Revised: December, 2008
Table E2. Major Fuel Consumption (Btu) Intensities by End Use for Non-Mall
Buildings, 2003 
   Major Fuel Energy Intensity (thousand Btu/square foot) 
Total   Space Heat-
ing
Cool-
ing
Venti-
lation
Water Heat-
ing
Light-
ing
Cook-
ing
Refrig-
eration
Office Equip-
ment
Com-
puters
Other
All Buildings* ........................ 89.8 34.0 6.7 5.9 6.9 17.6 2.6 5.5 1.0 2.3 7.4
Building Floorspace
(Square Feet)
1,001 to 5,000 ......................... 98.9 30.5 6.7 2.7 7.1 13.7 7.1 20.2 1.2 1.7 8.1
5,001 to 10,000 ....................... 78.3 30.0 5.4 2.6 6.1 12.5 5.2 8.4 0.8 1.4 5.9
10,001 to 25,000 ..................... 67.3 28.1 4.1 3.9 3.7 13.1 2.1 4.6 0.8 1.6 5.3
25,001 to 50,000 ..................... 77.6 30.2 6.6 5.8 6.3 13.9 1.6 3.9 0.8 1.9 6.7
50,001 to 100,000 ................... 83.8 32.4 6.5 7.2 6.0 17.4 1.2 3.3 0.7 2.0 7.1
100,001 to 200,000 ................. 103.0 41.3 7.1 8.8 7.9 21.5 0.9 2.7 Q 3.4 8.0
200,001 to 500,000 ................. 101.0 39.0 7.6 7.5 9.4 22.6 1.9 1.2 1.1 2.7 8.1
Over 500,000 .......................... 129.7 44.9 11.5 9.5 11.7 30.6 2.2 2.1 Q 3.9 11.9
Principal Building Activity
Education ................................ 83.1 39.4 8.0 8.4 5.8 11.5 0.8 1.6 0.4 3.3 4.0
Food Sales .............................. 199.7 28.9 9.8 5.9 2.9 36.7 8.6 94.8 1.6 1.5 9.1
Food Service .......................... 258.3 43.1 17.4 14.8 40.4 25.4 63.5 42.1 1.0 1.0 9.5
Health Care ............................. 187.7 70.4 14.1 13.3 30.2 33.1 3.5 2.6 1.2 3.2 16.1
  Inpatient ................................ 249.2 91.8 18.6 20.0 48.4 40.1 5.6 2.0 1.1 3.6 18.1
  Outpatient ............................. 94.6 38.1 7.2 3.3 2.5 22.6 Q 3.5 1.3 2.6 13.2
Lodging ................................... 100.0 22.2 4.9 2.7 31.4 24.3 3.2 2.3 Q 1.2 7.0
Retail (Other Than Mall)........... 73.9 24.8 5.9 3.7 1.1 25.7 0.6 5.0 0.6 0.9 5.6
Office ...................................... 92.9 32.8 8.9 5.2 2.0 23.1 0.3 2.9 2.6 6.1 9.0
Public Assembly ..................... 93.9 49.7 9.6 15.9 1.0 7.0 0.8 2.2 Q Q 6.5
Public Order and Safety ......... 115.8 49.9 8.9 9.5 14.0 16.5 1.3 2.9 0.6 1.5 10.6
Religious Worship ................... 43.5 26.2 2.9 1.4 0.8 4.4 0.8 1.7 0.1 0.2 4.9
Service ................................... 77.0 35.9 3.8 6.0 1.0 15.6 Q 2.1 0.3 0.8 11.4
Warehouse and Storage ........ 45.2 19.3 1.3 2.0 0.6 13.1 Q 3.5 0.2 0.5 4.8
Other ....................................... 164.4 79.4 10.5 6.1 2.1 34.1 Q 6.0 Q 2.9 18.9
Vacant .................................... 20.9 14.4 0.6 0.4 0.1 1.7 Q Q Q 0.0 3.1
Year Constructed
Before 1920 ............................ 80.2 47.8 1.8 2.9 4.4 9.1 4.4 4.5 0.5 0.9 3.9
1920 to 1945 ........................... 90.3 45.9 3.7 4.3 6.2 12.9 2.9 3.7 0.4 1.2 9.0
1946 to 1959 ........................... 80.3 39.4 4.3 4.8 6.3 12.4 1.8 3.6 0.6 1.5 5.5
1960 to 1969 ........................... 90.9 41.5 5.5 6.1 7.9 14.0 1.5 4.9 0.8 2.3 6.4
1970 to 1979 ........................... 95.0 33.0 7.4 6.9 8.3 20.4 2.4 5.4 1.2 2.5 7.4
1980 to 1989 ........................... 100.1 30.5 9.2 6.4 8.4 22.9 2.5 6.4 1.5 3.5 8.9
