Released: September, 2008
Table E7. Natural Gas Consumption (Btu) and Energy Intensities by End Use for
Non-Mall Buildings, 2003
  Total Natural Gas Consumption
(trillion Btu)
Natural Gas Energy Intensity
(thousand Btu/square foot)
Total   Space Heating Water Heating Cook-
ing
Other Total   Space Heating Water Heating Cook-
ing
Other
All Buildings* ....................... 1,928 1,316 332 142 137 44.3 30.3 7.6 3.3 3.2
Building Floorspace
(Square Feet)
1,001 to 5,000 ........................ 250 155 35 41 18 81.1 50.4 11.5 13.4 5.9
5,001 to 10,000 ...................... 209 143 32 30 Q 56.5 38.8 8.7 8.2 Q
10,001 to 25,000 .................... 309 248 32 22 8 43.9 35.1 4.6 3.1 1.1
25,001 to 50,000 .................... 258 188 41 12 Q 42.7 31.1 6.8 2.0 Q
50,001 to 100,000 .................. 244 174 43 8 19 36.5 26.0 6.4 1.2 2.9
100,001 to 200,000 ................ 249 170 56 7 16 37.5 25.6 8.4 1.0 2.5
200,001 to 500,000 ................ 205 134 44 11 16 36.1 23.5 7.7 2.0 2.9
Over 500,000 ......................... 204 105 49 11 40 44.3 22.7 10.7 2.4 8.6
Principal Building Activity
Education ................................ 268 207 37 5 19 38.1 29.5 5.2 0.7 2.7
Food Sales ............................. 39 27 2 8 Q 51.7 35.6 3.2 11.2 Q
Food Service .......................... 203 54 56 91 Q 145.6 39.0 40.0 65.4 Q
Health Care ............................. 243 136 74 10 23 95.3 53.6 28.9 3.8 9.1
  Inpatient ................................ 204 103 71 9 21 113.2 56.8 39.4 5.2 11.9
  Outpatient ............................. 38 34 3 Q Q 51.8 45.6 3.5 Q Q
Lodging ................................... 215 64 124 14 Q 50.4 15.0 29.2 3.3 Q
Retail (Other Than Mall)........... 91 84 3 3 2 31.9 29.3 1.0 0.9 0.7
Office ..................................... 269 230 13 3 23 32.8 28.1 1.6 0.3 2.8
Public Assembly ..................... 102 92 2 3 Q 37.5 33.8 0.9 1.0 Q
Public Order and Safety ......... 29 15 10 Q Q 45.0 24.1 15.1 Q Q
Religious Worship ................... 82 77 2 3 Q 31.2 29.1 0.9 1.0 Q
Service ................................... 139 119 2 Q 17 55.8 47.8 0.9 Q Q
Warehouse and Storage ........ 132 111 4 Q Q 24.1 20.2 0.7 Q Q
Other ...................................... 87 72 2 Q 12 69.7 57.9 1.7 Q 9.4
Vacant .................................... 28 26 Q Q Q 23.7 22.0 Q Q Q
Year Constructed
Before 1920 ........................... 143 114 12 15 Q 51.9 41.2 4.4 5.5 Q
1920 to 1945 .......................... 229 150 24 18 37 49.0 32.0 5.1 3.9 8.0
1946 to 1959 .......................... 216 159 34 11 13 46.5 34.0 7.3 2.3 2.7
1960 to 1969 .......................... 255 187 45 10 13 45.3 33.1 8.0 1.8 2.4
1970 to 1979 .......................... 351 244 68 22 17 45.9 31.9 8.9 2.8 2.2
1980 to 1989 .......................... 291 180 68 21 23 45.0 27.8 10.5 3.3 3.5
1990 to 1999 .......................... 314 204 54 30 26 38.4 25.0 6.7 3.6 3.1
2000 to 2003 .......................... 127 79 26 15 6 36.9 23.0 7.7 4.3 1.9
Census Region and Division
Northeast ................................ 428 310 49 30 39 46.6 33.8 5.3 3.3 4.2
  New England ........................ 75 59 Q Q 5 51.1 40.5 4.5 2.9 Q
  Middle Atlantic ...................... 353 251 42 26 34 45.8 32.5 5.4 3.4 4.4
Midwest .................................. 705 555 80 29 41 53.5 42.1 6.1 2.2 3.1
  East North Central ................ 528 424 60 20 24 55.2 44.3 6.3 2.1 2.5
  West North Central ............... 177 131 20 8 Q 49.1 36.5 5.5 2.4 4.8
South ...................................... 474 263 123 58 31 35.6 19.8 9.2 4.3 2.3
  South Atlantic ....................... 217 115 56 28 18 34.2 18.1 8.9 4.4 2.9
  East South Central ................ 102 66 25 6 5 44.6 29.1 11.0 2.6 2.0
