Released: June 2006
Next CBECS will be conducted in 2007

Table B9. Year Constructed, Floorspace for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003
  Total Floorspace (million square feet)
All
Buildings*
Year Constructed
1919 or
Before
1920 to
1945
1946 to
1959
1960 to
1969
1970 to
1979
1980 to
1989
1990 to
1999
2000 to
2003
All Buildings* ............................... 64,783 3,769 6,871 7,045 8,101 10,772 10,332 12,360 5,533
Building Floorspace
(Square Feet)
1,001 to 5,000 ................................ 6,789 490 796 860 690 966 1,149 1,324 515
5,001 to 10,000 .............................. 6,585 502 827 643 865 1,332 721 1,209 486
10,001 to 25,000 ............................ 11,535 804 988 1,421 1,460 1,869 1,647 2,388 958
25,001 to 50,000 ............................ 8,668 677 838 935 1,234 1,720 1,174 1,352 739
50,001 to 100,000 .......................... 9,057 491 641 927 1,483 1,146 1,390 2,058 921
100,001 to 200,000 ........................ 9,064 Q 704 1,148 1,039 1,411 1,496 1,934 1,060
200,001 to 500,000 ........................ 7,176 Q 1,288 569 947 1,243 1,237 984 609
Over 500,000 ................................. 5,908 Q 790 541 382 1,085 1,518 1,111 Q
Principal Building Activity
Education ....................................... 9,874 410 1,036 1,744 1,665 1,410 1,284 1,546 778
Food Sales ..................................... 1,255 Q Q Q Q Q 188 281 Q
Food Service ................................. 1,654 281 138 194 Q 227 182 327 Q
Health Care .................................... 3,163 Q 203 445 395 754 522 578 185
  Inpatient ....................................... 1,905 Q Q 318 304 556 358 161 Q
  Outpatient .................................... 1,258 Q Q Q Q 197 164 416 Q
Lodging .......................................... 5,096 Q Q 276 744 840 980 807 489
Retail (Other Than Mall).................. 4,317 220 445 360 543 900 361 1,080 407
Office ............................................. 12,208 749 1,186 917 1,335 2,162 3,296 1,913 650
Public Assembly ............................ 3,939 323 353 780 408 594 448 734 301
Public Order and Safety ................ 1,090 Q Q Q Q Q Q 327 Q
Religious Worship .......................... 3,754 586 334 603 502 412 414 566 338
Service .......................................... 4,050 Q 473 440 447 996 511 777 263
Warehouse and Storage ............... 10,078 254 1,208 567 1,051 1,462 1,501 2,723 1,312
Other .............................................. 1,738 Q Q Q Q Q Q 492 Q
Vacant ........................................... 2,567 Q 465 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Census Region
Northeast ....................................... 12,905 1,406 2,504 2,094 1,737 1,723 1,374 1,370 698
Midwest ......................................... 17,080 1,552 2,099 2,027 2,229 3,237 1,949 2,746 1,240
South ............................................. 23,489 516 1,348 1,795 2,538 3,726 4,768 6,241 2,557
West .............................................. 11,310 295 920 1,128 1,597 2,086 2,241 2,004 1,038
Climate Zone: 30-Year Average
Under 2,000 CDD and --
  More than 7,000 HDD ................... 10,622 1,227 1088 1075 1,405 2,215 1031 1,838 742
  5,500-7,000 HDD ......................... 17,335 1,407 2,217 2,445 2,302 2,967 2,357 2,492 1,148
  4,000-5,499 HDD ......................... 11,504 731 1,960 1,388 1,509 1,729 1,673 1,602 912
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ................ 15,739 281 1,218 1,596 1,883 2,508 3,115 3,741 1,396
2,000 CDD or More and --
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ................ 9,584 Q 388 541 1,001 1,354 2,156 2,687 1,334
Number of Floors
One ................................................ 25,981 348 1,730 2,771 3,474 4,484 3,856 6,577 2,742
Two ............................................... 16,270 913 1,539 2,095 2,188 2,977 2,336 2,976 1,245
