Revised: December, 2008
Table E2A. Major Fuel Consumption (Btu) Intensities by End Use for All Buildings,
2003
   Major Fuel Energy Intensity (thousand Btu/square foot) 
Total   Space Heat-
ing
Cool-
ing
Venti-
lation
Water Heat-
ing
Light-
ing
Cook-
ing
Refrig-
eration
Office Equip-
ment
Com-
puters
Other
All Buildings ......................... 91.0 33.0 7.2 6.1 7.0 18.7 2.7 5.3 1.0 2.2 7.9
Building Floorspace
(Square Feet)
1,001 to 5,000 ......................... 99.0 30.7 6.7 2.7 7.1 13.9 7.1 19.9 1.1 1.7 8.2
5,001 to 10,000 ....................... 80.0 30.1 5.5 2.6 6.1 13.6 5.2 8.2 0.8 1.4 6.6
10,001 to 25,000 ..................... 71.0 28.2 4.5 4.1 4.1 14.5 2.3 4.5 0.8 1.6 6.5
25,001 to 50,000 ..................... 79.0 29.9 6.8 5.9 6.3 14.9 1.7 3.9 0.8 1.8 7.1
50,001 to 100,000 ................... 88.7 31.6 7.6 7.6 6.5 19.6 1.7 3.4 0.7 2.0 8.1
100,001 to 200,000 ................. 104.2 39.1 8.2 8.9 7.9 22.9 1.1 2.9 Q 3.2 8.7
200,001 to 500,000 ................. 100.2 38.2 7.8 7.4 9.2 22.7 1.8 1.3 1.1 2.6 8.2
Over 500,000 .......................... 118.2 38.2 11.8 8.8 10.6 28.7 2.3 2.4 Q 3.2 11.1
Principal Building Activity
Education ................................ 83.1 39.4 8.0 8.4 5.8 11.5 0.8 1.6 0.4 3.3 4.0
Food Sales .............................. 199.7 28.9 9.8 5.9 2.9 36.7 8.6 94.8 1.6 1.5 9.1
Food Service .......................... 258.3 43.1 17.4 14.8 40.4 25.4 63.5 42.1 1.0 1.0 9.5
Health Care ............................. 187.7 70.4 14.1 13.3 30.2 33.1 3.5 2.6 1.2 3.2 16.1
  Inpatient ................................ 249.2 91.8 18.6 20.0 48.4 40.1 5.6 2.0 1.1 3.6 18.1
  Outpatient ............................. 94.6 38.1 7.2 3.3 2.5 22.6 Q 3.5 1.3 2.6 13.2
Lodging ................................... 100.0 22.2 4.9 2.7 31.4 24.3 3.2 2.3 Q 1.2 7.0
Mercantile ............................... 91.3 24.0 9.9 6.0 5.1 27.5 2.3 4.4 0.7 1.0 10.3
  Retail (Other Than Mall) ........ 73.9 24.8 5.9 3.7 1.1 25.7 0.6 5.0 0.6 0.9 5.6
  Enclosed and Strip Malls ....... 102.2 23.6 12.4 7.5 7.7 28.6 3.4 4.0 0.8 1.1 13.2
Office ...................................... 92.9 32.8 8.9 5.2 2.0 23.1 0.3 2.9 2.6 6.1 9.0
Public Assembly ..................... 93.9 49.7 9.6 15.9 1.0 7.0 0.8 2.2 Q Q 6.5
Public Order and Safety ......... 115.8 49.9 8.9 9.5 14.0 16.5 1.3 2.9 0.6 1.5 10.6
Religious Worship ................... 43.5 26.2 2.9 1.4 0.8 4.4 0.8 1.7 0.1 0.2 4.9
Service ................................... 77.0 35.9 3.8 6.0 1.0 15.6 Q 2.1 0.3 0.8 11.4
Warehouse and Storage ........ 45.2 19.3 1.3 2.0 0.6 13.1 Q 3.5 0.2 0.5 4.8
Other ....................................... 164.4 79.4 10.5 6.1 2.1 34.1 Q 6.0 Q 2.9 18.9
Vacant .................................... 20.9 14.4 0.6 0.4 0.1 1.7 Q Q Q 0.0 3.1
Year Constructed
Before 1920 ............................ 80.2 47.7 1.8 2.9 4.4 9.1 4.4 4.4 0.5 0.9 3.9
1920 to 1945 ........................... 90.4 45.5 3.8 4.4 6.2 13.2 2.9 3.7 0.4 1.2 9.1
1946 to 1959 ........................... 80.9 39.1 4.5 4.9 6.3 12.9 1.9 3.7 0.6 1.5 5.7
1960 to 1969 ........................... 91.5 40.8 5.6 6.1 7.8 14.7 1.7 4.8 0.8 2.2 6.9
1970 to 1979 ........................... 97.0 32.3 7.9 7.0 8.3 21.6 2.6 5.2 1.1 2.3 8.6
1980 to 1989 ........................... 100.0 28.8 9.8 6.6 8.2 23.9 2.7 6.0 1.3 3.1 9.6
1990 to 1999 ........................... 90.2 25.2 9.2 7.2 6.0 21.0 2.9 6.5 1.3 2.6 8.4
2000 to 2003 ........................... 81.6 19.4 8.8 5.9 6.3 21.7 3.3 6.5 0.7 1.6 7.4
Census Region and Division
Northeast ................................ 99.8 48.2 3.9 5.4 6.7 17.1 2.7 4.5 0.9 2.3 8.1
