Released: September, 2008
Table E8. Natural Gas Consumption (cubic feet) and Energy Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003
  Total Natural Gas Consumption
(billion cubic feet)
Natural Gas Energy Intensity
(cubic feet/square foot)
Total   Space Heating Water Heating Cook-
ing
Other Total   Space Heating Water Heating Cook-
ing
Other
All Buildings* ........................ 1,870 1,276 322 138 133 43.0 29.4 7.4 3.2 3.1
Building Floorspace
(Square Feet)
1,001 to 5,000 ......................... 243 151 34 40 18 78.7 48.9 11.1 13.0 5.7
5,001 to 10,000 ....................... 202 139 31 29 Q 54.8 37.6 8.5 7.9 Q
10,001 to 25,000 ..................... 300 240 31 21 7 42.5 34.1 4.4 3.0 1.1
25,001 to 50,000 ..................... 250 182 40 11 Q 41.5 30.2 6.6 1.9 Q
50,001 to 100,000 ................... 236 169 41 8 19 35.4 25.2 6.2 1.2 2.8
100,001 to 200,000 ................. 241 165 54 7 16 36.3 24.8 8.1 1.0 2.4
200,001 to 500,000 ................. 199 130 42 11 16 35.0 22.8 7.5 1.9 2.8
Over 500,000 .......................... 198 101 48 11 38 43.0 22.0 10.4 2.3 8.3
Principal Building Activity
Education ................................ 260 201 36 5 18 36.9 28.6 5.1 0.7 2.6
Food Sales .............................. 37 26 2 8 Q 50.2 34.5 3.1 10.9 Q
Food Service .......................... 197 53 54 89 Q 141.2 37.8 38.8 63.5 Q
Health Care ............................. 235 132 71 9 22 92.5 51.9 28.1 3.7 8.8
  Inpatient ................................ 198 99 69 9 21 109.8 55.1 38.2 5.0 11.5
  Outpatient ............................. 37 33 2 Q Q 50.2 44.3 3.4 Q Q
Lodging ................................... 208 62 121 14 Q 48.9 14.6 28.3 3.2 Q
Retail (Other Than Mall)........... 89 81 3 2 2 30.9 28.4 1.0 0.8 0.7
Office ...................................... 261 223 13 2 22 31.8 27.2 1.6 0.3 2.7
Public Assembly ..................... 99 89 2 3 Q 36.4 32.8 0.9 1.0 Q
Public Order and Safety ......... 28 15 9 Q Q 43.7 23.3 14.7 Q Q
Religious Worship ................... 80 74 2 3 Q 30.3 28.3 0.9 1.0 Q
Service ................................... 135 116 2 Q 17 54.1 46.3 0.9 Q Q
Warehouse and Storage ........ 128 108 4 Q Q 23.4 19.6 0.7 Q Q
Other ....................................... 85 70 2 Q 11 67.6 56.1 1.6 Q 9.1
Vacant .................................... 27 25 Q Q Q 23.0 21.3 Q Q Q
Year Constructed
Before 1920 ............................ 139 110 12 15 Q 50.3 39.9 4.3 5.3 Q
1920 to 1945 ........................... 223 145 23 18 36 47.6 31.1 5.0 3.8 7.7
1946 to 1959 ........................... 210 154 33 11 12 45.1 33.0 7.1 2.3 2.6
1960 to 1969 ........................... 248 181 44 10 13 44.0 32.1 7.8 1.8 2.3
1970 to 1979 ........................... 341 237 66 21 17 44.5 30.9 8.7 2.8 2.2
1980 to 1989 ........................... 282 174 66 21 22 43.7 26.9 10.1 3.2 3.4
1990 to 1999 ........................... 305 198 53 29 25 37.2 24.2 6.5 3.5 3.0
2000 to 2003 ........................... 123 77 26 14 6 35.8 22.3 7.5 4.1 1.8
Census Region and Division
Northeast ................................ 415 301 47 29 38 45.2 32.8 5.1 3.2 4.1
  New England ........................ 73 58 Q Q 4 49.5 39.3 4.4 2.8 Q
  Middle Atlantic ....................... 343 243 41 25 33 44.4 31.6 5.3 3.3 4.3
Midwest .................................. 683 538 78 28 40 51.9 40.9 5.9 2.1 3.0
  East North Central ................. 512 411 58 20 23 53.5 42.9 6.1 2.1 2.4
  West North Central ............... 171 127 19 8 Q 47.6 35.4 5.4 2.3 4.6
South ...................................... 460 255 119 56 30 34.6 19.2 8.9 4.2 2.2
  South Atlantic ....................... 210 111 54 27 18 33.2 17.6 8.6 4.2 2.8
  East South Central ................ 99 64 24 6 4 43.3 28.2 10.6 2.5 1.9
  West South Central ............... 151 80 40 23 8 32.2 17.0 8.6 5.0 1.6
