||A dark-brown-to-black cement-like material containing bitumens as the predominant constituent
obtained by petroleum processing; used primarily for road construction. It includes crude
asphalt as well as the following finished products: cements, fluxes, the asphalt content of
emulsions (exclusive of water), and petroleum distillates blended with asphalt to make
cutback asphalts. Note: The conversion factor for asphalt is 5.5 barrels per short ton.
||A unit of volume equal to 42 U.S. gallons.
|Biomass-Based Diesel Fuel
||Biodiesel and other renewable diesel fuel or diesel fuel blending components derived from biomass, but excluding renewable diesel fuel coprocessed with petroleum feedstocks.
||A normally gaseous straight-chain or branch-chain hydrocarbon extracted from natural gas or refinery
gas streams. It includes isobutane and normal butane and is designated in ASTM Specification
D1835 and Gas Processors Association Specifications for commercial butane.
||An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes.
||Finished motor gasoline not included in the oxygenated or reformulated gasoline categories.
Excludes reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB)
as well as other blendstock.
||A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground
reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through
surface separating facilities. Depending upon the characteristics of the crude
stream, it may also include:
Small amounts of hydrocarbons that exist in gaseous phase in natural
underground reservoirs but are liquid at atmospheric pressure after being
recovered from oil well (casinghead) gas in lease separators and are subsequently
commingled with the crude stream without being separately measured. Lease
condensate recovered as a liquid from natural gas wells in lease or field
separation facilities and later mixed into the crude stream is also included;
Small amounts of nonhydrocarbons produced with the oil, such as sulfur and
Drip gases, and liquid hydrocarbons produced from tar sands, oil sands,
gilsonite, and oil shale.
Liquids produced at natural gas processing plants are excluded. Crude oil is refined to produce
a wide array of petroleum products, including heating oils; gasoline, diesel and jet fuels;
lubricants; asphalt; ethane, propane, and butane; and many other products used for their
energy or chemical content.
|Distillate Fuel Oil
||A general classification for one of the petroleum fractions produced in conventional distillation
operations. It includes diesel fuels and fuel oils. Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and
No. 4 diesel fuel are used in on-highway diesel engines, such as those in trucks and automobiles,
as well as off-highway engines, such as those in railroad locomotives and agricultural machinery.
Products known as No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 fuel oils are used primarily for space heating and
electric power generation.
|Finished Motor Gasoline
||A complex mixture of relatively volatile hydrocarbons with or without small quantities of
additives, blended to form a fuel suitable for use in spark-ignition engines. Motor gasoline,
as defined in ASTM Specification D 4814 or Federal Specification VV-G-1690C, is characterized
as having a boiling range of 122 to 158 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10 percent recovery point to
365 to 374 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90 percent recovery point. Motor Gasoline includes
conventional gasoline; all types of oxygenated gasoline, including gasohol; and
reformulated gasoline, but excludes aviation gasoline. Note: Volumetric data on blending
components, such as oxygenates, are not counted in data on finished motor gasoline until
the blending components are blended into the gasoline.
||An anhydrous denatured aliphatic alcohol intended for gasoline blending as
described in Oxygenates definition.
||A light petroleum distillate that is used in space heaters, cook stoves, and water heaters
and is suitable for use as a light source when burned in wick-fed lamps. Kerosene has a
maximum distillation temperature of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10-percent recovery point,
a final boiling point of 572 degrees Fahrenheit, and a minimum flash point of 100 degrees
Fahrenheit. Included are No. 1-K and No. 2-K, the two grades recognized by ASTM Specification
D 3699 as well as all other grades of kerosene called range or stove oil, which have properties
similar to those of No. 1 fuel oil. See Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel.
|Kerosene-Type Jet Fuel
||A kerosene-based product having a maximum distillation temperature of 400 degrees Fahrenheit at
the 10-percent recovery point and a final maximum boiling point of 572 degrees Fahrenheit
and meeting ASTM Specification D 1655 and Military Specifications MIL-T-5624P and MIL-T-83133D
(Grades JP-5 and JP-8). It is used for commercial
and military turbojet and turboprop aircraft engines.
|Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG)
||A group of hydrocarbon-based gases derived from crude oil refining or nautral gas fractionation.
