerapongpichit, “Banpu Unit Gets Nod for Coal-Fired Plant,” Bangkok Post (June 26, 2002), p. 12.

126. SSY Consultancy and Research Ltd, SSY’s Coal Trade Forecast, Vol. 12, No. 4 (London, United Kingdom, September 2003).

127. “Gas-Fired Power Generation Up at 11% in Philippines Energy Mix,” Platts Commodity News (December 15, 2003); “Philippines Power Cost in Control Despite Oil Price Rise,” Platts Commodity News (September 26, 2002); and “Philippines to Slash Oil Use for Power to 7% by End-2002,” Platts Commodity News (August 6, 2002).

128. Energy Information Administration, Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade 1991, DOE/EIA-0363 (91) (Washington, DC, June 1991), Table 1.

129. “Negative Influence From Tonne-Miles,” Monthly Shipping Review SSY (September 10, 2001), p. 4.

130. S. Wyatt, “China Stakes Claim As Asia’s Coal King,” Australian Financial Review (May 16, 2001), p. 22; “China Rampant,” Monthly Shipping Review, Vol. 554 (June 8, 2001), p. 4; “Increased Competition Forecast by ABARE,” Coal Week International (June 25, 2001), p. 6.

131. SSY Consultancy and Research Ltd, SSY’s Coal Trade Forecast, Vol. 12, No. 4 (London, United Kingdom, September 2003).

132. J. MacPherson, “Mine, Railroad Workers Hurt by End of Coal Shipments,” Alaska Journal of Commerce, Vol. 26, No. 37 (September 15, 2002), p. 8; “Alaskan Plans Move Slowly,” International Coal Report (September 30, 1996); and Korea East-West Power Co., Ltd., web site www.kewp.com.

133. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, “Monthly Report EM 522."

134. “Usibelli to Send Coal to Korea,” Fairbanks Daily News-Miner (September 18, 2003); and P. Dobbyn, “Contract Means Healy Coal in Korea,” Anchorage Daily News (September 18, 2003).

135. “After Only Six Years of Operation, LAXT Shuts Its Gates,” Platts Coal Outlook, Vol. 27, No. 20 (May 19, 2003), pp. 1 and 11.

136. “Western Export Market Revival a Shock,” Coal Transportation Report (February 16, 2004), pp. 4-5; J. Gellici, “Coal Ports Struggle to Gain Advantage,” Dry Cargo International, No. 5 (June 1999), pp. 42-46; and Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, “Monthly Report EM 522."

137. “Eastern Coal Burners Turn to Colorado/Utah for Tons: Prices Soar,” Platts Coal Outlook, Vol. 27, No. 51 (December 22, 2003), p. 1.

138. “Western Export Market Revival a Shock,” Coal Transportation Report (February 16, 2004), pp. 4-5.

139. “U.S. Met Coal Reenters the Japanese Market in a Big Way,” Coal Americas, No. 35 (January 26, 2004), pp 1 and 3; and “U.S. Returns to Japan,” McCloskey’s Coal Report, No. 77 (January 23, 2004), p. 1.

140. Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce, “Monthly Report EM 522."

141. “U.S. Coking Coal Breaks $70 Barrier,” McCloskey’s Coal Report, No. 75 (December 12, 2003), pp. 10-14; and “Met Coal: Get it While You Can at Higher Prices,” Coal Americas, No. 31 (December 1, 2003), pp. 1, 4.

142. “Pinnacle workers may not be able to return until February,” Platts Coal Outlook, Vol. 27, No. 51 (December 22, 2003), p. 7; and C. Davis, “Rise in Global Steel Demand May Impact Coke Shortage,” Pittsburgh Business Times (January 26, 2004), web site www.bizjournals.com.

143. “Coking Coal Market Seeks Reunification With Once-Forgotten Partner,” Platts Coal Outlook, Vol. 27, No. 43 (October 27, 2003), pp. 1 and 15-16; and “Will U.S. Met Exporters in Central Appalachia Continue to Feel the Squeeze,” Coal Americas, No. 19 (June 16, 2003), pp. 8-9.

144. “Agreement Clears Way for Richards Bay Coal Terminal’s R1.75bn Expansion,” Business Report (January 14, 2004), web site www.busrep.co.za.