1990 to 1999 ........................... 88.8 25.6 8.4 7.1 5.7 19.9 2.9 6.9 1.4 2.8 8.1
2000 to 2003 ........................... 79.7 19.2 8.2 5.7 6.3 21.0 3.2 6.8 0.7 1.6 6.9
Census Region and Division
Northeast ................................ 98.5 49.1 3.7 5.2 6.5 15.9 2.6 4.5 0.9 2.4 7.6
  New England ........................ 99.0 56.2 2.7 4.0 5.3 14.1 1.8 6.5 0.7 2.1 5.5
  Middle Atlantic ....................... 98.3 47.0 4.0 5.5 6.9 16.5 2.9 3.9 1.0 2.4 8.2
Midwest .................................. 98.9 48.6 3.6 6.0 5.9 16.8 2.0 5.2 0.9 2.1 7.8
  East North Central ................. 108.1 55.4 3.6 6.7 6.2 18.0 2.1 5.1 1.0 2.3 7.7
  West North Central ............... 79.5 34.2 3.7 4.6 5.3 14.4 1.8 5.4 0.6 1.6 7.9
South ...................................... 82.9 20.1 10.7 6.5 7.1 19.1 3.0 6.6 0.8 2.3 6.8
  South Atlantic ....................... 86.8 20.3 10.7 6.9 7.0 21.1 2.9 7.1 0.9 2.9 6.9
  East South Central ................ 91.1 31.4 6.9 6.6 8.7 18.6 2.2 7.1 0.6 1.5 7.6
  West South Central ............... 73.4 14.9 12.3 5.9 6.4 16.3 3.5 5.5 0.6 1.8 6.2
West ....................................... 80.6 23.5 6.2 5.4 8.6 17.7 2.5 4.7 1.7 2.5 7.8
  Mountain ............................... 103.8 40.7 7.0 6.3 9.9 21.3 1.3 4.9 Q 2.3 8.6
  Pacific ................................... 69.4 15.3 5.7 5.0 8.0 16.0 3.1 4.6 Q 2.6 7.4
Climate Zone: 30-Year Average
Under 2,000 CDD and --
  More than 7,000 HDD ............ 93.2 48.7 2.2 5.7 5.7 14.8 1.7 5.5 0.8 1.7 6.4
  5,500-7,000 HDD .................. 101.6 49.2 3.8 5.7 6.7 17.8 2.4 5.1 0.9 2.3 7.6
  4,000-5,499 HDD .................. 98.5 37.5 6.1 6.0 7.5 20.0 2.8 5.3 1.6 2.7 9.0
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ......... 77.0 19.2 7.6 6.0 7.6 17.5 3.0 5.9 0.9 2.1 7.3
2,000 CDD or More and --
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ......... 75.5 10.3 15.9 6.5 6.8 17.9 2.8 5.5 0.8 2.8 6.2
Number of Floors
One ......................................... 74.6 25.0 6.1 4.2 4.5 14.8 3.2 8.9 0.6 1.3 5.9
Two ........................................ 80.6 31.7 5.6 6.0 5.0 15.6 2.0 4.3 1.1 2.0 7.4
Three ...................................... 82.6 36.9 4.5 5.3 6.4 15.0 2.1 2.9 1.0 2.2 6.4
Four to Nine ............................ 132.5 56.6 9.4 9.8 12.8 23.8 2.3 2.5 1.2 4.0 9.9
Ten or More ............................ 124.6 38.6 10.6 7.6 14.9 30.7 2.3 1.5 Q 5.1 11.5
Elevators and Escalators
(more than one may apply)
Any Elevators ......................... 114.8 43.9 9.0 9.0 10.4 23.6 1.7 2.2 1.6 3.9 9.6
Number of Elevators
  One ....................................... 89.0 41.4 5.9 7.4 4.5 16.3 0.8 2.5 0.9 2.7 6.6
  Two to Five ........................... 114.3 43.2 8.5 8.8 11.4 23.1 1.7 2.1 1.8 4.2 9.5
  Six or More ........................... 149.5 48.3 14.1 11.2 16.6 34.1 2.8 1.9 2.0 5.0 13.5
Any Escalators ....................... 120.0 22.7 14.9 12.7 Q 33.9 2.5 1.8 Q 4.8 13.3
Number of Workers (main shift)
Fewer than 5 .......................... 52.8 25.6 2.5 1.8 2.5 7.7 1.2 6.0 0.2 0.3 5.0
5 to 9 ....................................... 76.0 27.3 5.3 3.5 6.3 12.6 4.8 9.1 0.7 1.0 5.5