Three ............................................. 7,501 856 1,396 1,218 795 946 724 960 605
Four to Nine ................................... 10,085 1,393 1,525 485 1,013 1,570 1,924 1,485 690
Ten or More ................................... 4,947 Q 681 475 630 797 1,492 Q Q
Elevators and Escalators
(more than one may apply)
Any Elevators ................................ 24,617 1,624 2,976 1,989 2,914 3,790 4,941 4,093 2,290
Number of Elevators
  One .............................................. 8,221 588 998 806 1,164 1,103 981 1,687 893
  Two to Five .................................. 10,129 815 1,334 672 1,123 1,501 2,168 1,577 939
  Six or More .................................. 6,268 Q 644 512 626 1,187 1,792 830 Q
Any Escalators .............................. 2,350 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Number of Workers (main shift)
Fewer than 5 ................................. 15,492 1,262 2,211 1,897 1,967 2,456 1,625 2,644 1,431
5 to 9 .............................................. 6,166 524 608 634 642 1,016 1,035 1,206 500
10 to 19 .......................................... 7,803 481 1,053 896 825 1,331 889 1,565 763
20 to 49 .......................................... 10,989 713 909 1,536 1,408 1,886 1,274 2,289 973
50 to 99 .......................................... 7,934 400 668 712 1,201 1,092 1,432 1,557 871
100 to 249 ...................................... 6,871 Q 518 604 1,145 1,230 1,403 1,338 471
250 or More ................................... 9,528 Q 903 767 913 1,760 2,674 1,760 524
Weekly Operating Hours
Fewer than 40 ............................... 6,863 811 841 888 990 977 830 900 625
40 to 48 .......................................... 11,622 563 1,339 1,725 1,200 1,987 1,891 2,103 813
49 to 60 .......................................... 15,723 898 2,058 1,608 2,217 2,522 2,643 2,749 1,028
61 to 84 .......................................... 10,334 615 1,009 1,105 1,103 1,778 1,734 1,950 1,041
85 to 167 ........................................ 7,092 337 398 619 855 1,157 846 1,974 906
Open Continuously ........................ 13,149 545 1,227 1,100 1,735 2,351 2,388 2,684 1,120
Ownership and Occupancy
Nongovernment Owned ................ 49,421 3,119 4,879 4,994 5,660 8,167 8,564 9,529 4,508
  Owner Occupied ......................... 23,591 1,716 2,883 2,514 2,917 3,410 4,095 4,039 2,016
  Nonowner Occupied ................... 23,914 1,357 1,597 2,252 2,452 4,315 4,336 5,289 2,315
  Unoccupied .................................. 1,916 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Government Owned ...................... 15,363 650 1,992 2,050 2,441 2,605 1,768 2,830 1,025
  Federal ......................................... 1,956 Q Q Q 333 Q Q Q Q
  State ............................................ 3,808 Q 282 377 819 738 566 713 Q
  Local ............................................ 9,599 440 1,020 1,551 1,289 1,572 1,094 1,758 874
Vacancy Status
Completely Vacant ......................... 2,161 Q 465 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Mostly Vacant ................................ 406 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Partially Vacant .............................. 12,382 994 1,623 1,063 1,342 1,751 2,599 1,953 1,056
Not At All Vacant ........................... 49,834 2,519 4,784 5,629 6,283 8,568 7,581 10,197 4,272
Number of Establishments
One ................................................ 45,144 2,460 4,557 5,229 5,582 7,604 6,287 9,151 4,273
2 to 5 .............................................. 10,960 788 997 1,145 1,476 1,552 2,142 2,080 780
6 to 10 ............................................ 1,958 Q Q Q 306 297 387 Q Q
11 to 20 .......................................... 1,951 Q Q Q Q 277 491 Q Q
More than 20 .................................. 2,609 Q Q Q Q 600 882 Q Q
Currently Unoccupied .................... 2,161 Q 465 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant Exterior