  West South Central .............. 156 83 42 24 8 33.2 17.6 8.8 5.1 1.7
West ....................................... 320 187 81 25 27 41.0 24.0 10.3 3.2 3.5
  Mountain ............................... 167 120 33 4 Q 59.7 42.9 12.0 1.4 Q
  Pacific ................................... 153 68 47 21 17 30.6 13.5 9.4 4.3 3.4
Climate Zone: 30-Year Average
Under 2,000 CDD and --
  More than 7,000 HDD ........... 431 356 46 15 15 56.4 46.5 6.0 2.0 2.0
  5,500-7,000 HDD .................. 679 511 92 36 39 52.8 39.8 7.2 2.8 3.1
  4,000-5,499 HDD .................. 337 214 52 28 43 41.5 26.3 6.5 3.4 5.3
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ......... 358 193 91 41 32 34.1 18.4 8.7 3.9 3.1
2,000 CDD or More and --
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ......... 122 42 51 22 8 28.1 9.7 11.6 5.1 1.8
Number of Floors
One ......................................... 664 471 91 71 30 44.4 31.5 6.1 4.8 2.0
Two ........................................ 491 366 60 27 37 42.9 32.0 5.3 2.4 3.2
Three ...................................... 241 178 38 13 11 42.5 31.4 6.8 2.4 1.9
Four to Nine ............................ 378 233 91 20 35 49.3 30.3 11.8 2.6 4.5
Ten or More ............................ 154 68 52 10 25 41.0 18.0 13.8 2.6 6.6
Number of Workers (main shift)
Fewer than 5 .......................... 272 213 25 15 19 38.8 30.4 3.5 2.2 2.6
5 to 9 ...................................... 198 136 32 26 Q 48.5 33.2 7.8 6.4 Q
10 to 19 .................................. 242 166 37 34 5 45.5 31.3 6.9 6.4 1.0
20 to 49 .................................. 395 280 58 31 25 48.1 34.2 7.1 3.8 3.0
50 to 99 .................................. 241 167 46 12 16 39.2 27.1 7.5 1.9 2.6
100 to 249 .............................. 235 161 49 8 16 45.8 31.5 9.6 1.6 3.0
250 or More ............................ 344 192 85 15 53 45.6 25.4 11.2 2.0 7.0
Weekly Operating Hours
Fewer than 40 ........................ 107 94 Q 4 3 32.9 28.9 Q 1.3 0.8
40 to 48 .................................. 249 220 11 6 13 36.1 31.8 1.5 0.8 1.8
49 to 60 .................................. 374 304 26 18 26 36.7 29.8 2.6 1.8 2.6
61 to 84 .................................. 314 231 30 30 23 42.1 30.9 4.0 4.1 3.1
85 to 167 ................................ 257 161 36 45 15 49.2 30.7 7.0 8.7 2.8
Open Continuously ................. 626 306 224 38 58 60.1 29.4 21.5 3.7 5.5
Ownership and Occupancy
Nongovernment Owned.......... 1,503 995 274 131 103 45.1 29.9 8.2 3.9 3.1
  Owner Occupied .................. 708 506 106 42 53 42.8 30.6 6.4 2.5 3.2
  Nonowner Occupied ............ 779 472 168 89 50 49.0 29.7 10.6 5.6 3.1
  Unoccupied .......................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Government Owned ............... 425 321 58 11 35 41.9 31.7 5.7 1.1 3.4
  Federal ................................. 35 27 4 Q 2 32.4 24.9 4.0 Q 2.0
  State ..................................... 98 76 11 2 10 40.4 31.0 4.6 0.8 3.9
  Local ..................................... 291 219 43 7 23 43.9 33.0 6.4 1.1 3.5
Vacancy Status
Completely Vacant ................. 18 17 (*) Q Q 19.4 18.5 0.1 Q Q
Mostly Vacant ........................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Partially Vacant ...................... 318 231 41 15 31 37.6 27.3 4.9 1.8 3.7
Not At All Vacant .................... 1,582 1,059 291 127 105 46.7 31.3 8.6 3.7 3.1
Number of Establishments
One ......................................... 1,462 971 275 118 98 47.9 31.8 9.0 3.9 3.2
2 to 5 ...................................... 307 231 41 18 16 40.4 30.5 5.5 2.4 2.1
6 to 10 .................................... 48 38 5 Q Q 35.4 27.9 3.7 1.7 Q
11 to 20 .................................. 34 26 Q Q Q 27.0 20.7 3.4 0.7 Q