10 to 19 ................................... 76.2 28.6 5.1 3.9 6.8 13.2 5.0 6.7 0.6 1.1 5.1
20 to 49 ................................... 95.6 38.1 6.6 6.3 7.0 17.4 3.2 6.1 Q 1.9 7.6
50 to 99 ................................... 91.7 32.9 7.3 8.4 7.1 19.1 1.8 4.7 1.0 2.4 7.0
100 to 249 ............................... 121.9 45.1 10.2 9.8 9.4 27.3 1.7 4.0 1.3 3.7 9.4
250 or More ............................ 139.0 44.6 12.5 10.5 12.4 32.9 2.0 2.3 2.1 6.6 13.0
Weekly Operating Hours
Fewer than 40 ........................ 33.2 18.9 2.5 1.0 1.1 3.2 0.7 1.7 0.1 0.3 3.6
40 to 48 ................................... 66.5 31.3 6.1 3.6 1.6 11.4 0.6 2.8 0.9 2.2 6.1
49 to 60 ................................... 75.0 33.6 5.4 4.5 2.3 14.5 1.3 3.2 1.0 2.2 7.1
61 to 84 ................................... 89.4 34.1 6.4 6.5 4.2 17.8 3.4 6.2 0.9 2.3 7.5
85 to 167 ................................. 125.4 39.5 7.8 10.9 7.1 23.5 7.8 16.8 0.7 3.1 8.1
Open Continuously ................. 138.9 41.6 10.4 9.1 22.2 31.1 3.4 5.8 1.8 3.2 10.4
Ownership and Occupancy
Nongovernment Owned.......... 85.1 29.1 6.1 4.5 7.0 18.2 3.1 6.5 1.1 2.1 7.5
  Owner Occupied .................. 87.3 33.3 6.3 4.9 6.0 18.0 2.0 5.7 1.2 2.1 7.7
  Nonowner Occupied ............ 88.4 26.4 6.4 4.5 8.6 19.7 4.3 7.7 1.1 2.1 7.6
  Unoccupied ........................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Government Owned ............... 105.3 49.8 8.4 10.4 6.5 16.0 1.0 2.3 0.6 3.0 7.2
  Federal .................................. 155.0 82.1 6.9 12.2 4.6 32.5 Q 1.6 0.8 2.8 10.6
  State ..................................... 134.8 71.3 7.1 14.0 8.1 16.2 0.8 2.5 0.8 5.3 8.8
  Local ..................................... 83.4 34.6 9.2 8.7 6.3 12.5 1.1 2.4 0.5 2.2 5.8
Vacancy Status
Completely Vacant .................. 17.2 12.8 Q 0.1 (*) 1.2 Q Q Q Q 2.3
Mostly Vacant ......................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Partially Vacant ....................... 87.7 34.9 7.2 5.5 4.9 19.3 1.4 2.4 1.0 3.4 7.7
Not At All Vacant .................... 93.9 34.8 6.8 6.3 7.8 18.0 3.0 6.5 1.0 2.1 7.5
Number of Establishments
One ......................................... 92.3 34.6 6.4 6.0 8.0 17.5 3.1 6.4 0.9 1.9 7.4
2 to 5 ....................................... 90.6 37.6 6.4 5.8 5.7 18.1 1.9 4.5 1.1 2.2 7.2
6 to 10 ..................................... 110.1 47.5 8.2 7.1 3.6 22.1 Q 2.4 1.4 8.2 8.1
11 to 20 ................................... 77.6 25.9 8.2 6.3 2.9 19.1 Q Q 1.0 3.3 7.7
More than 20 ........................... 98.5 22.0 15.0 8.4 4.2 27.4 0.9 1.8 2.0 5.7 11.0
Currently Unoccupied ............. 17.2 12.8 Q 0.1 (*) 1.2 Q Q Q Q 2.3
Predominant Exterior
Wall Material
Brick, Stone or Stucco ............ 97.1 39.8 7.0 6.3 8.4 16.1 3.3 5.5 0.9 2.2 7.4
Concrete (Block or Poured) .... 89.9 31.3 7.2 5.8 7.5 18.6 2.4 6.7 Q 1.7 7.7
Concrete Panels ..................... 101.7 33.3 8.0 7.1 5.5 28.3 1.5 3.3 1.6 4.3 8.8
Siding or Shingles ................... 67.1 25.2 4.1 3.3 5.8 11.9 2.8 7.0 0.8 1.4 4.9
Metal Panels ............................ 58.5 19.0 3.5 4.4 1.5 15.2 Q 5.6 0.5 1.4 6.6
Window Glass ........................ 92.3 23.7 10.4 7.2 4.9 24.7 Q 2.0 1.9 6.2 10.0