Wall Material
Brick, Stone or Stucco ................... 32,817 2,987 5,611 4,324 4,157 4,469 4,435 4,960 1,874
Concrete (Block or Poured) ........... 10,832 178 784 1,734 1,936 1,964 1,546 1,615 1,075
Concrete Panels ............................ 6,559 Q Q Q 557 1,362 1,676 1,740 1059
Siding or Shingles .......................... 4,120 518 325 343 409 595 522 1,179 228
Metal Panels ................................... 7,912 Q Q 439 747 1,757 1,512 2,356 1016
Window Glass ............................... 1,024 N Q Q Q Q 289 Q Q
Other .............................................. 1,113 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No One Major Type ........................ 406 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant Roof Material
Built-Up .......................................... 21,170 1,202 2,825 2,619 3,154 3,875 3,538 3,020 937
Shingles (Not Wood) ...................... 10,195 1,171 878 1,298 1,304 1,415 1,450 1,829 849
Metal Surfacing .............................. 11,944 218 328 526 994 1,955 2,014 4,101 1,807
Synthetic or Rubber ....................... 14,730 658 1,328 1,544 2,160 2,581 2,218 2,656 1,584
Slate or Tile .................................... 2,462 293 562 330 Q 341 239 388 Q
Wooden Materials .......................... 887 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Concrete ........................................ 2,231 N Q Q Q Q 365 Q Q
Other .............................................. 598 N N Q Q Q Q Q Q
No One Major Type ........................ 565 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Renovations in Buildings
Constructed Before 1980
(more than one may apply)
Any Type of Renovation
 Since 1980 .................................... 17,844 1,861 3,353 3,932 3,805 4,893 N N N
   Addition or Annex ....................... 6,551 517 934 1,618 1,433 2,048 N N N
   Reduction In Floorspace ............. 1,012 Q Q Q Q Q N N N
   Cosmetic Improvements .............. 13,119 1,490 2,460 2,801 2,958 3,410 N N N
   Wall or Roof Replacement .......... 8,070 700 1,549 1,919 1,910 1,993 N N N
   Interior Wall
    Re-Configuration ........................ 8,518 823 1,713 1,655 1,957 2,370 N N N
   HVAC Equipment Upgrade .......... 10,768 951 2,196 2,289 2,616 2,716 N N N
   Lighting Upgrade ......................... 10,275 1,076 2,141 2,266 2,359 2,433 N N N
   Window Replacement ................. 6,354 759 1,626 1,706 1,209 1,054 N N N
   Plumbing System Upgrade .......... 7,144 730 1,671 1,611 1,603 1,527 N N N
   Insulation Upgrade ...................... 4,015 565 911 736 934 869 N N N
   Other Renovation ........................ 523 Q Q Q Q Q N N N
No Renovations Since 1980 .......... 18,714 1,908 3,518 3,113 4,296 5,879 N N N
Building Newer than 1980 ............. 28,225 N N N N N 10,332 12,360 5,533
Energy Sources (more than
one may apply)
Electricity ....................................... 63,307 3,730 6,595 6,838 8,057 10,555 10,154 12,078 5,299
Natural Gas .................................... 43,468 2,759 4,679 4,659 5,635 7,659 6,469 8,177 3,431
Fuel Oil ........................................... 15,157 961 1,986 2,048 1,685 2,187 3,079 2,086 1,125
District Heat ................................... 5,443 294 1,207 705 853 588 888 705 Q
District Chilled Water ...................... 2,853 Q Q 359 446 456 531 804 Q
Propane ......................................... 7,076 338 961 726 746 1,222 922 1,428 733
Other .............................................. 1,401 Q Q Q 281 401 Q Q Q
Energy End Uses (more than
one may apply)
Buildings with Space Heating ........ 60,028 3,667 6,236 6,534 7,510 10,223 9,808 11,254 4,796
Buildings with Cooling .................... 56,940 2,891 4,919 6,045 7,125 9,973 9,836 11,304 4,848
Buildings with Water Heating ......... 56,478 3,353 5,292 5,924 7,202 9,787 9,420 10,816 4,683
