Table 8.1. Average Operating Heat Rate for Selected Energy Sources,
2003 through 2013 (Btu per Kilowatthour)

Year Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Nuclear
2003 10297 10610 9207 10422
2004 10331 10571 8647 10428
2005 10373 10631 8551 10436
2006 10351 10809 8471 10435
2007 10375 10794 8403 10489
2008 10378 11015 8305 10452
2009 10414 10923 8160 10459
2010 10415 10984 8185 10452
2011 10444 10829 8152 10464
2012 10498 10991 8039 10479
2013 10459 10713 7948 10449

Coal includes anthracite, bituminous, subbituminous and lignite coal. Waste coal and synthetic coal are included starting in 2002.
Petroleum includes distillate fuel oil (all diesel and No. 1 and No. 2 fuel oils), residual fuel oil (No. 5 and No. 6 fuel oils and bunker C fuel oil, jet fuel, kerosene, petroleum coke, and waste oil.

Notes:
Included in the calculation for coal, petroleum, and natural gas average operating heat rate are electric power plants in the utility and independent power producer sectors.
Combined heat and power plants, and all plants in the commercial and industrial sectors are excluded from the calculations.
The nuclear average heat rate is the weighted average tested heat rate for nuclear units as reported on the Form EIA-860.

Sources: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-923, "Power Plant Operations Report," and predecessor form(s) including U.S. Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-906, "Power Plant Report;" and Form EIA-920, "Combined Heat and Power Plant Report;" Form EIA-860, "Annual Electric Generator Report."