Other ....................................... 108.7 43.1 8.7 5.9 10.1 22.8 2.1 3.7 1.3 3.8 7.2
No One Major Type ................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant Roof Material
Built-Up ................................... 98.4 36.9 7.5 6.3 8.7 19.1 2.6 5.1 1.1 2.7 8.4
Shingles (Not Wood) ............... 80.7 32.0 5.3 4.0 6.7 13.2 3.2 7.7 0.9 1.5 6.2
Metal Surfacing ....................... 52.7 17.6 4.1 4.0 1.9 12.6 1.5 3.9 0.4 1.1 5.7
Synthetic or Rubber ................ 112.0 41.2 8.6 8.6 8.6 22.3 2.6 6.2 1.5 3.6 8.8
Slate or Tile ............................. 84.2 32.3 6.6 4.4 7.7 13.9 Q 6.8 0.8 1.7 5.4
Wooden Materials ................... 77.0 26.3 6.3 4.4 9.8 16.0 Q 4.7 0.7 1.2 5.2
Concrete ................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other ....................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No One Major Type ................. 69.9 27.0 4.9 6.6 4.3 10.8 Q Q 0.7 Q 5.5
Renovations in Buildings
Constructed Before 1980
(more than one may apply)
Any Type of Renovation
 Since 1980 ............................. 99.0 43.0 5.8 6.3 8.9 16.7 2.6 4.9 0.9 2.4 7.6
   Addition or Annex ................ 111.9 48.3 6.5 8.4 12.0 18.5 2.5 4.7 0.6 2.1 8.4
   Reduction In Floorspace ...... 115.2 45.5 5.4 8.9 14.3 22.0 2.5 2.3 0.9 3.0 10.3
   Cosmetic Improvements ....... 100.4 42.4 6.0 6.4 8.7 17.6 2.9 5.3 0.9 2.5 7.5
   Wall or Roof Replacement ... 96.3 42.3 5.9 6.6 8.3 17.3 1.9 3.4 0.8 2.7 7.0
   Interior Wall
   HVAC Equipment 107.0 46.8 6.7 7.2 9.4 19.0 2.0 3.8 0.9 2.8 8.4
   HVAC Equipment Upgrade.... 107.4 43.6 6.7 7.5 10.9 19.1 2.7 4.2 1.1 3.0 8.6
   Lighting Upgrade .................. 105.6 47.2 6.1 7.3 9.0 17.9 2.3 4.7 1.0 2.7 7.4
   Window Replacement .......... 96.5 45.4 5.1 5.9 8.6 15.7 2.0 4.0 0.7 2.5 6.5
   Plumbing System Upgrade ... 104.7 46.8 5.9 7.0 9.7 18.1 2.7 3.5 0.7 2.6 7.7
   Insulation Upgrade ............... 94.8 41.6 5.7 7.5 6.9 16.1 2.7 3.8 0.8 2.7 7.1
   Other Renovation ................. 94.9 42.8 Q 4.3 Q 13.8 Q 3.4 0.3 1.0 7.6
No Renovations Since 1980.... 79.2 37.3 4.5 4.6 5.3 13.1 2.2 4.2 0.7 1.4 6.0
Building Newer than 1980 ...... 91.1 26.1 8.7 6.6 6.8 21.2 2.8 6.7 1.3 2.8 8.2
Energy Sources (more than
one may apply)
Electricity ................................ 91.9 34.8 6.8 6.1 7.1 18.1 2.6 5.6 1.0 2.3 7.6
Natural Gas ............................. 103.3 39.8 6.9 6.8 9.2 19.4 3.7 5.5 1.0 2.5 8.6
Fuel Oil .................................... 116.1 43.3 8.5 8.0 12.9 23.7 2.2 2.8 1.6 3.4 9.8
District Heat ............................ 186.8 111.3 5.9 12.8 10.9 26.9 Q 2.2 0.8 5.4 9.0
District Chilled Water ............... 188.7 107.9 5.6 17.2 12.0 23.9 Q 2.6 1.0 7.2 9.1
Propane .................................. 82.6 28.5 5.4 5.7 5.6 19.9 1.3 7.2 0.7 1.3 7.1
Other ....................................... 99.2 34.4 Q 10.0 7.8 21.6 1.3 4.6 1.8 2.7 8.2
Space-Heating Energy Sourcesa
(more than one may apply)
Electricity ................................ 82.5 21.6 8.3 5.4 7.6 20.0 2.5 5.7 1.3 2.4 7.5
Natural Gas ............................. 99.6 38.7 6.6 6.6 8.1 19.1 3.0 5.5 1.0 2.3 8.6
