Definitions, Sources and Explanatory Notes

 Category:   Summary
 Topic:   Weekly Supply Estimates

  Definitions

Key Terms Definition
All Other Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g. straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. Includes receipts and inputs of Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Excludes conventional blendstock for oxygenate blending (CBOB), reformulated blendstock for oxygenate blending, oxygenates (e.g. fuel ethanol and methyl tertiary butyl ether), butane, and pentanes plus.
Asphalt A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton.
Barrel A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons.
Blending Plant A facility which has no refining capability but is either capable of producing finished motor gasoline through mechanical blending or blends oxygenates with motor gasoline.
Conventional Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (CBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished conventional motor gasoline.
Conventional Gasoline Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories. Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) as well as other blendstock.
Conventional Gasoline, Ed55 and Lower Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with a maximum of 55 volume percent denatured fuel ethanol.
Conventional Gasoline, Greater than Ed55 Finished conventional motor gasoline blended with denatured fuel ethanol where the volume percent of denatured fuel ethanol exceeds 55%.
Crude Oil A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude stream, it may also include:
  • Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being recovered from oil well (casinghead) gas in lease separators and are subsequently commingled with the crude stream without being separately measured. Lease condensate recovered as a liquid from natural gas wells in lease or field separation facilities and later mixed into the crude stream is also included;
  • Small amounts of nonhydrocarbons produced with the oil, such as sulfur and various metals;
  • Drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, oil sands, gilsonite, and oil shale.


  • Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded. Crude oil is refined to produce a wide array of petroleum products, including heating oils; gasoline, diesel and jet fuels; lubricants; asphalt; ethane, propane, and butane; and many other products used for their energy or chemical content.
    Crude Oil Production The volume of crude oil produced from oil reservoirs during given periods of time. The amount of such production for a given period is measured as volumes delivered from lease storage tanks (i.e., the point of custody transfer) to pipelines, trucks, or other media for transport to refineries or terminals with adjustments for (1) net differences between opening and closing lease inventories, and (2) basic sediment and water (BS&W).
    Days of Supply A measure of the adequacy of inventories. It is calculated by taking the current stock level and dividing by product supplied (used as an estimate of demand) averaged over the most recent four-week period. For crude oil, refinery inputs of crude oil are used as a proxy for demand.
    Distillate Fuel Oil A general classification for one of the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation operations. It includes diesel fuels and fuel oils. Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 diesel fuel are used in on-highway diesel engines, such as those in trucks and automobiles, as well as off-highway engines, such as those in railroad locomotives and agricultural machinery. Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 fuel oils are used primarily for space heating and electric power generation.
    Exports Shipments of crude oil and petroleum products from the 50 States and the District of Columbia to foreign countries, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U.S. possessions and territories.
    Finished Motor Gasoline A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in spark-ignition engines. Motor gasoline, as defined in ASTM Specification D 4814 or Federal Specification VV-G-1690C, is characterized as having a boiling range of 122 to 158 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10 percent recovery point to 365 to 374 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90 percent recovery point. Motor Gasoline includes conventional gasoline; all types of oxygenated gasoline, including gasohol; and reformulated gasoline, but excludes aviation gasoline. Note: Volumetric data on blending components, such as oxygenates, are not counted in data on finished motor gasoline until the blending components are blended into the gasoline.
    Finished Motor Gasoline Adjustment Adjustment to correct for the imbalance created by the blending of fuel ethanol and motor gasoline blending components.
    Fuel Ethanol An anhydrous alcohol (ethanol with less than 1% water) intended for gasoline blending as described in the Oxygenates definition.
    Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB) Non-certified Foreign Refinery gasoline classified by an importer as blendstock to be either blended or reclassified with respect to reformulated or conventional gasoline. GTAB was classified on EIA surveys as either reformulated or conventional based on emissions performance and the intended end use in data through the end of December 2009. Designation of GTAB as reformulated or conventional was discontinued beginning with data for January 2010. GTAB was reported as a single product beginning with data for January 2010. GTAB data for January 2010 and later months is presented as conventional motor gasoline blending components when reported as a subset of motor gasoline blending components.
    Gross Inputs The crude oil, unfinished oils, and natural gas plant liquids put into atmospheric crude oil distillation units.
    High-Sulfur Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate fuel oil having sulfur content greater than 500 ppm.
    Imports Receipts of crude oil and petroleum products into the 50 States and the District of Columbia from foreign countries, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U.S. possessions and territories.
    Kerosene A light petroleum distillate that is used in space heaters, cook stoves, and water heaters and is suitable for use as a light source when burned in wick-fed lamps. Kerosene has a maximum distillation temperature of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10-percent recovery point, a final boiling point of 572 degrees Fahrenheit, and a minimum flash point of 100 degrees Fahrenheit. Included are No. 1-K and No. 2-K, the two grades recognized by ASTM Specification D 3699 as well as all other grades of kerosene called range or stove oil, which have properties similar to those of No. 1 fuel oil. See Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel.
    Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel A kerosene-based product having a maximum distillation temperature of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10-percent recovery point and a final maximum boiling point of 572 degrees Fahrenheit and meeting ASTM Specification D 1655 and Military Specifications MIL-T-5624P and MIL-T-83133D (Grades JP-5 and JP-8). It is used for commercial and military turbojet and turboprop aircraft engines.

