Released: September, 2008
Table E11. District Heat Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003
  Total District Heat Consumption
(trillion Btu)
District Heat Energy Intensity
(thousand Btu/square foot)
Total   Space Heating Water Heating Cook-
ing
Other Total   Space Heating Water Heating Cook-
ing
Other
All Buildings* ........................ 634 578 46 1 Q 116.4 106.3 8.4 0.2 Q
Building Floorspace
(Square Feet)
1,001 to 5,000 ......................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
5,001 to 10,000 ....................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
10,001 to 25,000 ..................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
25,001 to 50,000 ..................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
50,001 to 100,000 ................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
100,001 to 200,000 ................. 165 154 10 Q Q 118.1 109.9 Q Q Q
200,001 to 500,000 ................. 123 112 11 Q Q 121.2 110.2 10.5 Q Q
Over 500,000 .......................... 169 146 16 Q Q 99.9 86.2 9.5 Q Q
Principal Building Activity
Education ................................ 134 122 8 Q Q 116.6 106.6 6.9 Q Q
Food Service .......................... N N N N N N N N N N
Health Care ............................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Inpatient ................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Outpatient ............................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Lodging ................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Retail (Other Than Mall)........... Q Q (*) (*) (*) Q Q (*) (*) (*)
Office ...................................... 128 122 3 Q Q 81.5 77.6 2.2 Q Q
Public Assembly ..................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Public Order and Safety ......... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Religious Worship ................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Service ................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Warehouse and Storage ........ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other ....................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Vacant .................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Year Constructed
Before 1920 ............................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
1920 to 1945 ........................... 129 117 7 Q Q 107.0 96.8 6.1 Q Q
1946 to 1959 ........................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
1960 to 1969 ........................... 117 105 Q Q Q 137.6 122.5 Q Q Q
1970 to 1979 ........................... 77 66 10 Q Q 131.7 112.2 16.6 Q Q
1980 to 1989 ........................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
1990 to 1999 ........................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
2000 to 2003 ........................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Census Region and Division
Northeast ................................ 165 Q 15 Q Q 120.8 Q 10.6 Q Q
  New England ........................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Middle Atlantic ....................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Midwest .................................. 225 210 9 Q Q 136.5 127.5 5.7 Q Q
  East North Central ................. 192 182 5 Q Q 135.3 128.2 3.7 Q Q
  West North Central ............... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
South ...................................... 182 166 14 Q Q 102.8 94.0 7.9 Q Q
  South Atlantic ....................... 117 105 10 Q Q 94.1 84.8 8.2 Q Q
  East South Central ................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
  West South Central ............... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
West ....................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Mountain ............................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Pacific ................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Climate Zone: 30-Year Average
Under 2,000 CDD and --
  More than 7,000 HDD ............ 88 80 8 Q (*) 106.3 96.7 9.4 Q (*)
  5,500-7,000 HDD .................. 255 241 9 Q Q 142.9 135.0 4.8 Q Q
  4,000-5,499 HDD .................. 140 120 Q Q Q 103.5 88.9 12.0 Q Q
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ......... 101 90 10 Q (*) 98.1 88.2 9.8 Q (*)
2,000 CDD or More and --
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ......... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Number of Floors
One ......................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Two ........................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Three ...................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Four to Nine ............................ 308 279 23 Q Q 124.4 112.8 9.5 Q Q
Ten or More ............................ 123 104 16 (*) Q 90.3 75.9 11.8 0.1 Q
Number of Workers (main shift)
Fewer than 5 .......................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
5 to 9 ....................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
10 to 19 ................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
20 to 49 ................................... 96 87 Q Q (*) 143.7 130.3 Q Q (*)
50 to 99 ................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
