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Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions

For additional terms, refer to:
the Glossary of Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 1998 for additional greenhouse gas related terms,
the Glossary of Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994 for additional manufacturing terms, and
Appendix F of Manufacturing Consumption of Energy 1994 for descriptions of the major industry groups.
British Thermal Unit:
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit. One quadrillion Btu is 1015 Btu, or 1.055 exajoules.
Btu:
See British Thermal Unit.
Carbon Dioxide:
A colorless, odorless, non-poisonous gas that is a normal part of Earth's atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is a product of fossil-fuel combustion as well as other processes. It is considered a greenhouse gas as it traps heat radiated into the atmosphere and thereby contributes to the potential for global warming.
Carbon Intensity:
The amount of carbon by weight emitted per unit of energy consumed. A common measure of carbon intensity is the weight of carbon per British thermal unit (Btu) of energy. When there is only one fossil fuel under consideration, the carbon intensity and the emissions coefficient are the same. When there are several fuels, carbon intensity is an energy-consumption weighted average of the emissions coefficients. See Emissions Coefficient.
Carbon Output Rate:
The amount of carbon by weight per kilowatthour of electricity produced.
Carbon Sequestration:
The fixation of atmospheric carbon dioxide in a carbon sink through biological or physical processes.
Carbon Sink:
A reservoir that absorbs or takes up released carbon from another part of the carbon cycle.
Coal:
A readily combustible black or brownish-black rock whose composition, including inherent moisture, consists of more than 50 percent by weight and more than 70 percent by volume of carbonaceous material.
Electricity:
See Net Electricity.
Emissions:
Releases of gases to the atmosphere due to human activity. In the context of global climate change, emissions consist of radiatively important greenhouse gases (e.g., the release of carbon dioxide during fuel combustion).
Emissions Coefficient:
A unique value for scaling emissions to activity data in terms of a standard rate of emissions per unit of activity (e.g., weight of carbon emitted per Btu of fossil fuel consumed).
Feedstock Use of Energy:
The use of an energy source as a raw material.
First Use of Energy:
All energy used in the manufacturing sector, either for fuel use (heat, power, and electricity generation) or for nonfuel (feedstock) use. Excluded are energy sources produced on site from other energy sources.
Greenhouse Gases:
Those gases, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride, that are transparent to solar (short-wave) radiation but opaque to long-wave radiation, thus preventing long-wave radiant energy from leaving the atmosphere. The net effect is a trapping of absorbed radiation and a tendency to warm the planet's surface.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC):
A panel established jointly in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization and the United Nations Environment Program to assess the scientific information relating to climate change and to formulate realistic response strategies.
Metric Ton:
A quantity of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms, or 2,204.6 pounds.
Natural Gas:
A mixture of hydrocarbon compounds and small quantities of various nonhydrocarbons existing in the gaseous phase or in solution with crude oil in natural underground reservoirs at reservoir conditions.
Net Electricity:
Net electricity is the sum of purchased electricity, transfers in, and generation from noncombustible renewable resources minus the quantities of electricity sold and transferred offsite. Thus net electricity excludes the quantities of electricity generated or cogenerated onsite from combustible energy sources.
Petroleum:
A generic term applied to oil and oil products in all forms, such as crude oil, lease condensate, unfinished oils, petroleum products, natural gas plant liquids, and nonhydrocarbon compounds blended into finished petroleum products. For petroleum refining only, the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey excludes those inputs and feedstocks that were converted to other energy products.
Sequestration:
See Carbon Sequestration.
Shipments:
Shipments from an establishment of energy sources produced or transformed onsite from the nonfuel use of other energy sources.
SIC Code:
See Standard Industrial Classification Code
Standard Industrial Classification Code:
A hierarchical classification system that groups establishments according to their primary economic activities. Beginning with the 1998 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey, the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) replaces the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes. See Good-Bye, SIC - Hello, NAICS for an explanation of the changes.
Total Inputs of Energy:
Use of energy in the production of heat, steam, power, or the generation of electricity.

[Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing]

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File Last Modified: May 31, 2000