Table A.1. Sulfur Dioxide Uncontrolled Emission Factors

Fuel, Code, Source and Emission Units Combustion System Type / Firing Configuration
Fuel EIA Fuel Code Source and Tables (As Appropriate) Emissions Units
Lbs = Pounds
MMCF = Million Cubic Feet
MG = Thousand Gallons
Cyclone Boiler Fluidized Bed Boiler Opposed Firing Boiler Spreader Stoker Boiler Tangential Boiler All Other Boiler Types Combustion Turbine Internal Combustion Engine
Agricultural Byproducts AB Source: 1 Lbs per ton 0.08 0.01 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.08 N/A N/A
Blast Furnace Gas BFG Sources: 1 (including footnote 7 within source); 2, Table 1.4-2 (including footnote d within source) Lbs per MMCF 0.60 0.06 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Bituminous Coal* BIT Source: 2, Table 1.1-3 Lbs per ton 38.00 3.80 38.00 38.00 38.00 38.00 N/A N/A
Black Liquor BLQ Source: 1 Lbs per ton ** 7.00 0.70 7.00 7.00 7.00 7.00 N/A N/A
Distillate Fuel Oil* DFO Source: 2, Table 3.1-2a, 3.4-1 & 1.3-1 Lbs per MG 157.00 15.70 157.00 157.00 157.00 157.00 140.00 140.00
Jet Fuel* JF Assumed to have emissions similar to DFO. Lbs per MG 157.00 15.70 157.00 157.00 157.00 157.00 140.00 140.00
Kerosene* KER Assumed to have emissions similar to DFO. Lbs per MG 157.00 15.70 157.00 157.00 157.00 157.00 140.00 140.00
Landfill Gas LFG Sources: 1 (including footnote 7 within source); 2, Table 1.4-2 (including footnote d within source) Lbs per MMCF 0.60 0.06 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Lignite Coal* LIG Source: 2, Table 1.7-1 Lbs per ton 30.00 3.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 N/A N/A
Municipal Solid Waste MSW Source: 1 Lbs per ton 1.70 0.17 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 N/A N/A
Natural Gas NG Sources: 1 (including footnote 7 within source); 2, Table 1.4-2 (including footnote d within source) Lbs per MMCF 0.60 0.06 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Other Biomass Gas OBG Sources: 1 (including footnote 7 within source); 2, Table 1.4-2 (including footnote d within source) Lbs per MMCF 0.60 0.06 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Other Biomass Liquids* OBL Source: 1 (including footnotes 3 and 16 within source) Lbs per MG 157.00 15.70 157.00 157.00 157.00 157.00 140.00 140.00
Other Biomass Solids OBS Source: 1 (including footnote 11 within source) Lbs per ton 0.23 0.02 0.23 0.23 0.23 0.23 N/A N/A
Other Gases OG Source: 1 (including footnote 7 within source) Lbs per MMCF 0.60 0.06 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Other OTH Assumed to have emissions similar to Natural Gas. Lbs per MMCF 0.60 0.06 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Petroleum Coke* PC Source: 1 Lbs per ton 39.00 3.90 39.00 39.00 39.00 39.00 N/A N/A
Propane Gas PG Sources: 1 (including footnote 7 within source); 2, Table 1.4-2 (including footnote d within source) Lbs per MMCF 0.60 0.06 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
Residual Fuel Oil* RFO Source: 2, Table 1.3-1 Lbs per MG 157.00 15.70 157.00 157.00 157.00 157.00 N/A N/A
Synthetic Coal* SC Assumed to have the emissions similar to Bituminous Coal. Lbs per ton 38.00 3.80 38.00 38.00 38.00 38.00 N/A N/A
Sludge Waste SLW Source: 1 (including footnote 11 within source) Lbs per ton ** 2.80 0.28 2.80 2.80 2.80 2.80 N/A N/A
Subbituminous Coal* SUB Source: 2, Table 1.1-3 Lbs per ton 35.00 3.50 35.00 38.00 35.00 35.00 N/A N/A
Tire-Derived Fuel* TDF Source: 1 (including footnote 13 within source) Lbs per ton 38.00 3.80 38.00 38.00 38.00 38.00 N/A N/A
Waste Coal* WC Source: 1 (including footnote 20 within source) Lbs per ton 30.00 3.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 30.00 N/A N/A
Wood Waste Liquids* WDL Source: 1 (including footnotes 3 and 16 within source) Lbs per MG 157.00 15.70 157.00 157.00 157.00 157.00 140.00 140.00
Wood Waste Solids WDS Source: 1 Lbs per ton 0.29 0.08 0.29 0.08 0.29 0.29 N/A N/A
Waste Oil* WO Source: 2, Table 1.11-2 Lbs per MG 147.00 14.70 147.00 147.00 147.00 147.00 N/A N/A

Notes:
* For these fuels, emissions are estimated by multiplying the emissions factor by the physical volume of fuel and the sulfur percentage of the fuel (other fuels do not require the sulfur percentage in the calculation). Note that EIA data do not provide the sulfur content of TDF. The value used (1.56 percent) is from U.S. EPA, Control of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Electric Utility Boilers, April 2002, EPA-600/R-01-109, Table A-11 (available at:http://www.epa.gov/appcdwww/aptb/EPA-600-R-01-109A.pdf).
** Although Sludge Waste and Black Liquor consist substantially of liquids, these fuels are measured and reported to EIA in tons.

Sources:
1. Eastern Research Group, Inc. and E.H. Pechan & Associates, Inc., Documentation for the 2002 Electric Generating Unit National Emissions Inventory, Table 6, September 2004.
Prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Emission Factor and Inventory Group (D205-01), Emissions, Monitoring and Analysis Division, Research Triangle Park
2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, AP 42, Fifth Edition (Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume 1: Stationary Point and Area Sources); available at: http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/