Released: June 2006
Next CBECS will be conducted in 2007

Table B8. Year Constructed, Number of Buildings for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003
  Number of Buildings (thousand)
All
Buildings*
Year Constructed
1919 or
Before
1920 to
1945
1946 to
1959
1960 to
1969
1970 to
1979
1980 to
1989
1990 to
1999
2000 to
2003
All Buildings* ............................... 4,645 330 527 562 579 731 707 876 334
Building Floorspace
(Square Feet)
1,001 to 5,000 ................................ 2,552 174 315 331 298 350 438 481 165
5,001 to 10,000 .............................. 889 71 107 90 120 180 98 158 66
10,001 to 25,000 ............................ 738 55 64 90 95 122 103 151 58
25,001 to 50,000 ............................ 241 19 23 26 33 48 32 39 21
50,001 to 100,000 .......................... 129 7 9 14 22 16 20 28 13
100,001 to 200,000 ........................ 65 Q 5 8 8 10 10 15 8
200,001 to 500,000 ........................ 25 Q 4 2 3 4 4 4 2
Over 500,000 ................................. 7 Q 1 1 0 1 2 1 Q
Principal Building Activity
Education ....................................... 386 12 26 78 60 58 44 75 32
Food Sales ..................................... 226 Q Q Q Q Q 33 56 Q
Food Service ................................. 297 32 34 30 Q 46 46 66 Q
Health Care .................................... 129 Q 10 25 10 16 19 36 10
  Inpatient ....................................... 8 Q Q Q 1 2 2 0 Q
  Outpatient .................................... 121 Q Q Q Q 14 18 36 Q
Lodging .......................................... 142 Q 11 17 25 25 21 30 6
Retail (Other Than Mall).................. 443 37 66 62 59 90 44 68 17
Office ............................................. 824 70 85 75 116 145 153 142 39
Public Assembly ............................ 277 31 36 45 30 44 31 42 18
Public Order and Safety ................ 71 Q Q Q Q Q Q 21 Q
Religious Worship .......................... 370 65 52 58 54 41 43 35 23
Service .......................................... 622 Q 90 59 75 117 108 110 42
Warehouse and Storage ............... 597 20 39 44 47 78 108 164 98
Other .............................................. 79 Q Q Q Q Q Q 17 Q
Vacant ........................................... 182 Q 35 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Census Region
Northeast ....................................... 726 122 121 105 108 71 97 69 31
Midwest ......................................... 1,266 139 163 157 131 196 163 228 90
South ............................................. 1,775 47 152 161 192 297 351 411 163
West .............................................. 878 21 91 138 148 167 95 168 51
Climate Zone: 30-Year Average
Under 2,000 CDD and --
  More than 7,000 HDD ................... 855 113 80 103 114 131 104 148 63
  5,500-7,000 HDD ......................... 1,173 130 155 167 146 185 162 170 57
  4,000-5,499 HDD ......................... 673 49 103 84 85 95 94 115 46
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ................ 1,276 31 126 167 152 232 192 280 95
2,000 CDD or More and --
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ................ 669 Q 64 40 81 88 153 163 73
Number of Floors
One ................................................ 3,136 80 236 374 402 536 536 699 272
Two ............................................... 1,031 116 187 135 122 148 130 141 51
Three ............................................. 339 92 78 46 42 32 21 23 5
Four to Nine ................................... 128 41 25 6 10 13 16 11 6
Ten or More ................................... 12 Q 2 1 2 1 3 Q Q
Elevators and Escalators
(more than one may apply)
Any Elevators ................................ 309 36 42 25 37 49 42 46 32
Number of Elevators
  One .............................................. 208 26 33 18 25 31 20 30 24
  Two to Five .................................. 88 8 7 5 10 16 19 14 8
  Six or More .................................. 13 Q 1 1 1 2 3 2 Q
Any Escalators .............................. 6 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Number of Workers (main shift)
Fewer than 5 ................................. 2,653 203 325 344 331 394 383 481 192
5 to 9 .............................................. 778 62 97 90 87 118 148 128 49
10 to 19 .......................................... 563 30 51 61 74 91 69 135 49
20 to 49 .......................................... 398 21 37 46 48 85 54 83 25
50 to 99 .......................................... 147 11 10 14 21 23 30 26 13
100 to 249 ...................................... 77 Q 5 5 14 15 14 18 4
250 or More ................................... 30 Q 2 2 3 5 9 6 2
Weekly Operating Hours
Fewer than 40 ............................... 1,002 115 127 156 130 100 150 150 73
40 to 48 .......................................... 1,117 72 144 144 122 202 161 212 60
49 to 60 .......................................... 1,062 62 121 127 139 175 192 181 65
61 to 84 .......................................... 591 44 75 65 75 126 66 91 50