West ....................................... 311 182 78 24 26 39.8 23.3 10.0 3.1 3.3
  Mountain ............................... 162 116 32 4 Q 57.9 41.6 11.6 1.3 Q
  Pacific ................................... 149 66 46 21 17 29.7 13.1 9.2 4.1 3.3
Climate Zone: 30-Year Average
Under 2,000 CDD and --
  More than 7,000 HDD ............ 418 345 44 15 15 54.7 45.1 5.8 1.9 1.9
  5,500-7,000 HDD .................. 659 496 90 35 38 51.3 38.6 7.0 2.7 3.0
  4,000-5,499 HDD .................. 327 207 51 27 42 40.3 25.5 6.3 3.3 5.1
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ......... 347 187 89 40 31 33.0 17.8 8.4 3.8 3.0
2,000 CDD or More and --
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ......... 119 41 49 21 7 27.3 9.4 11.3 4.9 1.7
Number of Floors
One ......................................... 644 457 88 69 29 43.1 30.6 5.9 4.6 2.0
Two ........................................ 476 355 59 26 36 41.6 31.1 5.1 2.3 3.1
Three ...................................... 234 173 37 13 11 41.2 30.5 6.6 2.3 1.9
Four to Nine ............................ 367 226 88 20 34 47.9 29.4 11.5 2.6 4.4
Ten or More ............................ 149 66 50 9 24 39.8 17.5 13.3 2.5 6.4
Number of Workers (main shift)
Fewer than 5 .......................... 264 207 24 15 18 37.6 29.5 3.4 2.1 2.6
5 to 9 ....................................... 192 132 31 25 Q 47.1 32.2 7.6 6.2 Q
10 to 19 ................................... 235 161 36 33 5 44.2 30.3 6.7 6.2 0.9
20 to 49 ................................... 383 272 57 30 24 46.6 33.1 6.9 3.7 2.9
50 to 99 ................................... 234 162 45 11 16 38.0 26.3 7.3 1.8 2.5
100 to 249 ............................... 228 156 48 8 15 44.4 30.5 9.4 1.6 2.9
250 or More ............................ 334 186 82 15 51 44.2 24.6 10.9 1.9 6.8
Weekly Operating Hours
Fewer than 40 ........................ 104 91 Q 4 3 31.9 28.1 Q 1.3 0.8
40 to 48 ................................... 242 213 10 6 12 35.0 30.9 1.5 0.8 1.8
49 to 60 ................................... 363 295 25 17 25 35.6 28.9 2.5 1.7 2.5
61 to 84 ................................... 305 224 29 29 23 40.8 30.0 3.8 3.9 3.0
85 to 167 ................................. 249 156 35 44 14 47.7 29.8 6.8 8.4 2.7
Open Continuously ................. 607 297 217 37 56 58.3 28.5 20.8 3.6 5.4
Ownership and Occupancy
Nongovernment Owned.......... 1,458 965 266 127 100 43.7 29.0 8.0 3.8 3.0
  Owner Occupied .................. 686 491 103 41 52 41.5 29.7 6.2 2.5 3.1
  Nonowner Occupied ............ 756 458 163 86 48 47.6 28.8 10.3 5.4 3.0
  Unoccupied ........................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Government Owned ............... 412 312 56 10 34 40.6 30.7 5.6 1.0 3.3
  Federal .................................. 34 26 4 Q 2 31.4 24.2 3.9 Q 2.0
  State ..................................... 95 73 11 2 9 39.1 30.1 4.5 0.8 3.8
  Local ..................................... 283 212 41 7 22 42.6 32.0 6.2 1.1 3.3
Vacancy Status
Completely Vacant .................. 18 17 (*) Q Q 18.8 18.0 0.1 Q Q
Mostly Vacant ......................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Partially Vacant ....................... 308 224 40 14 30 36.5 26.5 4.7 1.7 3.5
Not At All Vacant .................... 1,534 1,027 282 123 102 45.3 30.4 8.3 3.6 3.0
Number of Establishments
One ......................................... 1,418 942 267 115 95 46.5 30.9 8.7 3.8 3.1
2 to 5 ....................................... 298 224 40 18 15 39.2 29.5 5.3 2.3 2.0
6 to 10 ..................................... 47 37 5 Q Q 34.4 27.1 3.6 1.6 Q
11 to 20 ................................... 33 26 Q Q Q 26.2 20.1 3.3 0.7 Q
More than 20 ........................... 56 31 7 2 Q 31.4 17.3 3.6 1.1 Q
Currently Unoccupied ............. 18 17 (*) Q Q 18.8 18.0 0.1 Q Q