  • Commercial
  • - Kerosene-type jet fuel intended for use in commercial aircraft.
  • Military
  • - Kerosene-type jet fuel intended for use in military aircraft.
    Liquefied Refinery Gases (LRGs) Liquefied petroleum gases fractionated from refinery or still gases. Through compression and/or refrigeration, they are retained in the liquid state. The reported categories are ethane/ethylene, propane/propylene, normal butane/butylene, and isobutane/isobutylene. Excludes still gas.
    Low-Sulfur Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate fuel oil having sulfur content greater than 15 ppm to 500 ppm. Low sulfur distillate fuel oil also includes product with sulfur content equal to or less than 15 ppm if the product is intended for pipeline shipment and the pipeline has a sulfur specification below 15 ppm.
    Motor Gasoline Blending Mechanical mixing of motor gasoline blending components, and oxygenates when required, to produce finished motor gasoline. Finished motor gasoline may be further mixed with other motor gasoline blending components or oxygenates, resulting in increased volumes of finished motor gasoline and/or changes in the formulation of finished motor gasoline (e.g., conventional motor gasoline mixed with MTBE to produce oxygenated motor gasoline).
    Motor Gasoline Blending Components Naphthas (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. These components include reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) but exclude oxygenates (alcohols, ethers), butane, and pentanes plus. Note: Oxygenates are reported as individual components and are included in the total for other hydrocarbons, hydrogens, and oxygenates.
    Naphtha-Type Jet Fuel A fuel in the heavy naphtha boiling range having an average gravity of 52.8 degrees API, 20 to 90 percent distillation temperatures of 290 degrees to 470 degrees Fahrenheit, and meeting Military Specification MIL-T-5624L (Grade JP-4). It is used primarily for military turbojet and turboprop aircraft engines because it has a lower freeze point than other aviation fuels and meets engine requirements at high altitudes and speeds. Note: Beginning with January 2004 data, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Other Oils".
    Natural Gas Plant Liquids (NGPLs) Those hydrocarbons in natural gas that are separated as liquids at natural gas processing plants, fractionating and cycling plants, and, in some instances, field facilities. Lease condensate is excluded. Products obtained include ethane; liquefied petroleum gases (propane, butanes, propane-butane mixtures, ethane-propane mixtures); isopentane; and other small quantities of finished products, such as motor gasoline, special naphthas, jet fuel, kerosene, and distillate fuel oil.
    Net Imports Imports minus exports.
    OPRG "Oxygenated Fuels Program Reformulated Gasoline" is reformulated gasoline which is intended for use in an oxygenated fuels program control area.
    Operable Capacity The amount of capacity that, at the beginning of the period, is in operation; not in operation and not under active repair, but capable of being placed in operation within 30 days; or not in operation but under active repair that can be completed within 90 days. Operable capacity is the sum of the operating and idle capacity and is measured in barrels per calendar day or barrels per stream day.
    Other Oils Includes aviation gasoline, kerosene, natural gas plant liquids and LRGs (except propane/propylene), unfinished oils, other hydrocarbons and oxygenates (except fuel ethanol), aviation gasoline blending components, naphtha and other oils for petrochemical feedstock use, special naphthas, lube oils, waxes, coke, asphalt, road oil, and miscellaneous oils. Includes naphtha-type jet fuel beginning in 2004. Propane/propylene was included with other oils prior to 2004. Ethanol was included with other oils prior to June 4, 2010. Other oils stocks includes unfinished oils beginning on June 4, 2010.
    Oxygenated Gasoline (Including Gasohol) Oxygenated gasoline includes all finished motor gasoline, other than reformulated gasoline, having oxygen content of 2.0 percent or higher by weight. Gasohol containing a minimum 5.7 percent ethanol by volume is included in oxygenated gasoline. Oxygenated gasoline was reported as a separate product from January 1993 until December 2003 inclusive. Beginning with monthly data for January 2004, oxygenated gasoline is included in conventional gasoline. Historical data for oxygenated gasoline excluded Federal Oxygenated Program Reformulated Gasoline (OPRG). Historical oxygenated gasoline data also excluded other reformulated gasoline with a seasonal oxygen requirement regardless of season.