100 to 249 ............................... 124 116 6 Q Q 118.3 110.9 6.2 Q Q
250 or More ............................ 232 201 23 Q Q 105.8 91.8 10.6 Q Q
Weekly Operating Hours
Fewer than 40 ........................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
40 to 48 ................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
49 to 60 ................................... 176 173 2 Q Q 110.4 109.0 1.3 Q Q
61 to 84 ................................... 73 66 Q Q Q 92.9 83.7 4.5 Q Q
85 to 167 ................................. 91 87 4 (*) Q 115.5 110.4 Q 0.2 Q
Open Continuously ................. 210 171 36 Q Q 130.8 106.8 22.2 Q Q
Ownership and Occupancy
Nongovernment Owned.......... 247 221 22 (*) Q 114.9 102.7 10.1 0.1 2.0
  Owner Occupied .................. 185 172 11 Q Q 129.9 121.4 7.5 Q Q
  Nonowner Occupied ............ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Unoccupied ........................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Government Owned ............... 387 358 24 Q Q 117.4 108.5 7.4 Q Q
  Federal .................................. Q 126 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
  State ..................................... 188 172 16 Q Q 111.0 101.3 9.3 Q Q
  Local ..................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Vacancy Status
Completely Vacant .................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Mostly Vacant.......................... N N N N N N N N N N
Partially Vacant ....................... 164 150 Q Q Q 110.4 101.2 Q Q Q
Not At All Vacant .................... 461 419 36 Q Q 120.2 109.3 9.3 Q Q
Number of Establishments
One ......................................... 384 348 30 Q Q 125.3 113.6 9.9 Q Q
2 to 5 ....................................... 156 142 Q Q Q 119.6 109.1 Q Q Q
6 to 10 ..................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
11 to 20 ................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
More than 20 ........................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Currently Unoccupied ............. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant Exterior
Wall Material
Brick, Stone or Stucco ............ 408 373 29 Q Q 120.7 110.3 8.5 Q Q
Concrete (Block or Poured) .... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Concrete Panels ..................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Siding or Shingles ................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Metal Panels ............................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Window Glass ........................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other ....................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No One Major Type ................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant Roof Material
Built-Up ................................... 263 231 26 Q Q 100.9 88.7 9.9 Q Q
Shingles (Not Wood) ............... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Metal Surfacing ....................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Synthetic or Rubber ................ 171 153 16 Q Q 127.6 114.4 11.7 Q Q
Slate or Tile ............................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Wooden Materials ................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Concrete ................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other ....................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No One Major Type ................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Renovations in Buildings
Constructed Before 1980
(more than one may apply)
Any Type of Renovation
 Since 1980 ............................. 197 168 21 Q Q 111.1 94.5 12.0 Q Q
   Addition or Annex ................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
   Reduction In Floorspace ...... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
   Cosmetic Improvements........ 143 121 15 Q Q 110.3 93.2 11.8 Q Q
   Wall or Roof Replacement.... 99 86 10 (*) Q 110.3 95.8 11.0 Q Q
   Interior Wall
    Re-Configuration ................. 124 101 16 Q Q 113.6 92.7 14.8 Q Q
   HVAC Equipment Upgrade.... 128 105 18 Q Q 93.0 76.1 12.8 Q Q
   Lighting Upgrade .................. 157 133 17 Q Q 110.9 93.8 12.3 Q Q
   Window Replacement .......... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
   Plumbing System Upgrade.... 103 87 13 (*) Q 107.3 90.1 13.8 0.2 Q
   Insulation Upgrade ............... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
   Other Renovation ................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No Renovations Since 1980.... 229 215 13 Q Q 122.0 114.7 6.9 Q Q
Building Newer than 1980 ...... 208 196 12 Q Q 115.9 109.0 6.6 Q Q
Energy Sources (more than
one may apply)
Electricity ................................ 634 578 46 1 Q 116.4 106.3 8.4 Q Q
Natural Gas ............................. 305 270 27 Q Q 124.6 110.5 11.1 Q Q
Fuel Oil .................................... 177 153 20 Q Q 102.3 88.4 11.7 Q Q
District Heat ............................ 634 578 46 1 Q 116.4 106.3 8.4 0.2 Q
District Chilled Water ............... 309 285 24 Q Q 133.9 123.4 10.2 Q Q
Propane .................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other ....................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Space-Heating Energy Source
District Heat ............................ 633 578 45 1 Q 121.8 111.3 8.7 0.3 Q