Predominant Exterior
Wall Material
Brick, Stone or Stucco ............ 1,093 728 197 91 78 46.4 30.9 8.4 3.8 3.3
Concrete (Block or Poured) .... 340 234 60 22 23 46.4 32.0 8.3 3.0 3.2
Concrete Panels ..................... 174 122 Q 8 16 37.3 26.1 6.0 1.7 3.4
Siding or Shingles ................... 83 54 18 9 2 41.4 26.9 8.9 4.7 1.0
Metal Panels ............................ 126 103 7 5 12 31.4 25.5 1.7 1.2 2.9
Window Glass ........................ 14 9 2 Q Q 20.2 13.4 3.5 Q Q
Other ....................................... 34 23 9 1 Q 37.6 25.2 9.7 1.6 Q
No One Major Type ................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant Roof Material
Built-Up ................................... 720 475 134 46 66 47.4 31.2 8.8 3.0 4.4
Shingles (Not Wood) ............... 301 207 51 28 Q 46.1 31.7 7.8 4.3 Q
Metal Surfacing ....................... 188 147 14 14 14 32.6 25.4 2.5 2.3 2.4
Synthetic or Rubber ................ 526 366 93 31 35 44.4 30.9 7.9 2.6 3.0
Slate or Tile ............................. 65 39 15 9 Q 41.1 25.0 9.6 5.8 Q
Wooden Materials ................... 20 11 7 Q (*) 38.6 21.0 Q Q 0.4
Concrete ................................. 23 11 5 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other ....................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No One Major Type ................. 16 12 1 Q Q 42.0 30.8 3.4 Q Q
Renovations in Buildings
Constructed Before 1980
(more than one may apply)
Any Type of Renovation
 Since 1980 ............................. 663 460 114 39 50 50.0 34.7 8.6 2.9 3.8
   Addition or Annex ................ 295 196 63 13 23 58.6 38.9 12.5 2.5 4.7
   Reduction In Floorspace ...... 50 33 11 2 4 51.8 34.4 11.4 2.4 3.7
   Cosmetic Improvements ....... 482 333 81 32 36 47.8 33.1 8.1 3.1 3.5
   Wall or Roof Replacement ... 270 191 45 12 21 42.6 30.2 7.1 2.0 3.4
   Interior Wall
     Re-Configuration ................ 331 236 54 14 27 47.2 33.6 7.7 2.0 3.9
   HVAC Equipment Upgrade.... 453 306 85 24 38 53.4 36.1 10.1 2.8 4.4
   Lighting Upgrade .................. 386 278 63 20 25 47.6 34.3 7.7 2.5 3.0
   Window Replacement .......... 235 174 36 10 16 47.0 34.7 7.2 2.0 3.1
   Plumbing System Upgrade ... 278 192 47 16 24 48.7 33.5 8.1 2.8 4.1
   Insulation Upgrade ............... 128 93 17 9 9 43.1 31.3 5.9 3.0 2.9
   Other Renovation ................. 25 15 Q Q Q 57.4 34.8 Q Q Q
No Renovations Since 1980.... 497 368 64 35 30 41.0 30.3 5.3 2.9 2.5
Building Newer than 1980 ...... 710 449 144 64 53 39.3 24.8 8.0 3.5 2.9
Energy Sources (more than
one may apply)
Electricity ................................ 1,869 1,276 322 138 133 43.0 29.4 7.4 3.2 3.1
Natural Gas ............................. 1,870 1,276 322 138 133 43.0 29.4 7.4 3.2 3.1
Fuel Oil .................................... 492 273 141 27 51 47.3 26.3 13.6 2.6 4.9
District Heat ............................ 46 23 10 6 6 18.7 9.6 4.0 2.6 2.4
District Chilled Water ............... 34 20 8 Q Q 19.2 11.2 4.5 Q Q
Propane .................................. 103 62 26 6 9 41.7 25.1 10.5 2.5 3.7
Other ....................................... 46 32 9 1 Q 50.7 35.6 9.7 1.6 Q
Space-Heating Energy Sourcea
Natural Gas ............................. 1,749 1,276 262 95 115 47.3 34.5 7.1 2.6 3.1
  Natural Gas Main .................. 1,636 1,212 233 83 107 49.6 36.8 7.1 2.5 3.3
  Natural Gas Secondary ........ 112 64 29 12 7 28.2 16.1 7.3 3.0 1.9
Other Excluding Natural Gas .. 103 (*) 56 37 10 17.2 (*) 9.3 6.2 1.7
Buildings without Heating ....... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Primary Space-Heating
Energy Source
Electricity ................................ 171 46 76 35 13 27.8 7.5 12.4 5.7 2.1
Natural Gas ............................. 1,636 1,212 233 83 107 49.6 36.8 7.1 2.5 3.3