    Oxygenates Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend. Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are common oxygenates.
  • Fuel Ethanol: Blends of up to 10 percent by volume anhydrous ethanol (200 proof) (commonly referred to as the "gasohol waiver").
  • Methanol: Blends of methanol and gasoline-grade tertiary butyl alcohol (GTBA) such that the total oxygen content does not exceed 3.5 percent by weight and the ratio of methanol to GTBA is less than or equal to 1. It is also specified that this blended fuel must meet ASTM volatility specifications (commonly referred to as the "ARCO" waiver).
    Blends of up to 5.0 percent by volume methanol with a minimum of 2.5 percent by volume cosolvent alcohols having a carbon number of 4 or less (i.e., ethanol, propanol, butanol, and/or GTBA). The total oxygen must not exceed 3.7 percent by weight, and the blend must meet ASTM volatility specifications as well as phase separation and alcohol purity specifications (commonly referred to as the "DuPont" waiver).
  • MTBE (Methyl tertiary butyl ether): Blends up to 15.0 percent by volume MTBE which must meet the ASTM D4814 specifications. Blenders must take precautions that the blends are not used as base gasolines for other oxygenated blends (commonly referred to as the "Sun" waiver).
  • Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) Districts Geographic aggregations of the 50 States and the District of Columbia into five districts by the Petroleum Administration for Defense in 1950. These districts were originally defined during World War II for purposes of administering oil allocation. Description and maps of PAD Districts and Refining Districts.
    Percent Utilization Represents the utilization of all crude oil distillation units. The rate is calculated by dividing gross inputs to these units by the operating/operable refining capacity of the unit.
    Petroleum Products Petroleum products are obtained from the processing of crude oil (including lease condensate), natural gas, and other hydrocarbon compounds. Petroleum products include unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type jet fuel, kerosene, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, lubricants, waxes, petroleum coke, asphalt, road oil, still gas, and miscellaneous products.
    Ppm Parts per million.
    Product Supplied Approximately represents consumption of petroleum products because it measures the disappearance of these products from primary sources, i.e., refineries, natural gas processing plants, blending plants, pipelines, and bulk terminals. In general, product supplied of each product in any given period is computed as follows: field production, plus refinery production, plus imports, plus unaccounted for crude oil, (plus net receipts when calculated on a PAD District basis), minus stock change, minus crude oil losses, minus refinery inputs, minus exports.
    Production Petroleum products produced at a refinery, natural gas processing plant, or blending plant. Published production equals production minus input. Negative production will occur when the amount of a product produced during the reporting period is less than the amount of that same product that is reprocessed (input) or reclassified to become another product during the same reporting period.
    Propane (C3H8) A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils at a temperature of - 43.67 degrees Fahrenheit. It is extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams. It includes all products designated in ASTM Specification D1835 and Gas Processors Association Specifications for commercial propane and HD-5 propane.
    Propylene (C3H6) An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes or petrochemical processes.
    Propylene (C3H6) (nonfuel use) Propylene intended for use in nonfuel applications such as petrochemical manufacturing. Nonfuel propylene includes chemical-grade propylene, polymer-grade propylene, and trace amounts of propane. Nonfuel propylene also includes the propylene component of propane/propylene mixes where the propylene will be separated from the mix in a propane/propylene splitting process. Nonfuel propylene excludes the propylene component of propane/propylene mixes where the propylene component of the mix is intended for use as fuel.
    RBOB for Blending with Alcohol Motor gasoline blending components intended to be blended with an alcohol component (e.g. fuel ethanol) at a terminal or refinery to raise the oxygen content.
