Table A.1. Sulfur Dioxide Uncontrolled Emission Factors

Fuel, Code, Source and Emission Units Combustion System Type / Firing Configuration
Fuel EIA Fuel Code Source and Tables (As Appropriate) Emissions Units
Lbs = Pounds
MMCF = Million Cubic Feet
MG = Thousand Gallons
Cyclone Firing Boiler Fluidized Bed Firing Boiler Stoker Boiler Tangential Firing Boiler All Other Boiler Types Combustion Turbine Internal Combustion Engine
Distillate Fuel Oil* DFO Source: 2, Table 3.1-2a, 3.4-1 & 1.3-1 Lbs per MG 142.00 14.20 142.00 142.00 142.00 140.00 140.00
Jet Fuel* JF Assumed to have emissions similar to DFO. Lbs per MG 142.00 14.20 142.00 142.00 142.00 140.00 140.00
Kerosene* KER Assumed to have emissions similar to DFO. Lbs per MG 142.00 14.20 142.00 142.00 142.00 140.00 140.00
Other Biomass Liquids* OBL Source: 1 (including footnotes 3 and 16 within source) Lbs per MG 142.00 14.20 142.00 142.00 142.00 140.00 140.00
Residual Fuel Oil* RFO Source: 2, Table 1.3-1; Combustion turbines and internal combusition engines assumed to have emissions similar to DFO. Lbs per MG 157.00 15.70 157.00 157.00 157.00 140.00 140.00
Wood Waste Liquids* WDL Source: 1 (including footnotes 3 and 16 within source) Lbs per MG 142.00 14.20 142.00 142.00 142.00 140.00 140.00
Waste Oil* WO Source: 2, Table 1.11-2; Combustion turbines and internal combusition engines assumed to have emissions similar to DFO. Lbs per MG 147.00 14.70 147.00 147.00 147.00 140.00 140.00
Blast Furnace Gas BFG Sources: 1 (including footnote 7 within source); 2, Table 1.4-2 (including footnote d within source) Lbs per MMCF 0.60 0.06 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Landfill Gas LFG Sources: 1 (including footnote 7 within source); 2, Table 1.4-2 (including footnote d within source) Lbs per MMCF 0.60 0.06 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Natural Gas NG Sources: 1 (including footnote 7 within source); 2, Table 1.4-2 (including footnote d within source) Lbs per MMCF 0.60 0.06 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Other Biomass Gas OBG Sources: 1 (including footnote 7 within source); 2, Table 1.4-2 (including footnote d within source) Lbs per MMCF 0.60 0.06 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Other Gases OG Source: 1 (including footnote 7 within source) Lbs per MMCF 0.60 0.06 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Other OTH Assumed to have emissions similar to Natural Gas. Lbs per MMCF 0.60 0.06 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Propane Gas PG Sources: 1 (including footnote 7 within source); 2, Table 1.4-2 (including footnote d within source) Lbs per MMCF 0.60 0.06 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas SGC Assumed to have emissions similar to Natural Gas Lbs per MMCF 0.60 0.06 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Synthesis Gas from Petroleum Coke SGP Assumed to have emissions similar to Natural Gas Lbs per MMCF 0.60 0.06 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Agricultural Byproducts AB Source: 1 Lbs per ton 0.08 0.01 0.08 0.08 0.08 N/A N/A
Bituminous Coal* BIT Source: 2, Table 1.1-3 Lbs per ton 38.00 3.80 38.00 38.00 38.00 N/A N/A
Lignite Coal* LIG Source: 2, Table 1.7-1 Lbs per ton 30.00 3.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 N/A N/A
Municipal Solid Waste MSW Source: 1 Lbs per ton 1.70 0.17 1.70 1.70 1.70 N/A N/A
Other Biomass Solids OBS Source: 1 (including footnote 11 within source) Lbs per ton 0.23 0.02 0.23 0.23 0.23 N/A N/A
Petroleum Coke* PC Source: 1 Lbs per ton 39.00 3.90 39.00 39.00 39.00 N/A N/A
Subbituminous Coal* SUB Source: 2, Table 1.1-3 Lbs per ton 35.00 3.50 35.00 35.00 35.00 N/A N/A
Tire-Derived Fuel* TDF Source: 1 (including footnote 13 within source) Lbs per ton 38.00 3.80 38.00 38.00 38.00 N/A N/A
Waste Coal* WC Source: 1 (including footnote 20 within source) Lbs per ton 30.00 3.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 N/A N/A
Wood Waste Solids WDS Source: 1 Lbs per ton 0.29 0.08 0.08 0.29 0.29 N/A N/A
Black Liquor BLQ Source: 1 Lbs per ton ** 7.00 0.70 7.00 7.00 7.00 N/A N/A
Sludge Waste SLW Source: 1 (including footnote 11 within source) Lbs per ton ** 2.80 0.28 2.80 2.80 2.80 N/A N/A

Notes:
* For these fuels, emissions are estimated by multiplying the emissions factor by the physical volume of fuel and the sulfur percentage of the fuel (other fuels do not require the sulfur percentage in the calculation). Note that EIA data do not provide the sulfur content of TDF. The value used (1.56 percent) is from U.S. EPA, Control of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers, April 2002, EPA-600/R-01-109, Table A-11 (available at:http://www.epa.gov/appcdwww/aptb/EPA-600-R-01-109A.pdf).
** Although Sludge Waste and Black Liquor consist substantially of liquids, these fuels are measured and reported to EIA in tons.

Sources:
1. Eastern Research Group, Inc. and E.H. Pechan & Associates, Inc., Documentation for the 2002 Electric Generating Unit National Emissions Inventory, Table 6, September 2004.
Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Factor and Inventory Group (D205-01), Emissions, Monitoring and Analysis Division, Research Triangle Park
2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, AP 42, Fifth Edition (Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume 1: Stationary Point and Area Sources); available at: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/