Fuel Oil .................................... 98.6 50.9 4.8 5.6 9.3 13.4 2.3 2.9 0.5 1.7 7.2
District Heat ............................ 191.2 115.2 5.9 13.0 11.3 26.9 Q 2.1 0.9 5.4 8.9
Propane .................................. 49.9 8.1 4.5 4.5 4.9 12.1 0.9 7.5 Q 1.2 5.6
Other ....................................... 72.6 19.0 Q Q 3.3 20.1 Q 4.3 0.6 1.4 7.7
Primary Space-Heating
Energy Source
Electricity ................................ 68.1 8.9 9.6 4.3 6.8 19.0 2.8 6.9 1.3 2.3 6.2
Natural Gas ............................. 99.5 39.0 6.6 6.6 8.0 18.8 3.0 5.4 1.0 2.3 8.8
Fuel Oil .................................... 77.1 49.8 1.8 3.4 4.5 7.5 2.5 3.3 0.3 1.0 2.8
District Heat ............................ 193.8 118.3 5.3 13.3 10.3 27.6 Q 2.2 0.9 5.6 8.8
Propane .................................. 36.6 0.9 3.8 4.4 0.5 9.3 Q 9.8 Q Q 5.5
Other ....................................... 50.6 7.5 2.7 4.7 Q 19.4 0.7 5.8 0.5 Q 6.9
Cooling Energy Sourcesb
(more than one may apply)
Electricity ................................ 92.5 32.1 7.7 6.0 7.3 19.0 2.9 6.2 1.1 2.3 7.7
Natural Gas ............................. 156.3 42.3 29.6 Q 16.1 25.9 2.4 3.1 0.8 2.9 18.4
District Chilled Water ............... 188.7 107.9 5.6 17.2 12.0 23.9 Q 2.6 1.0 7.2 9.1
Water-Heating Energy Sources
(more than one may apply)
Electricity ................................ 78.0 26.4 7.4 5.2 3.2 17.7 1.7 5.7 1.2 2.4 7.1
Natural Gas ............................. 111.2 40.6 7.7 7.7 12.1 20.4 4.1 6.0 1.0 2.6 9.1
Fuel Oil .................................... 109.7 57.8 3.9 4.9 12.3 13.2 4.6 3.8 0.7 1.7 6.8
District Heat ............................ 182.3 94.9 8.3 13.9 16.9 28.4 Q 2.2 0.9 4.7 9.6
Propane .................................. 56.7 11.9 6.1 6.1 0.8 12.6 Q 10.2 Q Q 5.7
Cooking Energy Sources
(more than one may apply)
Electricity ................................ 120.0 38.8 9.9 9.5 13.7 22.3 5.5 7.8 1.1 2.8 8.5
Natural Gas ............................. 134.3 41.9 10.2 9.9 18.1 23.8 10.0 7.9 1.0 2.4 9.1
Propane .................................. 78.3 17.6 7.9 7.1 6.9 16.5 1.4 12.4 Q Q 5.5
Energy End Uses (more than
one may apply)
Buildings with Space Heating . 95.0 36.7 6.8 6.3 7.3 18.5 2.7 5.6 1.0 2.4 7.6
Buildings with Cooling ............. 96.0 34.8 7.6 6.5 7.5 19.2 2.9 6.0 1.1 2.6 7.9
Buildings with Water Heating .. 97.4 35.9 7.4 6.5 7.9 19.1 2.9 6.0 1.1 2.6 8.0
Buildings with Cooking ............ 122.0 39.0 9.8 9.1 14.4 21.9 7.5 8.3 1.0 2.5 8.5
Buildings with Manufacturing . 81.1 24.5 3.1 5.4 2.3 20.5 Q 3.2 0.6 2.1 18.0
Buildings with Electricity
 Generation ............................. 132.1 43.1 10.8 10.1 13.9 28.6 1.9 3.3 2.2 4.4 13.7
Percent of Floorspace Heated
Not Heated .............................. 24.2 (*) 4.2 1.6 1.8 6.2 Q 4.0 0.2 0.4 4.3
1 to 50 ..................................... 43.6 12.0 2.0 2.7 2.0 10.1 Q 5.6 Q 0.6 5.8
51 to 99 ................................... 92.1 32.5 6.9 6.0 7.5 18.7 3.6 6.7 0.8 1.9 7.4
100 .......................................... 103.4 41.2 7.6 6.9 8.1 19.8 2.7 5.4 1.1 2.8 7.9
Percent of Floorspace Cooled
Not Cooled .............................. 45.4 28.2 (*) 2.0 2.6 6.1 0.6 1.7 0.1 0.2 4.0