145. K. Stone, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Minerals Yearbook, 2002: Coal (Ottawa, Canada, November 2003), web site www.nrcan.gc.ca; SSY Consultancy and Research Ltd, SSY’s Coal Trade Forecast, Vol. 12, No. 4 (London, United Kingdom, September 2003); Energy Information Administration, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2002, DOE/EIA-0121 (2002/4Q) (Washington, DC, March 2003).

146. SSY Consultancy and Research Ltd, SSY’s Coal Trade Forecast, Vol. 12, No. 4 (London, United Kingdom, September 2003); “Brazilian Steel Mills Look to China to Boost Coking Coal Supplies,” Platts International Coal Report, No. 547 (February 4, 2002), p. 11.

147. Energy Information Administration, National Energy Modeling System run IEO2004.D022304A.

148. S. Brissette, “Bruce Power Begins Refueling Unit 4,” Bruce Power (January 15, 2003), web site www.brucepower.com; C. Perkel, “Bruce Power Wins Key Approval to Refuel Two Nuclear Reactors,” The Canadian Press (January 14, 2003); “Ontario on Track to Return Four Pickering Nukes,” Reuters News (September 13, 2002).

149. J. Spears, “Power Problems Loom, Agency Warns,” The Toronto Star (December 24, 2002), web site www.thestar.com.

150. Energy Information Administration, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2002, DOE/EIA-0121 (2002/4Q) (Washington, DC, March 2003), Table 10.

151. K. Stone, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Minerals Yearbook, 2002: Coal (Ottawa, Canada, November 2003), web site www.nrcan.gc.ca.

152. IEA Coal Research, CoalPower 4 Database (October 2001).

153. Energy Information Administration, Quarterly Coal Report, October-December 2002, DOE/EIA-0121 (2002/4Q) (Washington, DC, March 2003), Table 10; SSY Consultancy and Research Ltd, SSY’s Coal Trade Forecast, Vol. 12, No. 4 (London, United Kingdom, September 2003); and K. Stone, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Minerals Yearbook, 2002: Coal (Ottawa, Canada, November 2003), web site www.nrcan.gc.ca.

154. Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review 2002, DOE/EIA-0384(2002) (Washington, DC, October 2003), Table 7.4.

155. Energy Information Administration, Annual Prospects for World Coal Trade 1987, DOE/EIA-0363(87) (Washington, DC, May 1987), Tables A2 and A3.

156. Energy Information Administration, Coal Data: A Reference, DOE/EIA-0064 (93) (Washington, DC, February 1995), pp. 33-35; World Coal Institute, “Coal in the Steel Industry,” in Coal: Power for Progress, Fourth Edition, web site www.wci-coal.com (March 2000).

157. International Energy Agency, Databases for the Coal Information 2003, web site data.iea.org.


Electricity

1. Energy Information Administration, The Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry: An Update, DOE/EIA-0562(96) (Washington, DC, December 1996), p. 110.

2. P.J. Runci, Energy R&D in the United Kingdom, PNNL-13234 (Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, March 2000), p. 11, web site http://energytrends.pnl.gov/uk/documents/ uk.pdf.

3. Platts, “UK Lifts Ban on New Gas-Fired Power Plants” (November 15, 2000), web site www. platts.com/dereg/related_eu.shtml.

4. International Atomic Energy Agency, “Power Reactor Information System,” Reference Data Series 2, web site www.iaea.org/programmes/a2/.

5. “KEDO Suspension Statement Shows Rift Over LWR Project” Nucleonics Week, Vol. 44, No. 48 (November 27, 2003).

6. International Atomic Energy Association, “Power Reactor Information System,” web site www. iaea.org/programmes/a2/index.html (September 3, 2003).

7. E. Pianin, “Nevada Nuclear Waste Site Affirmed,” The Washington Post (February 16, 2002), p. A1.

8. “Timeline: North Korea Nuclear Crisis,” BBC News: UK Edition, web site news.bbc.co.uk (February 25, 2004).

9. “UN Pursues Atomic Warhead Trail,” BBC News: UK Edition, web site news.bbc.co.uk (February 23, 2004).

10. “Bush, IAEA Propose Measures To Stop Nuclear Weapons Spread,” U.N. Wire (February 12, 2004), web site www.unwire.org.