More than 20 .......................... 58 32 7 2 Q 32.4 17.9 3.7 1.1 Q
Currently Unoccupied ............. 18 17 (*) Q Q 19.4 18.5 0.1 Q Q
Predominant Exterior
Wall Material
Brick, Stone or Stucco ........... 1,127 750 204 93 80 47.9 31.8 8.6 4.0 3.4
Concrete (Block or Poured) .... 351 242 62 22 24 47.9 33.0 8.5 3.1 3.3
Concrete Panels ..................... 180 126 Q 8 16 38.4 26.9 6.2 1.8 3.5
Siding or Shingles ................... 85 55 18 10 2 42.7 27.7 9.2 4.9 1.0
Metal Panels ........................... 130 106 7 5 12 32.4 26.3 1.8 1.2 3.0
Window Glass ........................ 14 10 2 Q Q 20.8 13.8 3.6 Q Q
Other ...................................... 35 23 9 2 Q 38.8 26.0 10.0 1.7 Q
No One Major Type ................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant Roof Material
Built-Up ................................... 743 489 138 47 68 48.8 32.2 9.1 3.1 4.5
Shingles (Not Wood) .............. 310 213 52 29 Q 47.6 32.7 8.0 4.5 Q
Metal Surfacing ...................... 194 151 15 14 14 33.6 26.1 2.6 2.4 2.5
Synthetic or Rubber ............... 542 378 96 32 36 45.8 31.9 8.1 2.7 3.1
Slate or Tile ............................. 67 41 16 9 Q 42.3 25.7 9.9 6.0 Q
Wooden Materials ................... 21 11 7 Q (*) 39.8 21.7 Q Q 0.4
Concrete ................................. 24 11 6 Q Q Q Q Q 4.5 Q
Other ...................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No One Major Type ................. 16 12 1 Q Q 43.3 31.8 3.5 Q Q
Renovations in Buildings
Constructed Before 1980
(more than one may apply)
Any Type of Renovation
 Since 1980 ............................ 684 474 118 40 52 51.5 35.7 8.9 3.0 3.9
   Addition or Annex ............... 304 202 65 13 24 60.4 40.2 12.9 2.6 4.8
   Reduction In Floorspace ...... 52 34 11 2 4 53.5 35.5 11.7 2.5 3.8
   Cosmetic Improvements ...... 497 344 84 33 37 49.3 34.1 8.3 3.2 3.7
   Wall or Roof Replacement ... 278 197 46 13 22 44.0 31.2 7.3 2.0 3.5
   Interior Wall
     Re-Configuration ............... 342 243 56 14 28 48.7 34.6 7.9 2.1 4.0
   HVAC Equipment Upgrade... 467 316 88 24 39 55.1 37.2 10.4 2.9 4.6
   Lighting Upgrade ................. 397 286 65 21 25 49.0 35.3 8.0 2.6 3.1
   Window Replacement ......... 242 179 37 10 16 48.5 35.8 7.4 2.0 3.2
   Plumbing System Upgrade ... 287 198 48 17 24 50.2 34.6 8.4 2.9 4.3
   Insulation Upgrade ............... 132 95 18 9 9 44.5 32.3 6.1 3.1 3.0
   Other Renovation ................ 26 16 Q Q Q 59.1 35.9 Q Q Q
No Renovations Since 1980.... 512 379 66 36 31 42.3 31.3 5.4 3.0 2.6
Building Newer than 1980 ...... 732 463 149 66 55 40.5 25.6 8.2 3.6 3.0
Energy Sources (more than
one may apply)
Electricity ................................ 1,927 1,316 332 142 137 44.3 30.3 7.6 3.3 3.2
Natural Gas ............................ 1,928 1,316 332 142 137 44.3 30.3 7.6 3.3 3.2
Fuel Oil .................................... 507 281 145 27 53 48.8 27.1 14.0 2.6 5.1
District Heat ............................ 47 24 10 7 6 19.2 9.9 4.1 2.7 2.5
District Chilled Water .............. 35 20 8 Q Q 19.8 11.5 4.7 Q Q
Propane .................................. 106 64 27 6 9 43.0 25.9 10.8 2.6 3.8
Other ...................................... 47 33 9 2 Q 52.3 36.7 10.0 1.7 Q
Space-Heating Energy Source
Natural Gas ............................ 1,803 1,316 270 98 118 48.8 35.6 7.3 2.7 3.2
  Natural Gas Main .................. 1,687 1,250 240 86 111 51.2 37.9 7.3 2.6 3.4
  Natural Gas Secondary ........ 116 66 30 12 8 29.1 16.6 7.5 3.1 1.9
Other Excluding Natural Gas .. 106 (*) 57 38 11 17.7 (*) 9.5 6.4 1.8
Buildings without Heating ....... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Primary Space-Heating
Energy Source
