Released: Dec 2006
Next CBECS will be conducted in 2007


Table C1. Total Energy Consumption by Major Fuel for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003
  All Buildings* Total Energy Consumption (trillion Btu)
Number of Buildings (thousand) Floorspace (million
square feet)
Sum of
Major
Fuels
Electricity Natural
Gas
Fuel
Oil
District
Heat
Primary Site
All Buildings* ............................... 4,645 64,783 5,820 9,168 3,037 1,928 222 634
Building Floorspace
(Square Feet)
1,001 to 5,000 ................................ 2,552 6,789 672 1,164 386 250 34 Q
5,001 to 10,000 .............................. 889 6,585 516 790 262 209 36 Q
10,001 to 25,000 ............................ 738 11,535 776 1,229 407 309 27 Q
25,001 to 50,000 ............................ 241 8,668 673 1,058 350 258 16 Q
50,001 to 100,000 .......................... 129 9,057 759 1,223 405 244 26 Q
100,001 to 200,000 ........................ 65 9,064 934 1,458 483 249 37 165
200,001 to 500,000 ........................ 25 7,176 725 1,090 361 205 36 123
Over 500,000 ................................. 7 5,908 766 1,157 383 204 10 169
Principal Building Activity
Education ....................................... 386 9,874 820 1,121 371 268 47 134
Food Sales ..................................... 226 1,255 251 629 208 39 Q N
Food Service ................................. 297 1,654 427 654 217 203 Q Q
Health Care .................................... 129 3,163 594 748 248 243 11 Q
  Inpatient ....................................... 8 1,905 475 539 178 204 9 Q
  Outpatient .................................... 121 1,258 119 209 69 38 Q Q
Lodging .......................................... 142 5,096 510 709 235 215 35 Q
Retail (Other Than Mall).................. 443 4,317 319 637 211 91 Q Q
Office ............................................. 824 12,208 1,134 2,170 719 269 18 128
Public Assembly ............................ 277 3,939 370 506 167 102 29 Q
Public Order and Safety ................ 71 1,090 126 172 57 29 8 Q
Religious Worship .......................... 370 3,754 163 188 62 82 18 Q
Service .......................................... 622 4,050 312 451 149 139 Q Q
Warehouse and Storage ............... 597 10,078 456 738 244 132 9 Q
Other .............................................. 79 1,738 286 401 133 87 Q Q
Vacant ........................................... 182 2,567 54 46 15 28 Q Q
Year Constructed
Before 1920 ................................... 330 3,769 302 271 90 143 38 Q
1920 to 1945 .................................. 527 6,871 620 626 208 229 54 129
1946 to 1959 .................................. 562 7,045 565 696 231 216 48 Q
1960 to 1969 .................................. 579 8,101 737 989 327 255 Q 117
1970 to 1979 .................................. 731 10,772 1,023 1,726 572 351 22 77
1980 to 1989 .................................. 707 10,332 1,034 1,892 627 291 9 Q
1990 to 1999 .................................. 876 12,360 1,098 2,082 690 314 9 Q
2000 to 2003 .................................. 334 5,533 441 884 293 127 Q Q
Census Region and Division
Northeast ....................................... 726 12,905 1,271 1,519 503 428 175 165
  New England ............................... 233 2,964 294 326 108 75 69 Q
  Middle Atlantic .............................. 493 9,941 978 1,192 395 353 106 Q
Midwest ......................................... 1,266 17,080 1,690 2,224 737 705 24 225
  East North Central ........................ 696 11,595 1,254 1,580 524 528 Q 192
  West North Central ...................... 571 5,485 436 643 213 177 Q Q
South ............................................. 1,775 23,489 1,948 3,858 1,278 474 14 182
  South Atlantic .............................. 874 12,258 1,064 2,166 717 217 13 117
  East South Central ....................... 348 3,393 309 515 171 102 1 Q
  West South Central ...................... 553 7,837 575 1,177 390 156 1 Q
West .............................................. 878 11,310 911 1,568 519 320 9 Q
  Mountain ...................................... 299 3,675 381 576 191 167 Q Q
  Pacific .......................................... 580 7,635 530 992 329 153 4 Q
Climate Zone: 30-Year Average
Under 2,000 CDD and --