11. American Wind Energy Association, Global Wind Energy Market Report (Washington, DC, March 12, 2003), p. 1.

12. International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2002 (Paris, France, September 2002), p. 365, web site www.worldenergyoutlook.org/weo/pubs/ weo2002/weo2002.asp.

13. “Portfolio Standards Blow Through North America,” North American Windpower (March 2004), p. 9.

14. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—Canada (Energy) Electricity,” (January 30, 2004),  web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

15. “Ontario Seeks Expedited Phaseout of Coal Power Plants,” Powerweek Canada (January 26, 2004), pp. 1, 3.

16. Information supplied by Neil McIlveen, Natural Resources Canada (e-mail, February 25, 2004).

17. J. Shepherd, “Canada’s Bruce A Unit Three Reconnected to Grid,” NucNet, Vol. 4, No. 6 (January 10, 2004).

18. “Bruce Power Unit 3 Reactor Finally Back on Ontario Grid After Six-Year Closure,” Powerweek Canada (January 12, 2004), pp. 1, 5.

19. “Ontario Seeks Expedited Phaseout of Coal Power Plants,” Powerweek Canada (January 26, 2004), pp. 1, 3.

20. Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force, Tough Choices: Addressing Ontario’s Power Needs, Final Report to the Minister (Toronto, Ontario, January 2004), p. 55.

21. Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force, Tough Choices: Addressing Ontario’s Power Needs, Final Report to the Minister (Toronto, Ontario, January 2004), p. iv.

22. “Consultant Sees Ontario as Hot Market for Wind,” Restructuring Today (October 16, 2003), p. 3.

23. “75-MW Canadian Wind Farm Complete,” Wind Energy Weekly, Vol. 22, No. 1051 (July 11, 2003), electronic edition.

24. “Enmax, Vision Quest Open McBride Lake Wind Farm in Southern Alberta,” Solar and Renewable Energy Outlook, Vol. 29, No. 28 (October 23, 2003), p. 238.

25. World Market Research Centre, “Canada: Suncor To Build New Canadian Wind Farm Project,” (September 5, 2003), web site www. worldmarketsanalysis.com.

26. F. Vailles, “Énergie Éolienne; Une Demi-Douzaine de Promoteurs Ciblent la Gaspésie,” Le Soleil  (January 12, 2004), p. C2.

27. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—Mexico (Energy) Electricity” (January 21, 2004), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

28. “Ameco Awarded Contract To Support Construction of Mexican Hydro Plant,” Solar and Renewable Energy Outlook, Vol. 29, No. 22 (September 8, 2003), p. 203.

29. “British Blackout Not From Lack of Money,” Restructuring Today (October 2, 2003), p. 3.

30. “Europe Finds Waving Branches Probable Blackout Culprit,” Restructuring Today (October 3, 2003), p. 3.

31. E. Yilmaz, “Western Europe Regional: Massive Blackout Hits Denmark and Sweden,” World Markets Analysis OnLine (September 24, 2003), web site www.worldmarketanalysis.com.

32. E. Yilmaz, “Prospects for Power Sector Liberalisation After the Blackouts,” World Markets Analysis OnLine (November 24, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

33. World Markets Research Centre, “Italy Passes Emergency Decree To Avert Widespread Blackout” (August 29, 2003), web site www. worldmarketsanalysis.com.

34. J. Chevalier and T. Le Quenven, The European Gas and Power Industry Toward Maturity? (Cambridge, MA, CERA Private Report: August 2003), p. 1.

35. J. Chevalier and T. Le Quenven, The European Gas and Power Industry Toward Maturity? (Cambridge, MA, CERA Private Report: August 2003), p. 4.

36. Global Insight, Inc., European Energy Outlook: Volume I (Lexington, MA, April 2003), p. 95.

37. Global Insight, Inc., European Energy Outlook: Volume I (Lexington, MA, April 2003), p. 256.

38. Energy Information Administration, Country Analysis Briefs: Spain (March 2003), web site www.eia.gov.

39. Global Insight, Inc., European Energy Outlook: Volume I (Lexington, MA, April 2003), p. 53.

40. “France Gears up for Retail Competition,” Restructuring Today (January 5, 2004), p. 1.