Electricity ................................ 177 48 79 36 13 28.6 7.8 12.8 5.9 2.2
Natural Gas ............................ 1,687 1,250 240 86 111 51.2 37.9 7.3 2.6 3.4
Fuel Oil .................................... 20 8 3 Q Q Q Q Q 4.9 Q
District Heat ............................ 23 Q 6 6 3 10.9 Q Q 3.0 Q
Propane .................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other ...................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling Energy Source
Natural Gas ............................ 92 38 15 2 37 90.3 37.6 14.8 1.9 36.0
Other Excluding Natural Gas .. 1,729 1,197 305 136 91 43.2 29.9 7.6 3.4 2.3
Buildings without Cooling ....... 107 81 12 4 Q 43.7 33.0 5.0 1.6 Q
Water-Heating Energy Source
Natural Gas ............................ 1,509 963 332 105 108 52.4 33.4 11.5 3.7 3.7
Other Excluding Natural Gas .. 361 299 (*) 36 26 29.3 24.3 (*) 2.9 2.1
Bldgs without Water Heating .. 57 54 (*) Q Q 24.6 23.1 (*) Q Q
Cooking Energy Source
Natural Gas ............................ 856 422 232 142 61 55.5 27.3 15.0 9.2 3.9
Other Excluding Natural Gas .. 141 107 22 (*) 11 43.7 33.4 6.8 (*) 3.5
Buildings without Cooking ...... 931 787 78 (*) 65 37.5 31.7 3.2 (*) 2.6
Energy End Uses (more than
one may apply)
Buildings with Space Heating . 1,909 1,316 328 137 129 44.4 30.6 7.6 3.2 3.0
Buildings with Cooling ............ 1,821 1,235 320 138 127 44.4 30.1 7.8 3.4 3.1
Buildings with Water Heating . 1,870 1,262 332 142 134 45.5 30.7 8.1 3.4 3.3
Buildings with Cooking ........... 997 529 254 142 72 53.4 28.4 13.6 7.6 3.9
Buildings with Manufacturing . 100 63 4 Q 30 43.6 27.2 1.9 Q 13.2
Buildings with Electricity
 Generation ............................. 534 293 141 19 81 51.3 28.2 13.6 1.8 7.8
Percent of Floorspace Heated
Not Heated .............................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
1 to 50 .................................... 97 64 9 9 15 24.3 16.0 2.2 2.3 3.8
51 to 99 .................................. 268 174 47 26 Q 44.9 29.2 8.0 4.3 Q
100 ......................................... 1,544 1,077 272 102 94 46.8 32.6 8.2 3.1 2.8
Percent of Floorspace Cooled
Not Cooled .............................. 107 81 12 4 Q 43.7 33.0 5.0 1.6 Q
1 to 50 .................................... 452 371 26 16 38 37.2 30.6 2.2 1.4 3.1
51 to 99 .................................. 451 297 82 40 32 46.4 30.5 8.4 4.1 3.3
100 ......................................... 918 567 212 82 57 47.9 29.6 11.1 4.3 3.0
Heating Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Heat Pumps ............................ 224 109 75 17 24 40.3 19.7 13.5 3.0 4.2
  Packaged Heat Pumps .......... 140 65 51 11 Q 42.0 19.4 15.3 3.2 Q
  Split-System Heat Pumps ..... 42 24 11 Q Q 29.0 16.4 7.9 Q Q
  Individual Room Heat Pumps . 84 40 31 6 7 38.1 18.1 14.1 2.7 3.2
Furnaces ................................ 673 500 87 50 36 44.0 32.6 5.7 3.3 2.4
Individual Space Heaters ........ 379 270 61 16 32 42.3 30.2 6.8 1.8 3.6
District Heat ............................ 39 18 10 7 Q 17.1 7.9 4.3 2.8 Q
Boilers .................................... 1,040 709 197 44 89 57.2 39.0 10.8 2.4 4.9
Packaged Heating Units .......... 582 383 115 54 30 42.7 28.1 8.4 4.0 2.2
Other ...................................... 47 39 5 2 3 26.3 21.4 2.5 0.9 1.4
Cooling Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Residential-Type Central
 Air Conditioners ..................... 391 269 57 36 29 49.0 33.7 7.2 4.5 3.7
Heat Pumps ............................ 234 119 74 18 24 40.1 20.3 12.7 3.1 4.0
  Packaged Heat Pumps .......... 145 71 50 11 Q 43.4 21.3 14.9 3.2 Q
  Split-System Heat Pumps ..... 45 25 11 Q Q 29.9 16.8 7.6 Q Q
  Individual Room Heat Pumps . 85 41 31 6 7 35.8 17.3 13.0 2.5 3.0