Buildings with Cooking ................... 22,237 1,362 2,242 3,156 2,669 3,431 3,677 3,597 2,104
Buildings with Manufacturing ........ 3,138 Q Q Q 514 537 429 572 Q
Buildings with Electricity
 Generation .................................... 12,821 232 852 1,210 1,442 2,275 3,238 2,401 1,171
Percent of Floorspace Heated
Not Heated ..................................... 4,756 102 635 511 591 549 524 1,106 737
1 to 50 ............................................ 6,850 635 819 506 557 998 1,054 1,370 911
51 to 99 .......................................... 8,107 676 1,066 869 867 1,248 1,361 1,480 540
100 ................................................. 45,071 2,356 4,351 5,159 6,086 7,978 7,394 8,403 3,345
Percent of Floorspace Cooled
Not Cooled ..................................... 7,843 878 1,952 999 976 799 496 1,056 686
1 to 50 ............................................ 16,598 1,320 1,990 2,083 2,202 2,751 2,061 3,000 1,190
51 to 99 .......................................... 13,211 728 1,445 1,490 1,734 2,112 2,324 2,421 956
100 ................................................. 27,132 842 1,484 2,473 3,189 5,110 5,450 5,883 2,701
Percent Lit When Open
Zero ............................................... 293 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
1 to 50 ............................................ 10,203 1,264 1,417 1,295 1,456 1,117 1,193 1,653 808
51 to 99 .......................................... 18,288 1,132 1,731 2,026 2,437 3,487 3,077 3,074 1,324
100 ................................................. 32,789 1,132 3,166 3,313 3,824 5,645 5,752 7,024 2,933
Building Never Open/
 Electricity Not Used ....................... 3,210 225 530 400 Q 516 291 494 389
Percent Lit When Closed
Zero ............................................... 17,385 1,538 1,962 1,699 1,988 2,965 2,065 3,309 1,860
1 to 50 ............................................ 30,948 1,587 3,289 3,977 4,114 5,001 5,317 5,535 2,127
51 to 100 ........................................ 2,093 Q Q Q 260 274 427 659 Q
Building Never Closed/
 Electricity Not Used ....................... 14,357 584 1,503 1,307 1,739 2,532 2,523 2,857 1,311
Heating Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Heat Pumps .................................... 8,814 Q 622 848 827 1,378 2,018 1,974 999
  Packaged Heat Pumps ................. 5,442 Q Q 540 512 1,019 1,528 1,031 556
  Split-System Heat Pumps ............. 2,581 Q Q Q 336 426 451 738 Q
  Individual Room Heat Pumps ........ 2,691 Q Q 283 Q 238 626 442 446
Furnaces ....................................... 19,615 1,350 2,085 2,475 2,346 3,612 2,418 3,971 1,359
Individual Space Heaters ............... 12,545 782 1,427 1,442 1,469 2,393 1,799 2,433 800
District Heat ................................... 5,166 Q 1,203 661 786 573 780 691 Q
Boilers ............................................ 20,423 1,926 2,744 3,081 2,957 3,339 2,803 2,257 1,316
Packaged Heating Units ................. 18,021 390 979 1,422 1,993 3,443 3,816 4,067 1,911
Other .............................................. 3,262 Q Q Q 242 779 641 814 401
Cooling Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Residential-Type Central
 Air Conditioners ............................ 11,035 722 1,573 1,175 1,421 1,961 1,397 2,066 720
Heat Pumps .................................... 9,041 Q 653 888 794 1,392 2,055 2,038 1,064
  Packaged Heat Pumps ................. 5,426 Q Q 527 479 997 1,522 987 582
  Split-System Heat Pumps ............. 2,606 Q Q Q 336 400 468 693 Q
  Individual Room Heat Pumps ........ 2,940 Q Q 283 Q 298 698 581 460
Individual Air Conditioners ............. 12,558 1,278 1,534 2,594 1,888 2,065 1,342 1,366 492
District Chilled Water ...................... 2,853 Q Q 359 446 456 531 804 Q
Central Chillers ............................... 11,636 392 1,063 891 1,776 2,323 2,801 1,426 963
Packaged Air Conditioning