41. “GE Wind To Install 3.6-MW Turbines for Irish Project,” Wind Energy Weekly, Vol. 22, No. 1047 (June 13, 2003), electronic edition.

42. “Enersis Taps GE Wind To Supply 16 Turbines, Construct Two Windfarms,” Solar and Renewable Energy Outlook, Vol. 29, No. 27 (October 15, 2003), p. 231.

43. International Energy Agency, IEA Wind Energy Annual Report 2002 (Boulder, CO: PWT Communications, April 2003), p. 113.

44. World Markets Research Centre, “Germany: Wind Power Deadline To Be Extended in Germany” (January 29, 2003), web site www. worldmarketsanalysis.com.

45. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—Germany (Electricity)” (December 4, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

46. “French Winds Tapped by New Turbines,” SolarAccess.com News (June 18, 2003), web site www.solaraccess.com.

47. International Energy Agency, IEA Wind Energy Annual Report 2002 (Boulder, CO: PWT Communications, April 2003), pp. 227-228.

48. J. Broehl, “UK Commits to 15 Percent Renewable Energy,” SolarAccess.com News  (December 2, 2003), web site www.solaraccess.com.

49. H. Timmons, “British Plan Major ‘Wind Farm’ To Generate Power Along Coasts,” The New York Times (December 19, 2003), p. A6.

50. Energy Information Administration, “Italy: Environmental Issues,” Country Analysis Briefs (December 2003), web site www.eia.gov.

51. “Current: Russia Opens Its Electricity Market, Slowly and Gently,” World Gas Intelligence, Vol. 14, No. 46 (November 12, 2003), p. 7.

52. World Markets Research Centre, “Russia: UES Plans US$953m Investment Programme for Russian Power Sector in 2004” (September 12, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

53. World Markets Research Centre, “Russia: France’s EDF, Interros To Collaborate in Russian Energy Sector” (October 7, 2003), web site www. worldmarketsanalysis.com.

54. J. Webb et al., Russia’s Energy Strategy to 2020: An Incomplete Road Map (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Energy Research Associates Decision Brief, October 2003), p. 17.

55. “Lenenergo Seeks Hydro Investors,” Platts: Energy in East Europe, No. 16 (June 13, 2003), p. 24.

56. World Markets Research Centre, “Russia: President Lights Up Russian Far East With Official Launch of Bureya Hydropower Plant” (July 10, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

57. “Study into Chukotka’ Wind,” Platts: Energy in East Europe, No. 17 (June 27, 2003), p. 20.

58. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—Kazakhstan (Energy) Electricity” (January 12, 2004), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis. com.

59. World Markets Research Centre, “Ukrainian State Property Fund Shelves Planned Sell-Off of Five Utilities in 2004” (January 12, 2004), web site www. worldmarketsanalysis.com.

60. World Markets Research Centre, “Ukraine: Tired of Waiting, Ukraine Plans To Finish K-2, R-4 Nuclear Plants Without EBRD Loans” (September 12, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

61. World Markets Research Centre, “Lithuania: Eesti Energia Plans To Participate in Lithuanian Power Distributor Privatisation” (September 5, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

62. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—Azerbaijan (Energy) Electricity” (January 15, 2004), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis. com.

63. Global Insight, Inc., European Energy Outlook: Volume I (Lexington, MA, April 2003), p. 45.

64. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—Czech Republic (Energy) Electricity” (December 1, 2003), web site www. worldmarketsanalysis.com.

65. Global Insight, Inc., European Energy Outlook: Volume I (Lexington, MA, April 2003), p. 9.

66. A. Kroeger, “Czech Nuclear Plant in Final Trial,” BBC News UK Edition (April 18, 2003), web site www.news.bbc.co.uk.

67. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—Poland (Energy) Electricity” (December 22, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis. com.

68. Global Insight, Inc., European Energy Outlook: Volume I (Lexington, MA, April 2003), p. 82.

69. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—Bulgaria (Energy) Electricity” (January 22, 2004), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

70. World Markets Research Centre, “Bulgaria Entertains Offer on New Nuclear Power Plant at Belene” (January 14, 2004), web site www. worldmarketsanalysis.com.

71. “A Fair Wind for Yomi,” Platts: Energy in Eastern Europe, No. 15 (May 30, 2003), p. 13.