They include: ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, normal butane, butylene, isobutane, and
isobutylene. For convenience of transportation, these gases are liquefied through pressurization.
||Substances used to reduce friction between bearing surfaces or as process materials
either incorporated into other materials used as processing aids in the manufacture of
other products, or used as carriers of other materials. Petroleum lubricants may be produced
either from distillates or residues. Lubricants include all grades of lubricating oils from
spindle oil to cylinder oil and those used in greases.
|Motor Gasoline Blending Components (MGBC)
||Naphthas (e.g., straight-run gasoline, alkylate, reformate, benzene, toluene, xylene) used for
blending or compounding into finished motor gasoline. These components include reformulated
gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB) but exclude oxygenates (alcohols, ethers),
butane, and pentanes plus. Note: Oxygenates are reported as individual components and are
included in the total for other hydrocarbons, hydrogens, and oxygenates.
|MTBE (Methyl tertiary butyl ether)
||An ether intended for gasoline blending as described in "Oxygenates."
|Normal Butane (C4H10)
||A normally gaseous straight chain hydrocarbon that is a colorless paraffinic gas which boils at a
temperature of 31.1 degrees Fahrenheit.
||Includes tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and other
aliphatic alcohols and ethers intended for motor gasoline blending (e.g., isopropyl
ether (IPE) or n-propanol).
||Includes ethane/ethylene, isobutane/isobutylene, pentanes plus, other hydrocarbons,
hydrogen, unfinished oils, finished aviation gasoline, special naphthas, wax,
petroleum coke, still gas, petrochemical feedstocks and miscellaneous products.
||Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline blend.
Ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol
are common oxygenates.
Fuel Ethanol: Blends of up to 10 percent by volume anhydrous ethanol (200 proof) (commonly referred to as the
Methanol: Blends of methanol and gasoline-grade tertiary butyl alcohol (GTBA) such that the total oxygen content
does not exceed 3.5 percent by weight and the ratio of methanol to GTBA is less than or equal to 1. It is also
specified that this blended fuel must meet ASTM volatility specifications (commonly referred to as the "ARCO"
Blends of up to 5.0 percent by volume methanol with a minimum of 2.5 percent by volume cosolvent alcohols having a carbon number of 4 or less (i.e., ethanol, propanol, butanol, and/or GTBA). The total oxygen must not exceed 3.7 percent by weight, and the blend must meet ASTM volatility specifications as well as phase separation and alcohol purity specifications (commonly referred to as the "DuPont" waiver).
MTBE (Methyl tertiary butyl ether): Blends up to 15.0 percent by volume MTBE which must meet the ASTM D4814
specifications. Blenders must take precautions that the blends are not used as base gasolines for other
oxygenated blends (commonly referred to as the "Sun" waiver).
|Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) Districts
||Geographic aggregations of the 50 States and the District of Columbia into five districts
by the Petroleum Administration for Defense in 1950. These districts were originally defined
during World War II for purposes of administering oil allocation.
Description and maps of PAD Districts and Refining Districts.
||Petroleum products are obtained from the processing of crude oil (including lease condensate),
natural gas, and other hydrocarbon compounds. Petroleum products include unfinished oils,
liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet
fuel, kerosene-type jet fuel, kerosene, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petrochemical
feedstocks, special naphthas, lubricants, waxes, petroleum coke, asphalt, road oil, still gas,
and miscellaneous products.
||A normally gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. It is a colorless paraffinic gas that boils
at a temperature of -43.67o F. It is extracted from natural gas or refinery gas streams.
It includes all products designated in ASTM Specification D1835 and Gas Processors Association
Specifications for commercial propane and HD-5 propane.
||An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery processes or petrochemical processes.
||An installation that manufactures finished petroleum products from crude oil, unfinished oils,
natural gas liquids, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates.
||Finished motor gasoline formulated for use in motor vehicles, the composition and properties
of which meet the requirements of the reformulated gasoline regulations promulgated by the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under Section 211(k) of the Clean Air Act.
This category includes oxygenated fuels program reformulated gasoline (OPRG) but excludes
reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending (RBOB).
|Renewable Diesel Fuel
||Diesel fuel and diesel fuel blending components produced from renewable sources that are coprocessed with
petroleum feedstocks and meet requirements of advanced biofuels.
|Renewable Fuels (Other)
||Fuels and fuel blending components, except biomass-based diesel fuel, renewable diesel fuel, and fuel
ethanol, produced from renewable biomass.
|Residual Fuel Oil
||A general classification for the heavier oils, known as No. 5 and No. 6 fuel oils, that remain
after the distillate fuel oils and lighter hydrocarbons are distilled away in refinery
operations. It conforms to ASTM Specifications D 396 and D 975 and Federal Specification
VV-F-815C. No. 5, a residual fuel oil of medium viscosity, is also known as Navy Special
and is defined in Military Specification MIL-F-859E, including Amendment 2 (NATO Symbol F-770).
It is used in steam-powered vessels in government service and inshore powerplants.
No. 6 fuel oil includes Bunker C fuel oil and is used for the production of electric power,
space heating, vessel bunkering, and various industrial purposes.
||Any heavy petroleum oil, including residual asphaltic oil used as a dust pallative and surface
treatment on roads and highways. It is generally produced in six grades from 0, the most liquid,
to 5, the most viscous.
|Shell Storage Capacity
||The design capacity of a petroleum storage tank which is always greater than or
equal to working storage capacity.
||A yellowish nonmetallic element, sometimes known as "brimstone." It is present at various
levels of concentration in many fossil fuels.