 Units .............................................. 29,969 1,198 2,847 3,023 3,596 5,400 4,855 6,264 2,787
Swamp Coolers ............................. 1,561 Q Q Q Q 483 324 252 Q
Other .............................................. 1,232 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Main Equipment Replaced Since
1990 (more than one may apply)
Heating ........................................... 16,403 1,309 2,176 2,567 2,983 4,287 3,080 N N
Cooling ........................................... 20,995 1,714 2,560 3,412 4,169 5,275 3,865 N N
Lighting Equipment Types
(more than one may apply)
Incandescent ................................. 38,528 2,663 4,107 4,324 4,866 7,003 6,213 6,466 2,885
Standard Fluorescent .................... 59,688 3,430 6,078 6,488 7,739 10,048 9,743 11,358 4,803
Compact Fluorescent ..................... 27,571 1,300 2,827 2,461 3,605 4,613 5,286 4,899 2,581
High Intensity Discharge ................ 20,643 536 2,351 2,105 2,284 3,530 3,417 4,419 2,002
Halogen .......................................... 17,703 881 1,225 1,973 1,798 2,921 3,384 3,352 2,169
Other .............................................. 269 Q N Q Q Q Q Q Q
Refrigeration Equipment
(more than one may apply)
Any Refrigeration........................... 52,974 2,939 5,006 6,028 6,610 8,830 8,725 10,347 4,488
  Commercial Refrigeration ............. 26,768 1,297 2,580 3,544 3,090 4,422 4,728 4,568 2,539
    Walk-In Units .............................. 20,254 990 1,853 2,399 2,324 3,461 3,840 3,341 2,046
    Cases or Cabinets ..................... 20,424 951 1,829 2,712 2,452 3,517 3,659 3,390 1,914
  Residential-Type Units ................. 38,884 2,323 4,088 4,700 4,898 6,412 6,253 7,130 3,081
  Vending Machines ....................... 35,335 1,074 3,426 3,332 4,699 6,208 6,219 7,248 3,127
No Refrigeration ............................. 11,809 830 1,865 1,017 1,491 1,943 1,607 2,012 1,045
Office Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Computers ..................................... 55,627 3,008 5,546 5,690 7,076 9,391 9,427 10,778 4,712
  With Flat Screen Monitors ............ 26,417 997 2,729 2,275 3,234 4,887 5,227 4,835 2,232
Dedicated Servers ......................... 36,338 1,428 3,502 3,207 4,600 6,083 7,254 7,067 3,198
Laser Printers ................................ 33,012 1,991 3,431 3,818 4,501 5,719 5,037 5,942 2,574
Inkjet Printers ................................. 32,210 1,581 2,518 2,888 3,793 5,648 6,132 6,775 2,875
FAX Machines ............................... 52,373 2,692 5,136 5,380 6,501 8,944 9,052 10,428 4,241
Photocopiers .................................. 46,257 2,173 4,289 5,011 5,828 7,922 8,081 9,146 3,805
Number of Computers
None .............................................. 9,156 761 1,325 1,355 1,025 1,382 905 1,582 821
1 to 4 .............................................. 12,395 1,072 1,389 1,560 1,626 1,920 1,465 2,323 1,040
5 to 9 .............................................. 7,179 353 1,022 749 799 1,143 878 1,653 583
10 to 19 .......................................... 6,610 621 280 367 793 1,315 1,146 1,484 604
20 to 49 .......................................... 7,414 343 591 874 828 1,369 981 1,660 768
50 to 99 .......................................... 5,376 Q 790 633 749 615 1,158 900 346
100 to 249 ...................................... 6,690 321 467 719 1011 1,128 1,138 1,109 798
250 or More ................................... 9,963 Q 1,007 789 1,270 1,901 2,661 1,650 573
Number of Dedicated Servers
None .............................................. 28,445 2,341 3,370 3,838 3,501 4,690 3,078 5,293 2,335
1 to 4 .............................................. 24,116 1,108 2,196 2,140 3,365 4,122 4,074 4,729 2,383
5 to 9 .............................................. 3,864 Q Q 329 316 559 733 852 327
10 to 19 .......................................... 3,027 Q Q Q 397 426 645 645 Q