1 to 50 ..................................... 61.8 30.3 1.5 3.4 2.7 11.8 1.2 3.8 0.3 0.8 6.1
51 to 99 ................................... 106.9 38.8 8.1 7.4 8.5 20.7 3.5 7.9 1.0 2.9 8.3
100 .......................................... 111.5 35.6 11.0 7.9 10.0 23.1 3.6 6.4 1.7 3.6 8.7
Percent Lit When Open
Zero ........................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
1 to 50 ..................................... 52.9 25.1 3.2 2.8 5.1 6.2 1.5 2.8 Q 0.6 4.9
51 to 99 ................................... 94.9 36.4 7.1 6.8 7.4 18.0 2.5 4.8 1.1 3.1 7.6
100 .......................................... 106.4 38.0 8.1 7.0 7.9 22.8 3.2 7.2 1.1 2.6 8.6
Building Never Open/
 Electricity Not Used ................ 14.4 10.3 0.4 0.1 0.1 1.1 Q 0.2 Q Q 2.2
Percent Lit When Closed
Zero ........................................ 65.1 30.2 4.3 4.0 2.4 10.0 2.3 4.2 0.5 1.7 5.5
1 to 50 ..................................... 84.9 34.2 6.6 5.8 3.4 15.7 2.5 5.8 1.0 2.3 7.5
51 to 100 ................................. 112.3 35.0 7.8 6.8 3.2 35.6 3.0 11.5 0.8 2.2 6.4
Building Never Closed/
 Electricity Not Used ................ 127.2 38.2 9.5 8.3 20.4 28.5 3.1 5.3 1.6 2.9 9.5
Heating Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Heat Pumps ............................. 91.3 21.3 10.8 6.0 10.5 22.8 2.3 5.2 1.3 2.8 8.1
  Packaged Heat Pumps .......... 96.0 18.8 11.7 6.1 11.3 25.9 2.4 6.0 1.6 3.2 9.0
  Split-System Heat Pumps ...... 76.8 19.0 9.8 7.0 6.2 19.6 Q 4.3 0.8 1.8 6.9
  Individual Room Heat Pumps . 94.7 25.0 11.1 6.2 14.5 22.3 2.6 2.7 0.8 2.9 6.6
Furnaces ................................ 76.1 30.0 4.4 4.3 5.2 14.6 2.9 6.3 0.7 1.4 6.4
Individual Space Heaters ........ 81.6 30.2 5.3 5.1 6.3 18.0 1.5 4.9 0.8 2.0 7.5
District Heat ............................ 190.8 115.1 5.8 12.8 11.2 26.9 Q 2.1 0.9 5.5 8.9
Boilers ..................................... 109.9 44.4 7.3 8.2 11.1 19.9 2.5 2.9 1.2 2.7 9.8
Packaged Heating Units .......... 95.9 28.4 9.1 6.6 7.9 21.3 3.6 7.4 1.4 2.6 7.7
Other ....................................... 70.7 19.0 6.8 6.1 2.5 19.7 0.8 5.6 0.8 2.5 6.9
Cooling Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Residential-Type Central
 Air Conditioners ..................... 83.7 32.1 6.1 6.1 7.0 14.3 3.7 5.3 0.7 1.4 7.0
Heat Pumps ............................. 92.6 21.5 11.0 6.0 10.1 23.1 2.4 6.0 1.3 2.8 8.3
  Packaged Heat Pumps .......... 97.4 20.1 11.4 5.8 11.1 26.2 2.4 6.6 1.6 3.2 9.2
  Split-System Heat Pumps ...... 78.4 19.1 10.1 7.2 6.1 19.2 Q 5.0 0.8 1.9 7.1
  Individual Room Heat Pumps . 94.4 22.7 11.8 6.6 13.3 23.3 2.4 3.7 0.9 2.9 7.0
Individual Air Conditioners ...... 86.0 37.8 5.5 5.0 9.5 15.6 1.5 3.5 0.5 1.4 5.7
District Chilled Water ............... 188.7 107.9 5.6 17.2 12.0 23.9 Q 2.6 1.0 7.2 9.1
Central Chillers ........................ 131.6 41.4 13.0 12.0 12.7 29.1 1.9 2.3 2.0 4.3 12.7
Packaged Air Conditioning
 Units ....................................... 95.5 33.1 7.9 6.0 7.3 19.9 3.5 6.8 1.0 2.4 7.7
Swamp Coolers ...................... 101.1 33.2 5.5 5.8 13.4 18.1 5.0 7.7 0.5 1.4 10.5
Other ....................................... 115.1 39.8 10.3 8.4 13.4 23.0 1.7 Q 1.1 2.9 7.5