  More than 7,000 HDD ................... 855 10,622 990 1,232 408 431 63 88
  5,500-7,000 HDD ......................... 1,173 17,335 1,761 2,305 763 679 63 255
  4,000-5,499 HDD ......................... 673 11,504 1,134 1,713 567 337 90 140
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ................ 1,276 15,739 1,213 2,259 748 358 6 101
2,000 CDD or More and --
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ................ 669 9,584 724 1,659 549 122 1 Q
Number of Floors
One ................................................ 3,136 25,981 1,937 3,442 1,140 664 47 Q
Two ............................................... 1,031 16,270 1,311 2,080 689 491 69 Q
Three ............................................. 339 7,501 619 863 286 241 39 Q
Four to Nine ................................... 128 10,085 1,336 1,796 595 378 55 308
Ten or More ................................... 12 4,947 617 987 327 154 13 123
Elevators and Escalators
(more than one may apply)
Any Elevators ................................ 309 24,617 2,826 4,289 1,421 830 84 491
Number of Elevators
  One .............................................. 208 8,221 732 1,069 354 244 23 111
  Two to Five .................................. 88 10,129 1,157 1,767 585 333 46 194
  Six or More .................................. 13 6,268 937 1,453 481 254 16 186
Any Escalators .............................. 6 2,350 282 583 193 61 Q Q
Number of Workers (main shift)
Fewer than 5 ................................. 2,653 15,492 817 1,122 372 272 69 Q
5 to 9 .............................................. 778 6,166 468 749 248 198 17 Q
10 to 19 .......................................... 563 7,803 594 915 303 242 33 Q
20 to 49 .......................................... 398 10,989 1,050 1,581 524 395 36 96
50 to 99 .......................................... 147 7,934 728 1,218 403 241 27 Q
100 to 249 ...................................... 77 6,871 838 1,388 460 235 19 124
250 or More ................................... 30 9,528 1,325 2,195 727 344 22 232
Weekly Operating Hours
Fewer than 40 ............................... 1,002 6,863 228 272 90 107 15 Q
40 to 48 .......................................... 1,117 11,622 773 1,199 397 249 58 Q
49 to 60 .......................................... 1,062 15,723 1,179 1,805 598 374 32 176
61 to 84 .......................................... 591 10,334 924 1,500 497 314 40 73
85 to 167 ........................................ 400 7,092 889 1,579 523 257 18 91
Open Continuously ........................ 475 13,149 1,827 2,813 932 626 59 210
Ownership and Occupancy
Nongovernment Owned ................ 4,011 49,421 4,203 6,944 2,300 1,503 154 247
  Owner Occupied ......................... 1,841 23,591 2,060 3,280 1,086 708 81 185
  Nonowner Occupied ................... 2,029 23,914 2,115 3,639 1,205 779 72 Q
  Unoccupied .................................. 141 1,916 Q 25 8 Q Q Q
Government Owned ...................... 635 15,363 1,617 2,224 737 425 69 387
  Federal ......................................... 46 1,956 303 395 131 35 Q Q
  State ............................................ 164 3,808 513 616 204 98 23 188
  Local ............................................ 425 9,599 800 1,213 402 291 39 Q
Vacancy Status
Completely Vacant ......................... 157 2,161 37 28 9 18 Q Q
Mostly Vacant ................................ 25 406 Q Q Q Q Q N
Partially Vacant .............................. 548 12,382 1,086 1,736 575 318 30 164
Not At All Vacant ........................... 3,915 49,834 4,681 7,386 2,446 1,582 191 461
Number of Establishments
One ................................................ 3,754 45,144 4,167 6,454 2,138 1,462 183 384
2 to 5 .............................................. 643 10,960 992 1,517 502 307 28 156
6 to 10 ............................................ 55 1,958 216 348 115 48 Q Q
11 to 20 .......................................... 23 1,951 152 295 98 34 Q Q
More than 20 .................................. 14 2,609 257 526 174 58 Q Q
Currently Unoccupied .................... 157 2,161 37 28 9 18 Q Q
Predominant Exterior
Wall Material
Brick, Stone or Stucco ................... 2,044 32,817 3,186 4,549 1,507 1,127 144 408
Concrete (Block or Poured) ........... 786 10,832 974 1,599 530 351 24 Q