Individual Air Conditioners ...... 410 280 92 16 22 45.0 30.8 10.1 1.8 2.4
District Chilled Water .............. 35 20 8 Q Q 19.8 11.5 4.7 Q Q
Central Chillers ....................... 501 296 121 18 66 55.0 32.5 13.3 2.0 7.3
Packaged Air Conditioning
 Units ...................................... 1,090 763 171 88 67 45.8 32.1 7.2 3.7 2.8
Swamp Coolers ...................... 81 48 19 7 Q 63.6 38.1 14.7 5.4 Q
Other ...................................... 52 33 Q Q 3 64.8 41.3 Q 2.2 Q
Main Equipment Replaced Since
1990 (more than one may apply)
Heating ................................... 605 427 104 36 38 49.3 34.8 8.5 2.9 3.1
Cooling .................................... 779 528 144 50 56 48.5 32.9 9.0 3.1 3.5
Water Heating Equipment
Centralized System ................ 1,226 822 220 106 78 48.4 32.4 8.7 4.2 3.1
Distributed System ................. 254 201 20 21 13 33.7 26.6 2.6 2.7 1.7
Combination of Centralized
 and Distributed System ......... 390 239 92 15 43 47.4 29.1 11.2 1.9 5.2
Energy-Related Space Functions
(more than one may apply)
Commercial Food Preparation.. 996 529 254 142 71 53.4 28.4 13.6 7.6 3.8
Activities with Large
 Amounts of Hot Water ........... 931 498 254 97 83 58.1 31.1 15.8 6.1 5.1
Separate Computer Area ....... 875 589 169 36 81 42.4 28.6 8.2 1.7 3.9
HVAC Conservation Features
(more than one may apply)
Variable Air-Volume System... 710 455 140 40 75 48.6 31.2 9.6 2.7 5.2
Economizer Cycle ................... 805 543 154 39 70 48.3 32.6 9.3 2.3 4.2
HVAC Maintenance ................ 1,659 1,114 308 120 117 44.9 30.1 8.3 3.3 3.2
Energy Management and
 Control System (EMCS) ......... 477 312 93 21 51 41.1 26.9 8.0 1.8 4.4
Equipment Usage Reduced
When Building Not In Full Use
(more than one may apply)
Heating ................................... 1,292 903 200 94 95 41.4 29.0 6.4 3.0 3.1
Cooling .................................... 1,288 882 203 105 98 41.0 28.1 6.4 3.3 3.1
Lighting ................................... 1,250 968 106 100 77 40.2 31.1 3.4 3.2 2.5
Office Equipment .................... 476 380 38 28 30 37.6 30.0 3.0 2.2 2.3
Annual Consumption
(hundred cubic feet)
1,000 or Less ......................... 37 30 4 1 Q 8.4 7.0 1.0 0.3 Q
1,001 to 5,000 ........................ 249 206 23 16 4 25.6 21.2 2.4 1.6 0.4
5,001 to 10,000 ...................... 247 174 34 31 8 39.4 27.7 5.5 5.0 1.2
10,001 to 25,000 .................... 360 239 61 42 18 46.3 30.7 7.8 5.4 2.3
25,001 to 50,000 .................... 293 199 45 26 22 52.9 36.0 8.2 4.7 4.0
50,001 to 100,000 .................. 218 144 40 8 26 54.8 36.3 10.0 2.0 6.5
Over 100,000 ......................... 525 324 125 17 59 89.4 55.1 21.3 2.9 10.1
Provider of Natural Gas
(more than one may apply)
Local Utility ............................. 1,631 1,120 278 133 99 42.5 29.2 7.2 3.5 2.6
Some Other Provider .............. 389 256 76 13 44 61.0 40.2 11.9 2.0 6.8
                     
See "Guide to the Tables" or "Glossary" for further explanations of the terms used in this table. Both can be accessed from the CBECS web site - http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/.
* Figures in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. In the 1999 CBECS, malls represented 3.8 percent of total natural gas consumption.
(*)=Value rounds to zero in the units displayed.
Q=Data withheld because fewer than 20 buildings were sampled for any cell, or because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent for a cell in the "Total" column.
Notes: ● Due to rounding, data may not sum to totals. ● HVAC = Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Form EIA-871A, C, and E of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.