85 to 167 ........................................ 400 25 36 33 51 52 60 106 37
Open Continuously ........................ 475 12 24 37 63 76 77 136 49
Ownership and Occupancy
Nongovernment Owned ................ 4,011 304 461 463 482 638 624 759 280
  Owner Occupied ......................... 1,841 168 222 213 242 286 273 327 110
  Nonowner Occupied ................... 2,029 125 206 227 224 334 326 423 163
  Unoccupied .................................. 141 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Government Owned ...................... 635 25 67 99 97 92 83 117 55
  Federal ......................................... 46 Q 8 Q Q Q Q Q Q
  State ............................................ 164 Q 15 22 28 25 24 30 Q
  Local ............................................ 425 19 44 74 56 60 55 84 33
Vacancy Status
Completely Vacant ......................... 157 Q 35 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Mostly Vacant ................................ 25 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Partially Vacant .............................. 548 57 72 57 52 58 85 113 54
Not At All Vacant ........................... 3,915 255 420 475 499 654 591 749 271
Number of Establishments
One ................................................ 3,754 248 402 449 479 599 545 746 286
2 to 5 .............................................. 643 61 84 78 74 92 111 106 37
6 to 10 ............................................ 55 Q Q Q 7 12 12 Q Q
11 to 20 .......................................... 23 Q Q Q Q 7 4 Q Q
More than 20 .................................. 14 Q Q Q Q 3 4 Q Q
Currently Unoccupied .................... 157 Q 35 Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant Exterior
Wall Material
Brick, Stone or Stucco ................... 2,044 195 348 273 265 296 257 303 107
Concrete (Block or Poured) ........... 786 23 65 170 136 126 99 111 58
Concrete Panels ............................ 131 Q Q Q 9 30 33 21 19
Siding or Shingles .......................... 779 100 83 71 92 96 109 188 40
Metal Panels ................................... 825 Q Q 32 66 172 196 236 104
Window Glass ............................... 17 N Q Q Q Q 2 Q Q
Other .............................................. 47 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No One Major Type ........................ 18 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant Roof Material
Built-Up .......................................... 1,036 64 178 156 157 178 127 141 35
Shingles (Not Wood) ...................... 1,325 132 134 178 186 190 200 225 80
Metal Surfacing .............................. 1,288 39 65 76 110 224 250 349 174
Synthetic or Rubber ....................... 511 61 79 69 72 72 72 59 27
Slate or Tile .................................... 263 21 47 36 Q 31 25 75 Q
Wooden Materials .......................... 122 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Concrete ........................................ 61 N Q Q Q Q 9 Q Q
Other .............................................. 16 N N Q Q Q Q Q Q
No One Major Type ........................ 25 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Renovations in Buildings
Constructed Before 1980
(more than one may apply)
Any Type of Renovation
 Since 1980 .................................... 1,018 156 201 225 199 237 N N N
   Addition or Annex ....................... 256 21 37 48 65 85 N N N
   Reduction In Floorspace ............. 22 Q Q Q Q Q N N N
   Cosmetic Improvements .............. 741 127 156 174 138 146 N N N
   Wall or Roof Replacement .......... 370 53 81 84 74 78 N N N
   Interior Wall
    Re-Configuration ........................ 411 73 79 85 74 99 N N N
   HVAC Equipment Upgrade .......... 442 70 89 107 75 100 N N N
   Lighting Upgrade ......................... 455 80 100 109 82 84 N N N
   Window Replacement ................. 310 63 70 74 50 53 N N N
   Plumbing System Upgrade .......... 315 52 78 84 48 53 N N N
   Insulation Upgrade ...................... 227 46 46 60 29 47 N N N
   Other Renovation ........................ 19 Q Q Q Q Q N N N
No Renovations Since 1980 .......... 1,710 173 326 337 380 494 N N N
Building Newer than 1980 ............. 1,917 N N N N N 707 876 334
Energy Sources (more than
one may apply)
Electricity ....................................... 4,404 318 499 541 571 700 668 809 298
Natural Gas .................................... 2,391 200 338 313 309 391 303 419 118
Fuel Oil ........................................... 451 75 52 75 61 59 63 49 17
District Heat ................................... 67 6 12 15 13 6 5 8 Q
District Chilled Water ...................... 33 Q Q 4 4 5 5 8 Q
Propane ......................................... 502 43 37 52 63 68 90 95 54
Other .............................................. 132 Q Q Q 21 49 Q Q Q
Energy End Uses (more than
one may apply)
Buildings with Space Heating ........ 3,982 302 442 493 524 648 618 719 236
Buildings with Cooling .................... 3,625 232 382 430 467 609 577 695 234
Buildings with Water Heating ......... 3,472 266 367 416 444 582 531 642 224