Concrete Panels ............................ 131 6,559 667 1,205 399 180 Q Q
Siding or Shingles .......................... 779 4,120 276 452 150 85 41 Q
Metal Panels ................................... 825 7,912 463 897 297 130 8 Q
Window Glass ............................... 17 1,024 95 201 67 14 0 Q
Other .............................................. 47 1,113 121 190 63 35 Q Q
No One Major Type ........................ 18 406 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant Roof Material
Built-Up .......................................... 1,036 21,170 2,083 3,143 1,041 743 37 263
Shingles (Not Wood) ...................... 1,325 10,195 823 1,247 413 310 63 Q
Metal Surfacing .............................. 1,288 11,944 630 1,184 392 194 21 Q
Synthetic or Rubber ....................... 511 14,730 1,649 2,686 890 542 46 171
Slate or Tile .................................... 263 2,462 207 313 104 67 12 Q
Wooden Materials .......................... 122 887 68 111 37 21 Q Q
Concrete ........................................ 61 2,231 236 299 99 24 Q Q
Other .............................................. 16 598 Q 125 41 Q Q Q
No One Major Type ........................ 25 565 40 61 20 16 Q Q
Renovations in Buildings
Constructed Before 1980
(more than one may apply)
Any Type of Renovation
 Since 1980 .................................... 1,018 17,844 1,766 2,356 780 684 105 197
   Addition or Annex ....................... 256 6,551 733 951 315 304 Q Q
   Reduction In Floorspace ............. 22 1,012 117 158 52 52 Q Q
   Cosmetic Improvements .............. 741 13,119 1,317 1,812 600 497 77 143
   Wall or Roof Replacement .......... 370 8,070 777 1,046 347 278 54 99
   Interior Wall
    Re-Configuration ........................ 411 8,518 911 1,212 401 342 44 124
   HVAC Equipment Upgrade .......... 442 10,768 1,156 1,591 527 467 34 128
   Lighting Upgrade ......................... 455 10,275 1,085 1,442 478 397 53 157
   Window Replacement ................. 310 6,354 613 757 251 242 50 Q
   Plumbing System Upgrade .......... 315 7,144 748 947 314 287 45 103
   Insulation Upgrade ...................... 227 4,015 381 526 174 132 21 Q
   Other Renovation ........................ 19 523 50 49 16 26 Q Q
No Renovations Since 1980 .......... 1,710 18,714 1,482 1,953 647 512 94 229
Building Newer than 1980 ............. 1,917 28,225 2,573 4,859 1,609 732 23 208
Energy Sources (more than
one may apply)
Electricity ....................................... 4,404 63,307 5,820 9,168 3,037 1,927 222 634
Natural Gas .................................... 2,391 43,468 4,492 6,524 2,161 1,928 99 305
Fuel Oil ........................................... 451 15,157 1,760 2,578 854 507 222 177
District Heat ................................... 67 5,443 1,017 1,011 335 47 1 634
District Chilled Water ...................... 33 2,853 538 580 192 35 2 309
Propane ......................................... 502 7,076 584 1,022 339 106 54 Q
Other .............................................. 132 1,401 139 233 77 47 Q Q
Space-Heating Energy Sources
(more than one may apply)
Electricity ....................................... 1,766 28,600 2,373 4,696 1,555 667 29 122
Natural Gas .................................... 2,165 36,959 3,682 5,401 1,789 1,803 30 Q
Fuel Oil ........................................... 360 5,988 591 588 195 176 212 Q
District Heat ................................... 65 5,198 994 967 320 39 1 633
Propane ......................................... 372 3,204 160 362 120 Q 11 Q
Other .............................................. 113 842 61 122 41 18 Q N
Primary Space-Heating
Energy Source
Electricity ....................................... 1,258 15,996 1,089 2,739 907 177 3 Q
Natural Gas .................................... 1,999 32,970 3,280 4,724 1,565 1,687 15 Q
Fuel Oil ........................................... 282 3,818 294 232 77 20 197 N
District Heat ................................... 63 4,907 951 935 310 23 1 618
Propane ......................................... 308 1,955 71 211 70 Q Q Q
Other .............................................. 72 382 19 47 16 Q Q N
Cooling Energy Sources
(more than one may apply)