  New England ........................ 99.8 53.9 3.0 4.5 5.8 16.0 1.9 6.0 0.7 2.0 6.0
  Middle Atlantic ....................... 99.7 46.3 4.2 5.7 7.0 17.4 3.0 4.0 1.0 2.4 8.7
Midwest .................................. 99.4 48.3 3.7 6.0 5.9 17.3 2.1 5.1 0.9 2.0 8.1
  East North Central ................. 108.1 54.4 3.7 6.7 6.2 18.5 2.2 5.0 1.0 2.2 8.2
  West North Central ............... 80.2 34.8 3.8 4.6 5.3 14.6 1.8 5.3 0.6 1.6 7.8
South ...................................... 84.7 19.4 11.5 6.7 7.1 20.3 3.1 6.3 0.8 2.2 7.4
  South Atlantic ....................... 88.7 19.9 11.6 7.1 7.1 22.2 2.9 6.8 0.9 2.7 7.6
  East South Central ................ 91.4 30.3 7.2 6.6 8.6 19.5 2.7 6.8 0.6 1.5 7.6
  West South Central ............... 75.8 14.2 13.2 6.0 6.5 17.7 3.5 5.2 0.7 1.7 7.1
West ....................................... 82.9 23.2 6.7 5.6 8.5 19.1 2.6 4.6 1.6 2.3 8.8
  Mountain ............................... 106.1 39.8 7.4 6.4 9.7 22.4 1.8 4.8 Q 2.1 10.2
  Pacific ................................... 71.6 15.2 6.4 5.2 7.9 17.5 2.9 4.5 Q 2.4 8.0
Climate Zone: 30-Year Average
Under 2,000 CDD and --
  More than 7,000 HDD ............ 94.2 48.1 2.4 5.7 5.8 15.6 1.9 5.4 0.8 1.6 6.9
  5,500-7,000 HDD .................. 102.6 48.5 4.0 5.8 6.8 18.7 2.5 5.0 0.9 2.2 8.2
  4,000-5,499 HDD .................. 99.4 37.0 6.3 6.1 7.6 20.7 3.0 5.2 1.5 2.6 9.4
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ......... 78.6 18.6 8.1 6.1 7.6 18.7 3.0 5.7 0.9 2.0 7.9
2,000 CDD or More and --
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ......... 78.6 9.5 17.3 6.8 6.9 19.5 2.9 5.3 0.8 2.6 7.0
Number of Establishments
One ......................................... 92.3 34.6 6.4 6.0 8.0 17.5 3.1 6.4 0.9 1.9 7.4
2 to 5 ....................................... 92.4 36.6 6.6 5.9 6.0 19.5 2.1 4.4 1.1 2.1 8.1
6 to 10 ..................................... 112.6 40.1 9.4 7.5 5.7 26.6 2.5 3.3 1.2 5.3 11.1
11 to 20 ................................... 91.1 24.3 11.0 7.5 5.1 24.3 2.0 3.3 1.0 2.4 10.2
More than 20 ........................... 93.4 19.4 14.6 7.8 5.4 26.0 1.7 2.7 1.3 3.4 11.2
Currently Unoccupied ............. 17.2 12.8 Q 0.1 (*) 1.2 Q Q Q Q 2.3
Energy Sources 
(more than one may apply)
Electricity ................................ 92.9 33.7 7.4 6.2 7.1 19.1 2.7 5.4 1.0 2.2 8.1
Natural Gas ............................. 104.0 38.7 7.3 6.9 9.0 20.4 3.8 5.3 1.0 2.4 9.2
Fuel Oil .................................... 114.8 42.0 8.7 8.0 12.5 23.9 2.2 2.9 1.5 3.2 9.8
District Heat ............................ 184.6 109.3 6.0 12.6 10.8 26.9 Q 2.2 0.8 5.3 8.9
Energy End Uses 
(more than one may apply)
Buildings with Space Heating . 95.9 35.6 7.3 6.4 7.4 19.5 2.8 5.4 1.0 2.3 8.1
Buildings with Cooling ............. 96.7 33.7 8.1 6.6 7.5 20.2 2.9 5.8 1.1 2.4 8.4
Buildings with Water Heating .. 98.0 34.7 7.8 6.6 8.0 20.1 3.0 5.8 1.1 2.4 8.5
                       
See "Guide to the Tables" or "Glossary" for further explanations of the terms used in this table. Both can be accessed from the CBECS web site - http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/.
(*)=Value rounds to zero in the units displayed.
Q=Data withheld because fewer than 20 buildings were sampled for any cell, or because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent for a cell in the "Total" column.
Note: Due to rounding, data may not sum to totals.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Form EIA-871A, C, and E of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.