Fuel Oil .................................... 20 8 3 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
District Heat ............................ 22 Q 5 6 3 10.5 Q Q 2.9 Q
Propane .................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other ....................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling Energy Source
Natural Gas ............................. 89 37 15 2 36 87.6 36.5 14.3 1.9 34.9
Other Excluding Natural Gas .. 1,677 1,161 296 132 88 41.9 29.0 7.4 3.3 2.2
Buildings without Cooling ........ 104 78 12 4 Q 42.4 32.0 4.9 1.6 Q
Water-Heating Energy Source
Natural Gas ............................. 1,463 934 322 102 105 50.8 32.4 11.2 3.5 3.6
Other Excluding Natural Gas .. 350 290 (*) 35 25 28.5 23.5 (*) 2.8 2.1
Bldgs without Water Heating .. 56 52 (*) Q Q 23.9 22.4 (*) Q Q
Cooking Energy Source
Natural Gas ............................. 830 409 225 138 59 53.8 26.5 14.6 8.9 3.8
Other Excluding Natural Gas .. 137 104 21 (*) 11 42.4 32.4 6.6 (*) 3.4
Buildings without Cooking ....... 903 763 76 (*) 63 36.4 30.8 3.1 (*) 2.6
Energy End Uses (more than
one may apply)
Buildings with Space Heating . 1,852 1,276 318 133 125 43.1 29.7 7.4 3.1 2.9
Buildings with Cooling ............. 1,766 1,198 310 134 124 43.0 29.2 7.6 3.3 3.0
Buildings with Water Heating .. 1,814 1,224 322 137 130 44.1 29.8 7.8 3.3 3.2
Buildings with Cooking ............ 967 513 246 138 70 51.8 27.5 13.2 7.4 3.7
Buildings with Manufacturing . 97 61 4 Q 29 42.3 26.4 1.8 Q 12.8
Buildings with Electricity
 Generation ............................. 518 284 137 19 78 49.8 27.3 13.2 1.8 7.5
Percent of Floorspace Heated
Not Heated .............................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
1 to 50 ..................................... 94 62 9 9 15 23.5 15.6 2.2 2.2 3.6
51 to 99 ................................... 260 169 46 25 Q 43.6 28.4 7.7 4.2 Q
100 .......................................... 1,498 1,045 263 99 91 45.4 31.7 8.0 3.0 2.8
Percent of Floorspace Cooled
Not Cooled .............................. 104 78 12 4 Q 42.4 32.0 4.9 1.6 Q
1 to 50 ..................................... 438 360 25 16 37 36.1 29.7 2.1 1.3 3.0
51 to 99 ................................... 438 288 79 38 32 45.0 29.6 8.2 3.9 3.2
100 .......................................... 890 550 206 80 55 46.5 28.7 10.7 4.2 2.9
Heating Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Heat Pumps ............................. 217 106 73 16 23 39.1 19.1 13.1 2.9 4.1
  Packaged Heat Pumps .......... 135 63 49 10 Q 40.8 18.8 14.9 3.1 Q
  Split-System Heat Pumps ...... 41 23 11 Q Q 28.2 15.9 7.6 Q Q
  Individual Room Heat Pumps . 81 39 30 6 7 37.0 17.6 13.7 2.6 3.1
Furnaces ................................ 653 485 85 48 35 42.7 31.7 5.5 3.2 2.3
Individual Space Heaters ........ 368 262 59 15 31 41.0 29.3 6.6 1.7 3.5
District Heat ............................ 38 18 10 6 Q 16.6 7.6 4.2 2.8 Q
Boilers ..................................... 1,009 688 191 43 87 55.5 37.9 10.5 2.4 4.8
Packaged Heating Units .......... 564 371 111 52 29 41.4 27.3 8.2 3.8 2.2
Other ....................................... 46 37 4 2 2 25.5 20.8 2.5 0.9 1.4
Cooling Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Residential-Type Central
 Air Conditioners ..................... 379 261 56 35 28 47.5 32.7 7.0 4.3 3.6
Heat Pumps ............................. 227 115 72 17 23 38.9 19.7 12.3 3.0 3.9
  Packaged Heat Pumps .......... 141 69 49 10 Q 42.1 20.6 14.5 3.1 Q
  Split-System Heat Pumps ...... 43 24 11 Q Q 29.0 16.3 7.4 Q Q
  Individual Room Heat Pumps . 83 40 30 6 7 34.7 16.8 12.6 2.4 2.9
Individual Air Conditioners ...... 398 272 89 16 21 43.7 29.8 9.8 1.7 2.3
District Chilled Water ............... 34 20 8 Q Q 19.2 11.2 4.5 Q Q
Central Chillers ........................ 486 287 117 17 64 53.4 31.5 12.9 1.9 7.1