Electricity ....................................... 3,589 54,321 5,021 8,386 2,778 1,762 174 307
Natural Gas .................................... 17 1,018 159 189 63 92 Q Q
District Chilled Water ...................... 33 2,853 538 580 192 35 2 309
Water-Heating Energy Sources
(more than one may apply)
Electricity ....................................... 1,910 27,490 2,145 4,146 1,373 522 84 167
Natural Gas .................................... 1,445 28,820 3,206 4,592 1,521 1,509 56 Q
Fuel Oil ........................................... 94 1,880 206 176 58 36 109 Q
District Heat ................................... 27 3,088 563 603 200 33 Q 329
Propane ......................................... 128 1,422 81 191 63 Q Q Q
Cooking Energy Sources
(more than one may apply)
Electricity ....................................... 410 13,161 1,579 2,561 848 538 47 146
Natural Gas .................................... 457 15,438 2,074 2,970 984 856 76 158
Propane ......................................... 108 1,460 114 240 80 Q 25 Q
Energy End Uses (more than
one may apply)
Buildings with Space Heating ........ 3,982 60,028 5,705 8,887 2,944 1,909 219 634
Buildings with Cooling .................... 3,625 56,940 5,464 8,855 2,933 1,821 176 535
Buildings with Water Heating ......... 3,472 56,478 5,498 8,732 2,892 1,870 213 523
Buildings with Cooking ................... 801 22,237 2,712 4,158 1,377 997 119 219
Buildings with Manufacturing ........ 119 3,138 254 426 141 100 7 Q
Buildings with Electricity
 Generation .................................... 149 12,821 1,693 2,687 890 534 31 237
Percent of Floorspace Heated
Not Heated ..................................... 663 4,756 115 281 93 Q Q Q
1 to 50 ............................................ 523 6,850 299 565 187 97 13 Q
51 to 99 .......................................... 498 8,107 746 1,193 395 268 26 57
100 ................................................. 2,962 45,071 4,660 7,129 2,361 1,544 180 575
Percent of Floorspace Cooled
Not Cooled ..................................... 1,020 7,843 356 312 104 107 46 Q
1 to 50 ............................................ 985 16,598 1,026 1,339 444 452 93 Q
51 to 99 .......................................... 629 13,211 1,413 2,252 746 451 45 171
100 ................................................. 2,011 27,132 3,026 5,265 1,744 918 38 326
Percent Lit When Open
Zero ............................................... 47 293 Q Q Q Q Q Q
1 to 50 ............................................ 929 10,203 540 679 225 224 50 Q
51 to 99 .......................................... 1,108 18,288 1,736 2,698 894 576 67 199
100 ................................................. 2,176 32,789 3,490 5,740 1,901 1,100 104 385
Building Never Open/
 Electricity Not Used ....................... 386 3,210 46 37 12 23 Q Q
Percent Lit When Closed
Zero ............................................... 1,964 17,385 1,132 1,639 543 395 48 Q
1 to 50 ............................................ 1,882 30,948 2,626 4,248 1,407 868 107 244
51 to 100 ........................................ 136 2,093 235 468 155 40 Q Q
Building Never Closed/
 Electricity Not Used ....................... 664 14,357 1,827 2,813 932 626 60 210
Heating Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Heat Pumps .................................... 476 8,814 805 1,578 523 224 6 Q
  Packaged Heat Pumps ................. 278 5,442 523 1,085 359 140 3 Q
  Split-System Heat Pumps ............. 166 2,581 198 410 136 42 Q Q
  Individual Room Heat Pumps ........ 58 2,691 255 448 148 84 Q Q
Furnaces ....................................... 1,864 19,615 1,493 2,298 761 673 50 Q
Individual Space Heaters ............... 819 12,545 1,024 1,701 563 379 31 50
District Heat ................................... 65 5,166 986 958 317 39 1 628
Boilers ............................................ 579 20,423 2,244 3,045 1,009 1,040 171 Q
Packaged Heating Units ................. 953 18,021 1,729 3,195 1,058 582 17 Q
Other .............................................. 205 3,262 231 508 168 47 5 Q
Cooling Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Residential-Type Central
 Air Conditioners ............................ 1,006 11,035 924 1,375 455 391 56 Q