72. “Boost for Bulgarian Electricity,” Emerging Market Monitor, Vol. 9, No. 32 (December 1, 2003), p. 4.

73. World Markets Research Centre, “Romania: Romania in Talks With Bulgaria to Import Power Supplies” (September 5, 2003), web site www. worldmarketsanalysis.com.

74. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—Japan (Energy) Utilities: Electricity” (February 12, 2004), web site www. worldmarketsanalysis.com.

75. H.W. French, “Safety Problems at Japanese Reactors Begin To Erode Public’s Faith in Nuclear Power,” The New York Times (September 16, 2002), p. A8.

76. “What’s New Around the World: Japan,” Petroleum Intelligence Weekly, Vol. 43, No. 6 (February 9, 2004), p. 6.

77. “Current: Japan’s Tepco Still Aiming for More Nuclear, Coal Use,” World Gas Intelligence, Vol. 14, No. 48 (November 26, 2003), p. 7.

78. International Energy Agency, IEA Wind Energy Annual Report 2002 (Boulder, CO: PWT Communications, April 2003), p. 151.

79. “GE Wind Makes Asian Sales,” Wind Energy Weekly, Vol. 22, No. 1065 (October 17, 2003), electronic edition.

80. M. Rogol, Tipping Point: Will Japan Become the First Mass Market for Solar Power? (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Energy Research Associates Decision Brief, February 2004).

81. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—Australia (Energy) Electricity” (October 13, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis. com.

82. International Energy Agency, IEA Wind Energy Annual Report 2002 (Boulder, CO: PWT Communications, April 2003), p. 60.

83. SolarAccess.com, “Aussie Wind Project Receives Turbines,” Renewable Energy News (July 7, 2003), web site http://solaraccess.com.

84. “China’s Electricity Crisis Puts Coal Back in Fashion,” World Gas Intelligence. Vol. 14, No. 50 (December 10, 2003), p. 7.

85. “Power Shortages ‘Hit China’,” BBC News UK Edition (July 18, 2003), web site www.bbc.co.uk.

86. “China’s Electricity Crisis Puts Coal Back in Fashion,” World Gas Intelligence, Vol. 14, No. 50 (December 10, 2003), p. 7.

87. World Markets Research Centre, “County Report— China (Energy) Electricity” (December 19, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

88. “China’s Communist Leaders See Need for Power Competition,” Restructuring Today (January 20, 2004), p. 3.

89. World Markets Research Centre, “County Report— China (Energy) Electricity” (December 19, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

90. International Atomic Energy Agency, “Power Reactor Information System,” web site www.iaea.org/ programmes/a2/index.html (no date).

91. Li Zhidong, Present Situation and Mid- to Long-Term Outlook of Nuclear Power Development in China (Tokyo: Institute of Energy Economics in Japan, July 2003).

92. World Markets Research Centre, “County Report— China (Energy) Electricity” (December 19, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

93. “China’s Electricity Crisis Puts Coal Back in Fashion,” World Gas Intelligence. Vol. XIV, No. 50 (December 10, 2003), p. 7.

94. “GE Wind Makes Asian Sales,” Wind Energy Weekly, Vol. 22, No. 1065 (October 17, 2003), electronic edition.

95. SolarAccess.com, “Shell Solar Brings Solar Power to Rural China,” (December 1, 2003), web site http:// solaraccess.com.

96. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—India (Energy) Electricity” (December 31, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

97. World Markets Research Centre, “India: India Sets Targets for Nuclear Power Generation” (January 14, 2004), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

98. Press Trust of India, “PM Unveils Major Hydro Power Initiative” (May 24, 2003), web site www. rediff.com/money/2003/may/24power.htm.

99. B. Chauhan, “India’s Largest Hydro Project Starts,” BBC News UK Edition (October 14, 2003), web site news.bbc.co.uk.

100. “Indian Court Clears Dam Project,” BBC News UK Edition (September 2, 2003), web site news.bbc. co.uk.

101. World Markets Research Centre, “Bhutan: India Signs New Agreement for Bhutanese Hydro Project” (September 15, 2003), web site www. worldmarketsanalysis.com.