  District Heat Main .................. 618 570 41 Q Q 125.8 116.2 8.4 Q 1.0
  District Heat Secondary ........ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other Excl District Heat ........... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Buildings without Heating ....... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Primary Space-Heating
Energy Source
Electricity ................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Natural Gas ............................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Fuel Oil..................................... N N N N N N N N N N
District Heat ............................ 618 570 41 Q Q 125.8 116.2 8.4 Q 1.0
Propane................................... N N N N N N N N N N
Other........................................ N N N N N N N N N N
Cooling Energy Source
District Heat ............................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other Excl District Heat ........... 493 455 36 Q (*) 117.2 108.4 8.6 Q (*)
Buildings without Cooling ........ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Water-Heating Energy Source
District Heat ............................ 329 274 46 1 Q 106.5 88.6 14.9 0.4 2.6
Other Excluding Distric Heat ... 194 194 (*) (*) Q 125.9 125.8 (*) (*) Q
Bldgs without Water Heating .. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooking Energy Source
District Heat ............................ 77 59 13 1 Q 130.3 100.6 21.4 2.2 Q
Other Excl District Heat ........... 142 129 Q (*) Q 106.4 96.2 Q (*) Q
Buildings without Cooking ....... 415 390 21 (*) Q 118.0 111.0 6.1 (*) Q
Energy End Uses (more than
one may apply)
Buildings with Space Heating . 634 578 46 1 Q 117.8 107.5 8.5 0.2 Q
Buildings with Cooling ............. 535 484 41 1 Q 114.9 104.0 8.9 0.3 Q
Buildings with Water Heating .. 523 468 46 1 Q 113.0 101.0 9.9 0.3 Q
Buildings with Cooking ............ 219 188 25 1 Q 113.7 97.5 12.8 0.7 Q
Buildings with Manufacturing . Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Buildings with Electricity
 Generation ............................. 237 209 21 Q Q 112.0 98.5 10.0 Q Q
Percent of Floorspace Heated
Not Heated .............................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
1 to 50 ..................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
51 to 99 ................................... 57 53 Q Q Q 90.5 83.3 6.9 Q Q
100 .......................................... 575 524 41 Q Q 121.9 111.1 8.8 Q Q
Heating Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Heat Pumps ............................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Packaged Heat Pumps .......... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Split-System Heat Pumps ...... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Individual Room Heat Pumps . Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Furnaces ................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Individual Space Heaters ........ 50 45 Q Q Q 82.5 74.8 Q 0.1 Q
District Heat ............................ 628 574 45 1 Q 121.6 111.1 8.7 0.3 Q
Boilers ..................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Packaged Heating Units .......... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other ....................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Water Heating Equipment
Centralized System ................. 286 252 30 (*) Q 107.1 94.3 11.3 Q Q
Distributed System .................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Combination of Centralized
 and Distributed System .......... 170 153 Q Q Q 115.2 103.4 Q Q Q
Energy-Related Space Functions
Commercial Food
Commercial Food Preparation.. 219 188 25 1 Q 113.7 97.5 12.8 0.7 Q
Activities with Large
 Amounts of Hot Water ........... 273 233 34 1 Q 120.8 103.1 15.0 0.5 Q
Separate Computer Area ........ 374 332 34 Q Q 114.5 101.6 10.4 Q Q
HVAC Conservation Features
(more than one may apply)
Variable Air-Volume System... 368 330 29 Q Q 121.9 109.4 9.7 Q Q
Economizer Cycle ................... 334 297 28 Q Q 109.6 97.4 9.3 Q Q
HVAC Maintenance ................ 612 558 45 1 Q 118.7 108.2 8.7 0.2 Q
Energy Management and
 Control System (EMCS) ......... 320 288 25 Q Q 115.0 103.4 9.0 Q Q
Equipment Usage Reduced
When Building Not In Full Use
(more than one may apply)
Heating .................................... 356 324 24 Q Q 113.4 103.1 7.8 Q Q
Cooling .................................... 390 357 25 Q Q 115.4 105.7 7.3 Q Q
Lighting ................................... 406 389 10 Q Q 111.9 107.3 2.9 Q Q
Office Equipment .................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
                     
See "Guide to the Tables" or "Glossary" for further explanations of the terms used in this table. Both can be accessed from the CBECS web site - http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/.
* Figures in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. In the 1999 CBECS, there were no responding malls in the sample that used district heat.
(*)=Value rounds to zero in the units displayed.
Q=Data withheld because fewer than 20 buildings were sampled for any cell, or because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent for a cell in the "Total" column.
N=No responding cases in sample that used district heat.
Notes: ● Due to rounding, data may not sum to totals. ● HVAC = Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Form EIA-871A, C, and E of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.