Main Equipment Replaced Since
1990 (more than one may apply)
Heating .................................... 83.4 30.8 5.9 5.2 7.5 15.7 2.6 5.1 1.0 2.2 7.5
Cooling .................................... 92.8 35.4 6.6 5.7 8.4 17.3 2.8 5.2 1.1 2.6 7.7
Water Heating Equipment
Centralized System ................. 99.0 36.9 6.9 6.6 8.6 18.2 3.5 7.2 1.0 2.3 7.8
Distributed System .................. 72.4 27.2 6.7 4.7 2.9 15.5 2.1 4.5 0.8 2.0 6.1
Combination of Centralized
 and Distributed System .......... 119.9 41.9 9.7 8.6 11.4 26.4 2.0 3.3 1.8 4.2 10.5
Lighting Equipment Types
(more than one may apply)
Incandescent .......................... 101.6 37.4 7.4 6.7 9.3 20.9 3.2 5.0 1.2 2.7 7.9
Standard Fluorescent ............. 94.6 35.7 7.1 6.3 7.3 18.5 2.7 5.8 1.1 2.5 7.8
Compact Fluorescent .............. 116.4 41.3 9.1 8.6 11.2 23.6 3.3 5.0 1.5 3.2 9.4
High Intensity Discharge ......... 103.7 39.4 7.4 8.2 7.6 22.9 1.8 4.0 1.1 2.9 8.5
Halogen ................................... 111.9 37.6 8.6 7.8 10.5 25.6 3.4 5.3 1.2 2.8 9.0
Other ....................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Refrigeration Equipment
(more than one may apply)
Any Refrigeration.................... 98.4 35.5 7.4 6.6 8.1 19.5 3.1 6.7 1.1 2.6 7.8
  Commercial Refrigeration ...... 124.6 39.9 9.9 8.8 12.6 24.3 5.9 10.6 1.0 2.6 8.9
    Walk-In Units ....................... 136.6 41.6 10.9 9.8 14.8 26.6 7.4 12.3 1.1 2.8 9.3
    Cases or Cabinets .............. 132.3 42.3 10.7 9.1 13.3 25.6 6.5 11.7 1.1 2.6 9.4
  Residential-Type Units .......... 89.1 34.8 6.8 6.1 7.4 17.5 1.8 4.1 0.9 2.5 7.2
  Vending Machines ................ 105.3 37.5 8.2 7.8 9.2 22.2 1.9 5.2 1.3 3.1 8.9
No Refrigeration ...................... 51.4 27.3 3.3 2.9 1.6 9.5 Q (*) 0.4 1.0 5.3
Office Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Computers .............................. 96.6 36.4 7.4 6.6 7.4 19.4 2.5 5.4 1.1 2.7 7.8
  With Flat Screen Monitors ..... 112.3 40.6 9.2 8.5 8.9 23.2 2.3 4.2 1.7 4.1 9.6
Dedicated Servers .................. 103.5 37.3 8.3 7.7 8.0 21.9 2.0 4.5 1.6 3.4 8.8
Laser Printers ......................... 91.2 34.8 6.9 6.0 7.4 17.2 2.4 5.5 1.2 2.3 7.5
Inkjet Printers .......................... 102.5 37.1 8.7 7.5 7.3 22.3 1.9 4.9 1.2 3.2 8.4
FAX Machines ........................ 97.2 36.0 7.5 6.7 7.5 19.8 2.7 5.3 1.2 2.7 7.9
Photocopiers ........................... 96.5 37.0 7.6 7.1 7.1 20.1 1.4 4.0 1.3 2.9 8.0
Number of Computers
None ....................................... 48.5 19.7 2.2 1.6 4.2 7.2 2.8 6.0 0.1 0.0 4.8
1 to 4 ....................................... 81.9 31.3 4.9 3.6 6.0 13.4 5.5 10.7 0.4 0.4 5.6
5 to 9 ....................................... 76.0 28.8 5.4 3.8 6.8 14.1 2.8 5.6 0.6 0.9 7.0
10 to 19 ................................... 77.9 28.9 6.0 5.0 5.2 16.3 1.9 6.0 0.7 1.3 6.4
20 to 49 ................................... 95.3 34.3 7.4 7.6 6.2 21.7 1.2 5.1 Q 2.2 7.9
50 to 99 ................................... 95.4 38.8 7.2 7.1 8.0 20.1 1.5 2.1 1.1 2.7 6.8
100 to 249 ............................... 106.7 43.7 8.8 9.2 7.9 21.2 1.0 2.4 1.0 3.7 7.8