20 to 49 .......................................... 2,583 Q Q Q 357 580 984 Q Q
50 or More ..................................... 2,748 Q Q Q Q 396 819 560 Q
Number of Photocopiers
None .............................................. 18,526 1,596 2,582 2,034 2,273 2,850 2,251 3,213 1,728
One ................................................ 15,475 942 1,517 1,865 1,815 2,473 1,828 3,684 1,351
2 to 4 .............................................. 15,082 897 1,210 1,561 2,115 2,415 2,625 2,850 1,409
5 to 9 .............................................. 5,515 Q Q 443 828 990 936 1029 476
10 or More ..................................... 10,185 Q 906 1,142 1,070 2,044 2,692 1,584 570
Energy-Related Space Functions
(more than one may apply)
Commercial Food Preparation ........ 22,223 1,362 2,242 3,145 2,667 3,431 3,677 3,597 2,104
Activities with Large
 Amounts of Hot Water .................. 19,482 842 1,752 2,318 2,413 3,394 3,332 3,518 1,912
Separate Computer Area ............... 26,873 893 2,605 2,724 3,459 4,548 5,488 4,680 2,476
HVAC Conservation Features
(more than one may apply)
Variable Air-Volume System ......... 19,597 775 1,163 1,526 2,001 3,338 4,459 4,259 2,076
Economizer Cycle .......................... 21,108 645 1,529 1,444 2,519 4,071 4,606 4,113 2,182
HVAC Maintenance ....................... 51,163 2,526 5,413 5,145 6,217 8,562 8,728 10,138 4,433
Energy Management and
 Control System (EMCS) ................ 15,630 365 1,195 1,415 2,156 2,337 3,585 3,069 1,509
Window and Interior Lighting
Features (more than one
may apply)
Multipaned Windows ..................... 38,910 2,187 3,565 3,894 3,813 6,000 6,907 8,351 4,193
Tinted Window Glass .................... 29,887 874 2,373 2,319 3,511 5,312 6,267 6,177 3,053
Reflective Window Glass .............. 8,544 264 579 736 674 1,474 1,861 1,706 1,251
External Overhangs
 or Awnings ................................... 17,242 939 1,503 1,705 2,338 2,932 2,878 3,411 1,537
Skylights or Atriums ....................... 12,546 566 1,301 800 1,359 1,950 2,821 2,809 941
Daylighting Sensors ....................... 2,868 Q Q Q Q 365 758 613 400
Specular Reflectors ....................... 26,118 1,184 2,959 2,197 3,166 4,242 4,850 5,080 2,439
Electronic Ballasts ......................... 46,882 2,293 4,825 4,820 5,742 7,772 8,207 8,953 4,270
Energy Management and
 Control System (EMCS)
 for Lighting .................................... 4,781 Q Q Q 404 830 1,372 1,095 514
Equipment Usage Reduced
When Building Not In Full Use
(more than one may apply)a
Heating ........................................... 42,722 2,432 4,062 5,080 5,661 7,210 7,206 7,755 3,316
Cooling ........................................... 43,205 2,244 3,884 4,974 5,408 7,177 7,572 8,365 3,580
Lighting .......................................... 46,987 2,905 4,947 5,495 5,932 7,754 7,266 8,827 3,864
Office Equipment ........................... 19,397 1,180 2,143 2,872 2,526 3,017 2,596 3,556 1,506
See "Guide to the Tables" or "Glossary" for further explanations of the terms used in this table. Both can be accessed from the CBECS web site - http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/.
 * Figures in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. Mall buildings add an estimated 213 thousand buildings comprising 6.9 billion square feet.
a The definition for one or more of these row items has changed and may not be directly comparable with past CBECS estimates. See "Guide to the Tables" for discussion of the differences.
Q=Data withheld because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent, or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N=No responding cases in sample.
Notes: ● HVAC = Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. ● Due to rounding, data may not sum to totals.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Form EIA-871A of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.