Heat Pumps .................................... 492 9,041 837 1,652 547 234 6 Q
  Packaged Heat Pumps ................. 288 5,426 529 1,086 360 145 Q Q
  Split-System Heat Pumps ............. 174 2,606 204 421 139 45 Q Q
  Individual Room Heat Pumps ........ 58 2,940 278 518 171 85 Q Q
Individual Air Conditioners ............. 742 12,558 1,080 1,445 479 410 99 91
District Chilled Water ...................... 33 2,853 538 580 192 35 2 309
Central Chillers ............................... 111 11,636 1,531 2,524 836 501 26 169
Packaged Air Conditioning
 Units .............................................. 1,613 29,969 2,862 4,765 1,578 1,090 85 110
Swamp Coolers ............................. 122 1,561 158 227 75 81 Q Q
Other .............................................. 40 1,232 142 225 75 52 Q Q
Main Equipment Replaced Since
1990 (more than one may apply)
Heating ........................................... 1,197 16,403 1,367 2,161 716 605 43 Q
Cooling ........................................... 1,356 20,995 1,949 2,947 976 779 103 91
Water Heating Equipment
Centralized System ........................ 2,513 34,671 3,432 5,310 1,759 1,226 161 286
Distributed System ......................... 785 11,540 835 1,458 483 254 31 Q
Combination of Centralized
 and Distributed System ................. 175 10,267 1,231 1,964 651 390 20 170
Lighting Equipment Types
(more than one may apply)
Incandescent ................................. 2,184 38,528 3,916 6,057 2,006 1,351 161 398
Standard Fluorescent .................... 3,943 59,688 5,644 8,909 2,951 1,865 214 614
Compact Fluorescent ..................... 941 27,571 3,208 5,027 1,665 1,025 98 419
High Intensity Discharge ................ 455 20,643 2,141 3,400 1,126 693 52 270
Halogen .......................................... 565 17,703 1,982 3,226 1,069 666 65 182
Other .............................................. 8 269 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Refrigeration Equipment
(more than one may apply)a
Any Refrigeration........................... 3,176 52,974 5,213 8,366 2,771 1,729 200 513
  Commercial Refrigeration ............. 1,007 26,768 3,336 5,397 1,788 1,124 126 299
    Walk-In Units .............................. 666 20,254 2,766 4,496 1,489 939 95 243
    Cases or Cabinets ..................... 825 20,424 2,703 4,349 1,441 910 95 257
  Residential-Type Units ................. 2,370 38,884 3,466 5,342 1,769 1,181 159 357
  Vending Machines ....................... 996 35,335 3,721 5,992 1,985 1,163 105 468
No Refrigeration ............................. 1,469 11,809 607 802 266 198 23 Q
Office Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Computers ..................................... 3,081 55,627 5,376 8,567 2,838 1,750 196 593
  With Flat Screen Monitors ............ 877 26,417 2,966 4,797 1,589 872 88 417
Dedicated Servers ......................... 1,175 36,338 3,760 6,143 2,035 1,190 105 431
Laser Printers ................................ 1,970 33,012 3,009 4,679 1,550 1,067 124 268
Inkjet Printers ................................. 1,420 32,210 3,302 5,495 1,820 1,041 74 368
FAX Machines ............................... 2,715 52,373 5,092 8,154 2,701 1,689 184 517
Photocopiers .................................. 1,939 46,257 4,466 7,128 2,361 1,429 155 521
Number of Computers
None .............................................. 1,565 9,156 444 601 199 178 27 Q
1 to 4 .............................................. 1,670 12,395 1,015 1,578 523 357 74 Q
5 to 9 .............................................. 559 7,179 546 826 274 249 15 Q
10 to 19 .......................................... 370 6,610 515 859 285 196 13 Q
20 to 49 .......................................... 255 7,414 707 1,233 408 232 15 Q
50 to 99 .......................................... 110 5,376 513 781 259 147 35 Q
100 to 249 ...................................... 79 6,690 714 1,111 368 208 17 121
250 or More ................................... 38 9,963 1,366 2,179 722 360 27 257
Number of Dedicated Servers
None .............................................. 3,471 28,445 2,060 3,025 1,002 738 118 203
1 to 4 .............................................. 1,060 24,116 2,234 3,520 1,166 809 74 184
5 to 9 .............................................. 58 3,864 405 756 250 112 14 Q