102. Global Insight, Inc., World Energy Service: Asia/Pacific Outlook 2002 (Lexington, MA, 2002), p. 279.

103. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—Indonesia (Energy) Electricity” (October 2, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

104. N. Semple and M. Hutchinson, “Indonesia Gas and Power: Working Together With the Government To Keep the Lights on in Java and Bali” (Cambridge, MA: Cambridge Energy Research Associates Decision Brief, July 2003), p. 12.

105. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report: Saudi Arabia (Energy) Electricity” (October 15, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

106. “Saudi Arabia Jumps on Independent Power Bandwagon,” World Gas Intelligence, Vol. 15, No. 1 (January 7, 2004).

107. World Markets Research Centre, “Iran: Iranian President Inaugurates Country’s Largest Hydroelectric Power Plant” (October 8, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

108. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—Iran (Energy): Electricity” (January 8, 2004), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

109. World Markets Research Centre, “Iran: Iran Inks Contract to Import Turkmen Electricity” (September 5, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis. com.

110. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—Iran (Energy): Electricity” (January 8, 2004), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

111. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—UAE (Energy) Electricity” (September 16, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

112. Global Insight, Inc., European Energy Outlook: Volume III (Lexington, MA, April 2003), p. 212.

113. World Markets Research Centre, “Turkmenistan: Turkmens Export First Power to Turkey” (December 15, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis. com.

114. Global Insight, Inc., European Energy Outlook: Volume III (Lexington, MA, April 2003), pp. 210-211.

115. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—Turkey (Energy) Electricity” (September 12, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis. com.

116. World Markets Research Centre, “Turkey: Turkey Plans to Privatise Power Grids in 2004” (June 6, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

117. “Power Failure in Lebanon,” Emerging Markets Monitor, Vol. 9, No. 20 (September 1, 2003), p. 18.

118. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—Nigeria (Energy) Electricity” (January 29, 2004), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.

119. “Jigawa Finishes Phase One of Solar Electrification Project in Africa,” Solar and Renewable Energy Outlook, Vol. 29, No. 16 (July 23, 2003), p. 166.

120. Eskom, “In the News: Reform Legislation Being Finalized for SA Power Sector” (January 28, 2004), web site www.eskom.co.za.

121. World Markets Research Centre, “Country Report—South Africa (Energy) Electricity” (January 16, 2004), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis. com.

122. World Markets Research Centre, “South Africa: Eskom Opens New SA Coal Plant” (September 15, 2003), web site www.worldmarketsanalysis.com.


Environmental Issues and World Energy Use

1. United Nations, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992), Article 2, “Objective,” p. 9, web site http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/ convkp/conveng.pdf.

2. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, “Greenhouse Gas Inventory Database,” web site http://ghg.unfccc.int.

3. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. “Kyoto Protocol: Status of Ratification,” web site http://unfccc.int/resource/kpstats.pdf.

4. R.G. Newell, J.N. Sanchirico, and S. Kerr, “Fishing Quota Markets,” Resources for the Future Discussion Paper 02-20 (August 2002).

5. Official Journal of the European Union, Directive 2003/87/EC of the European Parliament and of the Coucil of 13 October 2003: establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96-61-EC, web site http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/ dat/2003/l_275/l_27520031025en00320046.pdf.

6. United Nations Environmental Programme, An Emerging Market for the Environment: A Guide to Emissions Trading (Denmark: UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and the Environment, UN Conference on Trade and Development, 2002).

7. S.L. Pedersen, “Danish CO2 Cap & Trade Scheme: Function and Experiences,” presented at the SERC Workshop, Tokyo, Japan (December 3, 2002), web site www.ens.dk/graphics/ENS_Forsyning/ Kvoter/dk_etr_291002.pdf.

8. S.L. Pedersen, “Danish CO2 Cap & Trade Scheme: Function and Experiences,” presented at the SERC Workshop, Tokyo, Japan (December 3, 2002), web site www.ens.dk/graphics/ENS_Forsyning/ Kvoter/dk_etr_291002.pdf.

9. U.K. Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs, A Summary Guide to the UK Emissions Trading Scheme, web site www.defra.gov.uk/ environment/climatechange/trading/pdf/ trading-summary.pdf.

10. U.K. Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs, Commentary on Preliminary First Year results and 2002 Transaction Log, web site www.defra.gov. uk/environment/climatechange/trading/pdf/ ets-commentary-yr1.pdf.