Packaged Air Conditioning
 Units ....................................... 1,057 740 166 86 65 44.4 31.1 7.0 3.6 2.7
Swamp Coolers ...................... 78 47 18 7 Q 61.7 36.9 14.3 5.3 Q
Other ....................................... 51 32 Q Q 3 62.8 40.1 Q 2.2 Q
Main Equipment Replaced Since
1990 (more than one may apply)
Heating .................................... 587 414 101 35 37 47.8 33.7 8.2 2.9 3.0
Cooling .................................... 756 512 140 49 55 47.1 31.9 8.7 3.0 3.4
Water Heating Equipment
Centralized System ................. 1,189 797 214 103 76 46.9 31.4 8.4 4.0 3.0
Distributed System .................. 247 195 19 20 13 32.7 25.8 2.5 2.6 1.7
Combination of Centralized
 and Distributed System .......... 378 232 89 15 41 46.0 28.3 10.9 1.8 5.0
Energy-Related Space Functions
(more than one may apply)
Commercial Food Preparation.. 966 513 246 138 69 51.8 27.5 13.2 7.4 3.7
Activities with Large
 Amounts of Hot Water ........... 903 483 246 94 80 56.3 30.1 15.3 5.9 5.0
Separate Computer Area ........ 849 571 164 35 79 41.2 27.7 7.9 1.7 3.8
HVAC Conservation Features
(more than one may apply)
Variable Air-Volume System... 688 441 136 39 73 47.2 30.2 9.3 2.6 5.0
Economizer Cycle ................... 781 526 149 37 68 46.9 31.6 9.0 2.2 4.1
HVAC Maintenance ................ 1,609 1,081 298 117 113 43.5 29.2 8.1 3.2 3.1
Energy Management and
 Control System (EMCS) ......... 463 303 90 21 49 39.8 26.1 7.8 1.8 4.3
Equipment Usage Reduced
When Building Not In Full Use
(more than one may apply)
Heating .................................... 1,253 876 194 91 92 40.2 28.1 6.2 2.9 3.0
Cooling .................................... 1,249 856 197 101 95 39.7 27.2 6.3 3.2 3.0
Lighting ................................... 1,213 939 102 97 75 39.0 30.2 3.3 3.1 2.4
Office Equipment .................... 462 369 37 28 29 36.5 29.1 2.9 2.2 2.3
Annual Consumption
(hundred cubic feet)
1,000 or Less ......................... 35 30 4 1 Q 8.2 6.8 0.9 0.3 Q
1,001 to 5,000 ......................... 242 200 23 15 4 24.8 20.5 2.3 1.6 0.4
5,001 to 10,000 ....................... 239 168 33 30 7 38.3 26.9 5.3 4.9 1.2
10,001 to 25,000 ..................... 349 232 59 41 17 44.9 29.8 7.6 5.3 2.2
25,001 to 50,000 ..................... 284 193 44 25 22 51.3 34.9 7.9 4.6 3.9
50,001 to 100,000 ................... 211 140 38 8 25 53.2 35.3 9.7 1.9 6.3
Over 100,000 .......................... 510 314 121 17 58 86.8 53.5 20.6 2.8 9.8
Provider of Natural Gas
(more than one may apply)
Local Utility .............................. 1,582 1,086 270 129 96 41.2 28.3 7.0 3.4 2.5
Some Other Provider .............. 377 249 73 13 42 59.1 39.0 11.5 2.0 6.6
                     
See "Guide to the Tables" or "Glossary" for further explanations of the terms used in this table. Both can be accessed from the CBECS web site - http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/.
* Figures in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. In the 1999 CBECS, malls represented 3.8 percent of total natural gas consumption.
a Total natural gas energy intensity in the "Other Excluding Natural Gas" row has been revised and value does not match published value in consumption Table C24 (http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/archive/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/detailed_tables_2003.html).
(*)=Value rounds to zero in the units displayed.
Q=Data withheld because fewer than 20 buildings were sampled for any cell, or because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent for a cell in the "Total" column.
Notes: ● Due to rounding, data may not sum to totals. ● HVAC = Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Form EIA-871A, C, and E of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.