10 to 19 .......................................... 30 3,027 432 653 216 101 5 109
20 to 49 .......................................... 17 2,583 307 552 183 76 7 Q
50 or More ..................................... 10 2,748 382 662 219 91 5 Q
Number of Photocopiers
None .............................................. 2,706 18,526 1,355 2,040 676 498 68 Q
One ................................................ 1,250 15,475 1,130 1,792 593 429 55 Q
2 to 4 .............................................. 549 15,082 1,334 2,132 706 451 41 137
5 to 9 .............................................. 85 5,515 612 976 323 191 35 Q
10 or More ..................................... 54 10,185 1,389 2,229 738 359 25 268
Energy-Related Space Functions
(more than one may apply)
Commercial Food Preparation ........ 799 22,223 2,711 4,155 1,376 996 119 219
Activities with Large
 Amounts of Hot Water .................. 567 19,482 2,465 3,522 1,167 931 95 273
Separate Computer Area ............... 553 26,873 2,895 4,678 1,550 875 96 374
HVAC Conservation Features
(more than one may apply)
Variable Air-Volume System ......... 466 19,597 2,380 3,827 1,267 710 35 368
Economizer Cycle .......................... 508 21,108 2,589 4,251 1,408 805 42 334
HVAC Maintenance ....................... 2,581 51,163 5,170 8,161 2,703 1,659 196 612
Energy Management and
 Control System (EMCS) ................ 252 15,630 1,782 2,881 954 477 31 320
Window and Interior Lighting
Features (more than one
may apply)
Multipaned Windows ..................... 2,201 38,910 3,929 6,109 2,024 1,349 171 386
Tinted Window Glass .................... 1,323 29,887 3,098 5,077 1,682 947 44 425
Reflective Window Glass .............. 308 8,544 927 1,576 522 306 16 83
External Overhangs
 or Awnings ................................... 1,233 17,242 1,737 2,900 961 594 59 124
Skylights or Atriums ....................... 331 12,546 1,307 1,948 645 465 48 148
Daylighting Sensors ....................... 74 2,868 377 623 206 124 3 Q
Specular Reflectors ....................... 928 26,118 2,829 4,488 1,487 862 89 391
Electronic Ballasts ......................... 2,577 46,882 4,746 7,543 2,498 1,513 156 578
Energy Management and
 Control System (EMCS)
 For Lighting ................................... 60 4,781 538 939 311 133 6 Q
Equipment Usage Reduced
When Building Not In Full Use
(more than one may apply)a
Heating ........................................... 2,878 42,722 3,740 5,828 1,930 1,292 162 356
Cooling ........................................... 2,761 43,205 3,844 6,132 2,031 1,288 135 390
Lighting .......................................... 3,685 46,987 3,818 6,057 2,006 1,250 156 406
Office Equipment ........................... 1,504 19,397 1,465 2,177 721 476 92 Q
See "Guide to the Tables" or "Glossary" for further explanations of the terms used in this table. Both can be accessed from the CBECS web site - http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/.
 * Figures in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. Mall buildings add an estimated 213 thousand buildings comprising 6.9 billion square feet. In the 1999 CBECS, malls represented 6.6 percent of total consumption.
a The definition for one or more of these row items has changed and may not be directly comparable with past CBECS estimates. See "Guide to the Tables" for discussion of the differences.
Q=Data withheld because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent, or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N=No responding cases in sample that use the particular energy source.
Notes: ● Site electricity is the amount of electricity delivered to commercial buildings. Primary electricity, which is not included in the "Total of Major Fuels" category, is site electricity plus the conversion losses in the generation, transmission, and distribution processes. ● Statistics for the "Energy End Uses" category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. ● HVAC = Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. ● Due to rounding, data may not sum to totals.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Forms EIA-871A, C, and E of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.