11. F. Lecocq and K. Capoor, “State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2003” (December 1, 2003), web site http://carbonfinance.org.

12. Evolution Markets LLC, “Evolution Markets Brokers Sale of Carbon Credits Between Hungarian Power Producer and the Dutch Government” (Press Release, December 16, 2003), web site www.evomarkets.com; and Prototype Carbon Fund, “Frequently Asked Questions,” web site http://carbonfinance.org.

13. F. Lecocq and K. Capoor, “State and Trends of the Carbon Market 2003” (December 1, 2003), web site http://carbonfinance.org.

14. J.D. Kilgroe, C.B. Sedman, R.K. Srivastava, J.V. Ryan, C.W. Lee, and S.A. Thorneloe, Control of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers: Interim Report, EPA-600/R-01-109 (Research Triangle Park, NC, December 2001), web site www.epa. gov/ordntrnt/ORD/NRMRL/Pubs/600R01109/ 600R01109.htm.

15. European Environment Agency, Environmental Signals 2000: Environmental Assessment Report No. 6 (Copenhagen, Denmark, May 2000), web site http://reports.eea.eu.int/signals-2000/en.

16. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Latest Findings on National Air Quality: 2001 Status and Trends, EPA 454/K-02-001 (Research Triangle park, NC, September 2002), web site www.epa.gov/ airprogm/oar/aqtrnd01/summary.pdf.

17. International Fuel Quality Center, Current Status of Leaded Gasoline Phase Out Worldwide (February 4, 2003) (updated by personal communication, October 30, 2003).

18. M. Lovei, Phasing Out Lead From Gasoline: Worldwide Experience and Policy Implications,World Bank Technical Paper No. 397 (Washington, DC, 1998), p. 2.

19. United Nations Environmental Program—Chemicals, Global Mercury Assessment (December 2002), web site www.chem.ch/mercury/Report/GMA- report-TOC.htm.

20. United Nations Environment Programme, Report of the Global Mercury Assessment Working Group on the Work of Its First Meeting, UNEP(DTIE)/MGA/ WG.1/8 (Geneva, Switzerland, September 2002).

21. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Latest Findings on National Air Quality: 2002 Status and Trends, EPA 454/K-03-001 (Research Triangle park, NC, August 2003), web site www.epa.gov/ airprogm/oar/aqtrnd01/summary.pdf.

22. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Reduction under Phase II of the Acid Rain Program, web site www.epa.gov/airmarkets/arp/ nox/phase2.html.

23. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Fact Sheet: The Federal NOx Budget Trading Program,” web site www.epa.gov/airmarkets/fednox/fnbtp-fact. pdf.

24. Ozone Transport Commission, NOx Budget Program: 1999-2002 Progress Report (March 2003), web site www.epa.gov/airmarkets/otc/otcreport.pdf.

25. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Interstate Air Quality Rule,” web site www.epa.gov/ interstateairquality.

26. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Clean Air Proposals Promise Sharp Power Plant Pollution Reductions” (Press Release, December 15, 2003).

27. Government of Canada, “News Release: Government of Canada Tightens Emission Guidelines for New Electricity Plants” (Ottawa, January 3, 2003).

28. Government of Canada, “News Release: Canada and the United States Embark on New Era of Cleaner Air” (December 7, 2000), web site www.ec. gc.ca/press/001207_n_e.htm.

29. Environment Canada “Clean Air in Canada: 2003 Progress Report on Particulate Matter and Ozone,” web site www.ec.gc.ca/air/PM_resp_03/s2_e. html#1.

30. L.T. Molina and M.J. Molina, eds., Air Quality in the Mexico Megacity: An Integrated Assessment (Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002), p. 213.

31. L.T. Molina and M.J. Molina, eds., Air Quality in the Mexico Megacity: An Integrated Assessment (Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002), pp. 333-334.

32. L.T. Molina and M.J. Molina, eds., Air Quality in the Mexico Megacity: An Integrated Assessment (Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002), p. 90.

33. L.T. Molina and M.J. Molina, eds., Air Quality in the Mexico Megacity: An Integrated Assessment (Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002), p. 91.

34. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, “Status of Ratification of the 1999 Gothenburg Protocol To Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone as of 5 December 2003,” web site www.unece.org/env/lrtap/status/99multi_ st.htm.