Buildings with Cooking ................... 801 71 87 119 92 112 112 144 65
Buildings with Manufacturing ........ 119 Q Q Q 17 28 14 19 Q
Buildings with Electricity
 Generation .................................... 149 8 8 13 16 28 38 26 12
Percent of Floorspace Heated
Not Heated ..................................... 663 27 85 69 55 83 88 157 98
1 to 50 ............................................ 523 48 60 55 65 68 84 93 50
51 to 99 .......................................... 498 55 70 70 52 82 73 78 18
100 ................................................. 2,962 200 312 368 407 497 460 549 168
Percent of Floorspace Cooled
Not Cooled ..................................... 1,020 98 146 132 112 121 129 181 100
1 to 50 ............................................ 985 95 107 125 131 146 151 165 65
51 to 99 .......................................... 629 50 79 81 64 133 90 97 35
100 ................................................. 2,011 87 196 224 272 331 335 433 133
Percent Lit When Open
Zero ............................................... 47 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
1 to 50 ............................................ 929 117 113 125 131 106 131 159 47
51 to 99 .......................................... 1,108 81 124 134 133 199 167 192 77
100 ................................................. 2,176 102 233 253 279 380 348 429 153
Building Never Open/
 Electricity Not Used ....................... 386 27 54 48 Q 42 56 84 40
Percent Lit When Closed
Zero ............................................... 1,964 171 213 225 255 330 282 334 153
1 to 50 ............................................ 1,882 125 243 266 240 283 285 347 91
51 to 100 ........................................ 136 Q Q Q 18 17 26 19 Q
Building Never Closed/
 Electricity Not Used ....................... 664 24 52 58 66 101 114 176 73
Heating Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Heat Pumps .................................... 476 Q 31 44 50 82 102 120 39
  Packaged Heat Pumps ................. 278 Q Q 25 30 60 63 59 25
  Split-System Heat Pumps ............. 166 Q Q Q 14 24 33 55 Q
  Individual Room Heat Pumps ........ 58 Q Q 9 Q 6 10 11 6
Furnaces ....................................... 1,864 151 235 259 242 330 252 299 96
Individual Space Heaters ............... 819 65 72 120 114 130 119 152 47
District Heat ................................... 65 Q 12 13 13 6 4 8 Q
Boilers ............................................ 579 105 103 98 82 65 43 56 27
Packaged Heating Units ................. 953 25 63 79 106 176 209 226 70
Other .............................................. 205 Q Q Q 24 40 40 35 15
Cooling Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Residential-Type Central
 Air Conditioners ............................ 1,006 83 135 115 112 157 165 184 55
Heat Pumps .................................... 492 Q 36 48 50 77 105 122 46
  Packaged Heat Pumps ................. 288 Q Q 27 30 55 66 63 26
  Split-System Heat Pumps ............. 174 Q Q Q 14 24 33 53 Q
  Individual Room Heat Pumps ........ 58 Q Q 9 Q 6 10 11 7
Individual Air Conditioners ............. 742 82 109 124 130 121 90 72 14
District Chilled Water ...................... 33 Q Q 4 4 5 5 8 Q
Central Chillers ............................... 111 4 8 11 22 24 19 16 8
Packaged Air Conditioning
 Units .............................................. 1,613 81 147 180 201 294 251 334 125
Swamp Coolers ............................. 122 Q Q Q Q 35 18 19 Q
Other .............................................. 40 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Main Equipment Replaced Since
1990 (more than one may apply)
Heating ........................................... 1,197 117 177 189 211 290 212 N N
Cooling ........................................... 1,356 133 198 230 250 319 227 N N
Lighting Equipment Types
(more than one may apply)
Incandescent ................................. 2,184 229 276 294 295 362 294 327 109
Standard Fluorescent .................... 3,943 272 447 491 517 651 598 726 242
Compact Fluorescent ..................... 941 75 113 110 111 151 136 177 69
High Intensity Discharge ................ 455 17 34 55 45 81 65 116 42
Halogen .......................................... 565 55 48 62 51 83 76 128 63
Other .............................................. 8 Q N Q Q Q Q Q Q
Refrigeration Equipment
(more than one may apply)
Any Refrigeration........................... 3,176 243 342 401 396 511 487 598 199
  Commercial Refrigeration ............. 1,007 77 111 140 112 155 145 189 78
    Walk-In Units .............................. 666 52 61 71 78 109 109 129 58
    Cases or Cabinets ..................... 825 69 92 115 94 121 118 156 59
  Residential-Type Units ................. 2,370 201 256 308 300 379 365 428 134
  Vending Machines ....................... 996 40 93 114 156 175 148 205 65
No Refrigeration ............................. 1,469 87 186 161 183 220 220 278 136