    RBOB for Blending with Ether Motor gasoline blending components intended to be blended with an ether component (e.g. methyl tertiary butyl ether) at a terminal or refinery to raise the oxygen content.
    Refinery An installation that manufactures finished petroleum products from crude oil, unfinished oils, natural gas liquids, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates.
    Refinery Input, Crude Oil Total crude oil (domestic plus foreign) input to crude oil distillation units and other refinery processing units (cokers, etc.).
    Refinery Input, Total The raw materials and intermediate materials processed at refineries to produce finished petroleum products. They include crude oil, products of natural gas processing plants, unfinished oils, other hydrocarbons and oxygenates, motor gasoline and aviation gasoline blending components and finished petroleum products.
    Reformulated (Blended with Alcohol) Reformulated gasoline blended with an alcohol component (e.g. fuel ethanol) at a terminal or refinery to raise the oxygen content.
    Reformulated (Blended with Ether) Reformulated gasoline blended with an ether component (e.g. methyl tertiary butyl ether) at a terminal or refinery to raise the oxygen content.
    Reformulated (Non-Oxygenated) Reformulated gasoline without added ether or alcohol components.
    Reformulated Blendstock for Oxgenate Blending (RBOB) Motor gasoline blending components intended for blending with oxygenates to produce finished reformulated motor gasoline.
    Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) Finished gasoline formulated for use in motor vehicles, the composition and properties of which meet the requirements of the reformulated gasoline regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under Section 211(k) of the Clean Air Act. It includes gasoline produced to meet or exceed emissions performance and benzene content standards of federal-program reformulated gasoline even though the gasoline may not meet all of the composition requirements (e.g. oxygen content) of federal-program reformulated gasoline. Reformulated gasoline excludes Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending (RBOB) and Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB). Historical reformulated gasoline statistics included Oxygenated Fuels Program Reformulated Gasoline (OPRG).
    Residual Fuel Oil A general classification for the heavier oils, known as No. 5 and No. 6 fuel oils, that remain after the distillate fuel oils and lighter hydrocarbons are distilled away in refinery operations. It conforms to ASTM Specifications D396 and D975 and Federal Specification VV-F-815C. No. 5, a residual fuel oil of medium viscosity, is also known as Navy Special and is defined in Military Specification MIL-F-859E, including Amendment 2 (NATO Symbol F-770). It is used in steam-powered vessels in government service and inshore powerplants. No. 6 fuel oil includes Bunker C fuel oil and is used for the production of electric power, space heating, vessel bunkering, and various industrial purposes.
    Road Oil Any heavy petroleum oil, including residual asphaltic oil used as a dust pallative and surface treatment on roads and highways. It is generally produced in six grades from 0, the most liquid, to 5, the most viscous.
    Stocks Inventories of fuel stored for future use. Stocks are reported as of the last day of the period (e.g., week or month).
    Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Petroleum stocks maintained by the Federal Government for use during periods of major supply interruption.
    Sulfur A yellowish nonmetallic element, sometimes known as "brimstone." It is present at various levels of concentration in many fossil fuels.
    Total Motor Gasoline Includes finished motor gasoline and motor gasoline blending components.
    Ultra-Low Sulfur Distillate Fuel Oil Distillate fuel oil having sulfur content of 15 ppm or lower. Ultra-low sulfur distillate fuel oil that will be shipped by pipeline must satisfy the sulfur specification of the shipping pipeline if the pipeline specification is below 15 ppm. Distillate fuel oil intended for pipeline shipment that fails to meet a pipeline sulfur specification that is below 15 ppm will be classified as low-sulfur distillate fuel oil.
    Unfinished Oils All oils requiring further processing, except those requiring only mechanical blending. Unfinished oils are produced by partial refining of crude oil and include naphthas and lighter oils, kerosene and light gas oils, heavy gas oils, and residuum.