35. European Union, “Parliament and Council Reach Agreement on Sulphur-Free Fuels” (December 12, 2002), web site www.euractiv.com/.

36. World Markets Research Centre, “Hungary: 2004 Brings Extra Tax Burden to Hungarian Energy Sector” (January 13, 2004).

37. International Energy Agency, Energy Policies of IEA Countries: Hungary 2003 Review (Paris, France, 2003).

38. M. Kojima and M. Lovei, Urban Air Quality Management: Coordinating Transport, Environment, and Energy Policies in Developing Countries, World Bank Technical Paper No. 508 (Washington, DC, September 2001), p. 17.

39. “$103b in Losses Due to Power Plants Acid Rain,” South China Morning Post (October 11, 2003).

40. “$103b in Losses Due to Power Plants Acid Rain,” South China Morning Post (October 11, 2003).

41. “$103b in Losses Due to Power Plants Acid Rain,” South China Morning Post (October 11, 2003).

42. “China’s Electricity Crisis Puts Coal Back in Fashion,” World Gas Intelligence (December 8, 2003).

43. N.J. Smith, “China OKs Plan for Tackling Sulfur Dioxide with Added Emphasis on Emissions Trading,” BNA International Environment Reporter, Vol. 25, No. 24 (November 20, 2002).

44. “China – Emissions Plan Set to Expand” China Daily (November 19, 2002).

45. “The Environment—The Great Car Crush: Unless China Can Cope With Cars, It Has a Crisis in the Making,” Far Eastern Economic Review (November 27, 2003).

46. “One in Four Beijingers Now Owns a Car,” South China Morning Post (August 6, 2003).

47. “The Environment—The Great Car Crush: Unless China Can Cope With Cars, It Has a Crisis in the Making,” Far Eastern Economic Review (November 27, 2003).

48. “The Environment—The Great Car Crush: Unless China Can Cope With Cars, It Has a Crisis in the Making,” Far Eastern Economic Review (November 27, 2003).

49. “The Greening of China: As the Economy Has Grown, So Have Waste and Pollution. But There’s Big Money in Repairing the Environment,” Business Week (October 27, 2003).

50. “Beijingers Enjoy More Blue-Sky Days This Year,” Xinhua News Agency (December 20, 2003).

51. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Air Quality Index: A Guide to Air Quality and Your Health,” web site www.epa.gov/airnow/aqibroch/aqi. html#aqipar.

52. “Smoking Cities,” BBC News Online (January 25, 1999), web site news.bbc.co.uk.

53. World Market Research Centre, “India Unveils New Emissions Regulations To Combat Air Pollution” (October 7, 2003).

54. L. Erlandsson and C. Weaver, Safety of CNG Buses in Delhi: Findings and Recommendations (Centre for Science and Environment, August 9, 2002).

55. “A Firm Court Clears the Air,” New Straits Times Press (March 4, 2003).

56. “LPG Plan for Rickshaws Could Clear Air of Toxins,” The Times of India (August 23, 2003).

57. S. Sinha, “Environmental Guidelines for Power Plants in India and Other Nations,” Environmental Quality Management, Vol. 11, No. 1 (Autumn 2001), pp. 57-69.

58. J.-P. Montero, J.M. Sanches, and R. Katz, “A Market- Based Environmental Policy Experiment in Chile,” Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 45, No. 1 (April 2002).

59. EFE News Service, “Air Pollution Reaches Dangerous Levels in Santiago” (May 19, 2003).

60. EFE News Service, “Air Pollution Reaches Dangerous Levels in Santiago” (May 19, 2003).

61. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “Air Quality Index: A Guide to Air Quality and Your Health,” web site www.epa.gov/airnow/aqibroch/aqi. html#aqipar.

62. Economist Intelligence Unit Riskwire, “Chile Risk: Infrastructure Risk” (May 30, 2003).

63. “The Right To Drive or the Right To Breathe?”, The Economist (March 7, 2002).

64. J. Parada, “Current Situation and Perspectives of the Clean Cities Program in Santiago, Chile” (Clean Cities Program, U.S. Department of Energy, October 2001).

65. “Today’s Other News in Brief: Bus Union Calls Off Strike, State Calls Traffic Plan a Hit,” Santiago Times (April 16, 2002).

Released: April 2004

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