Office Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Computers ..................................... 3,081 198 320 343 398 512 491 609 210
  With Flat Screen Monitors ............ 877 41 93 83 117 165 148 169 60
Dedicated Servers ......................... 1,175 56 107 101 154 219 212 235 90
Laser Printers ................................ 1,970 132 206 228 272 337 298 368 128
Inkjet Printers ................................. 1,420 86 127 145 165 261 239 303 95
FAX Machines ............................... 2,715 172 304 293 352 457 431 544 162
Photocopiers .................................. 1,939 132 215 226 250 314 296 371 135
Number of Computers
None .............................................. 1,565 132 207 219 181 218 216 267 125
1 to 4 .............................................. 1,670 124 187 204 218 243 263 318 113
5 to 9 .............................................. 559 34 62 52 69 100 94 113 34
10 to 19 .......................................... 370 21 24 28 49 69 53 96 30
20 to 49 .......................................... 255 12 28 31 24 64 35 46 15
50 to 99 .......................................... 110 Q 12 17 18 15 24 14 8
100 to 249 ...................................... 79 4 5 9 14 13 14 14 6
250 or More ................................... 38 Q 3 3 5 8 9 7 3
Number of Dedicated Servers
None .............................................. 3,471 273 420 460 426 512 495 640 244
1 to 4 .............................................. 1,060 51 100 92 136 202 183 214 83
5 to 9 .............................................. 58 Q Q Q 8 7 12 13 5
10 to 19 .......................................... 30 Q Q Q 4 Q 9 6 Q
20 to 49 .......................................... 17 Q Q Q 2 5 6 Q Q
50 or More ..................................... 10 Q Q Q Q 1 2 1 Q
Number of Photocopiers
None .............................................. 2,706 198 312 336 329 417 411 504 200
One ................................................ 1,250 92 145 159 163 184 165 258 84
2 to 4 .............................................. 549 34 59 55 67 103 103 85 43
5 to 9 .............................................. 85 Q 9 4 13 17 15 19 5
10 or More ..................................... 54 Q 3 7 7 11 13 9 3
Energy-Related Space Functions
(more than one may apply)
Commercial Food Preparation ........ 799 71 87 118 90 112 112 144 65
Activities with Large
 Amounts of Hot Water .................. 567 33 63 82 69 97 59 117 46
Separate Computer Area ............... 553 27 48 57 73 88 104 109 47
HVAC Conservation Features
(more than one may apply)
Variable Air-Volume System ......... 466 16 34 42 38 85 76 126 48
Economizer Cycle .......................... 508 18 29 45 53 103 93 105 61
HVAC Maintenance ....................... 2,581 170 275 293 327 416 413 511 176
Energy Management and
 Control System (EMCS) ................ 252 7 20 24 33 29 48 66 26
Window and Interior Lighting
Features (more than one
may apply)
Multipaned Windows ..................... 2,201 156 196 232 225 332 373 500 186
Tinted Window Glass .................... 1,323 67 115 128 144 228 261 276 105
Reflective Window Glass .............. 308 13 23 33 26 42 63 74 34
External Overhangs
 or Awnings ................................... 1,233 88 132 138 165 223 190 215 81
Skylights or Atriums ....................... 331 21 38 30 30 49 60 70 33
Daylighting Sensors ....................... 74 Q Q Q Q 14 13 18 4
Specular Reflectors ....................... 928 55 93 98 112 143 152 186 89
Electronic Ballasts ......................... 2,577 155 274 296 311 439 386 519 196
Energy Management and
 Control System (EMCS)
 for Lighting .................................... 60 Q Q Q 6 7 10 24 6
Equipment Usage Reduced
When Building Not In Full Use
(more than one may apply)a
Heating ........................................... 2,878 217 317 386 380 473 427 500 179
Cooling ........................................... 2,761 178 292 360 368 454 418 514 177
Lighting .......................................... 3,685 273 429 463 475 603 542 659 241
Office Equipment ........................... 1,504 104 172 192 189 239 228 277 104
See "Guide to the Tables" or "Glossary" for further explanations of the terms used in this table. Both can be accessed from the CBECS web site - http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/.
 * Figures in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. Mall buildings add an estimated 213 thousand buildings comprising 6.9 billion square feet.
a The definition for one or more of these row items has changed and may not be directly comparable with past CBECS estimates. See "Guide to the Tables" for discussion of the differences.
Q=Data withheld because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent, or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N=No responding cases in sample.
Notes: ● HVAC = Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. ● Due to rounding, data may not sum to totals.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Form EIA-871A of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.