    For definitions of related energy terms, refer to the EIA Energy Glossary.

      Sources

  • Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-800, "Weekly Refinery Report".
  • Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-801, "Weekly Bulk Terminal Report".
  • Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-802, "Weekly Product Pipeline Report".
  • Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-803, "Weekly Crude Oil Stocks Report".
  • Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-804, "Weekly Imports Report".
  • Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-805, "Weekly Terminal Blenders Report".
  • Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-809, "Weekly Oxygenate Report".
  • EIA Forms & Instructions .
  • Explanatory Notes and Detailed Methods Report .

  •   Explanatory Notes

  • Domestic crude oil production includes lease condensate.
  • Operable capacity is based on the latest reported monthly data.
  • Percent Utilization is calculated as gross inputs divided by the latest reported monthly operable capacity (using unrounded numbers).
  • Finished motor gasoline production and product supplied includes a weekly adjustment applied only to the U.S. total to correct for the imbalance created by blending of fuel ethanol and motor gasoline blending components. From 1993 to June 4, 2010, this adjustment was estimated from the latest monthly data and allocated to formulation and PAD District production data.
  • Reformulated and conventional gasoline production excludes adjustments for fuel ethanol and motor gasoline blending components. Historical data prior to June 4, 2010 includes the adjustment allocated by PAD District formulation.
  • The finished motor gasoline adjustment is to correct for the imbalance created by the blending of fuel ethanol and motor gasoline blending components. For details see Explanatory Notes and Detailed Methods Report.
  • Commercial and military kerosene jet fuel production is only collected from refiners and may not total to total kerosene jet fuel production.
  • Propane/propylene includes production from natural gas plants.
  • Stocks include those domestic and Customs-cleared foreign stocks held at, or in transit to, refineries and bulk terminals, and stocks in pipelines. Stocks held at natural gas processing plants are included in "Other Oils" and in totals. All stock levels are as of the end of the period.
  • Crude oil stocks include those domestic and Customs-cleared foreign crude oil stocks held at refineries, in pipelines, in lease tanks, and in transit to refineries.
  • Crude oil stocks for Cushing include domestic and foreign crude oil stocks held in tank farms in Lincoln, Payne, and Creek counties in Oklahoma. Cushing, Oklahoma, is the designated delivery point for NYMEX crude oil futures contracts.
  • Alaska in-transit crude oil stocks include crude oil stocks in-transit by water between Alaska and the other States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as stocks held at transshipment terminals.
  • SPR crude oil stocks include non-U.S. stocks held under foreign or commercial storage agreements.
  • Total stocks do not include distillate fuel oil stocks located in the "Northeast Heating Oil Reserve." More details.
  • Nonfuel use propylene stock data are collected from bulk terminal facilities only.
  • Other oils stocks include weekly data for NGPLs and LRGs (except propane/propylene), kerosene, and asphalt and road oil; and estimated stocks of minor products based on monthly data.
  • Prior to June 4, 2010, commercial crude oil imports included "Imports into SPR by Others."
  • Imports and stocks of RBOB with Ether and RBOB with Alcohol are discontinued as of the week ending June 4, 2010 reporting period.
  • Exports are estimated.
  • Crude oil exports are restricted to: (1) crude oil derived from fields under the State waters of Alaska’s Cook Inlet; (2) Alaskan North Slope crude oil; (3) certain domestically produced crude oil destined for Canada; (4) shipments to U.S. territories; and (5) California crude oil to Pacific Rim countries.
  • Other Oil Exports equals Total Exports less the exports of Finished Motor Gasoline, Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel, Distillate Fuel Oil, Residual Fuel Oil, and Propane/Propylene.
  • Other Oil Product Supplied equals Total Product Supplied less the product supplied of Finished Motor Gasoline, Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel, Distillate Fuel Oil, Residual Fuel Oil, and Propane/Propylene.
  • Some data are estimated. See Appendix A: Explanatory Notes from the Weekly Petroleum Status Report for details.
  • Due to independent rounding, individual product detail may not add to total.