250 or More ............................ 137.1 48.2 12.0 11.0 11.0 29.2 1.7 2.1 2.2 7.3 12.4
Number of Dedicated Servers
None ....................................... 72.4 29.8 4.5 3.7 5.6 12.2 3.3 6.7 0.3 0.9 5.5
1 to 4 ....................................... 92.6 34.8 7.0 6.5 7.8 18.7 2.2 5.3 0.7 2.0 7.5
5 to 9 ....................................... 104.9 30.5 10.7 10.3 5.5 25.8 Q 2.9 1.6 4.4 10.9
10 to 19 ................................... 142.7 60.0 10.8 11.7 8.7 27.5 1.0 3.9 1.6 7.6 10.0
20 to 49 ................................... 118.9 36.4 13.3 9.9 9.2 27.3 1.3 2.2 2.4 5.5 11.1
50 or More .............................. 139.0 44.3 8.8 8.3 Q 33.6 Q 2.4 7.9 7.8 13.7
Number of Photocopiers
None ....................................... 73.1 26.6 4.2 3.1 6.6 11.6 5.4 9.0 0.2 0.7 5.8
One ......................................... 73.0 29.3 5.0 4.3 4.6 14.5 1.6 6.0 0.6 1.1 6.3
2 to 4 ....................................... 88.5 34.6 6.8 6.9 6.6 17.9 1.1 3.9 1.3 2.2 7.0
5 to 9 ....................................... 110.9 44.5 8.5 9.4 7.3 22.0 1.5 2.6 1.4 5.3 8.4
10 or More .............................. 136.4 48.0 12.5 10.3 11.3 30.6 1.7 2.1 2.4 5.5 12.0
Energy-Related Space Functions
(more than one may apply)
Commercial Food Preparation.. 122.0 39.1 9.8 9.1 14.4 21.9 7.5 8.3 1.0 2.5 8.4
Activities with Large
 Amounts of Hot Water ........... 126.6 43.8 9.2 8.9 16.8 23.8 5.7 5.1 0.9 2.6 9.8
Separate Computer Area ........ 107.7 39.2 9.2 8.6 8.8 22.9 1.6 3.2 1.7 3.8 8.7
HVAC Conservation Features
(more than one may apply)
Variable Air-Volume System... 121.4 43.7 10.5 9.0 9.7 25.4 2.5 3.6 1.8 4.3 10.9
Economizer Cycle ................... 122.6 43.7 9.7 9.7 9.8 26.4 2.2 4.6 1.7 4.3 10.5
HVAC Maintenance ................ 101.1 37.9 7.7 7.0 8.1 20.1 2.8 5.5 1.1 2.7 8.0
Energy Management and
 Control System (EMCS) ......... 114.0 41.8 10.1 10.2 8.6 23.6 1.7 2.6 1.7 3.9 9.8
Window and Interior Lighting
Features (more than one
may apply)
Multipaned Windows .............. 101.0 38.6 6.9 6.8 8.5 19.9 2.8 5.7 1.2 2.5 8.1
Tinted Window Glass ............. 103.6 37.5 8.6 7.4 7.6 22.2 2.4 4.5 1.4 3.2 8.8
Reflective Window Glass ....... 108.5 35.4 9.9 8.3 9.8 24.7 2.1 3.9 1.3 3.4 9.6
External Overhangs
 or Awnings ............................ 100.7 32.1 7.5 7.0 9.7 19.7 4.5 8.1 1.4 2.7 8.0
Skylights or Atriums ................ 104.2 38.3 7.5 7.7 9.9 21.8 2.5 2.8 1.6 2.6 9.5
Daylighting Sensors ................ 131.4 38.9 10.7 10.3 15.0 27.7 3.1 4.3 Q 4.2 13.1
Specular Reflectors ................ 108.3 41.0 8.4 7.9 8.0 22.8 2.2 4.3 1.3 3.1 9.2
Electronic Ballasts .................. 101.2 38.0 7.8 7.2 7.8 20.0 2.5 5.6 1.2 2.8 8.4
Energy Management and
 Control System (EMCS)
 For Lighting ............................ 112.6 37.8 11.5 9.1 6.2 26.1 1.9 3.1 Q 4.0 10.5
Equipment Usage Reduced
When Building Not In Full Use
(more than one may apply)
Heating .................................... 87.6 33.8 6.5 6.1 6.3 16.8 2.6 4.5 1.1 2.4 7.5
Cooling .................................... 89.0 33.1 7.0 6.4 6.4 17.5 2.8 4.6 1.0 2.6 7.6
Lighting ................................... 81.3 33.7 6.0 5.4 3.2 14.8 2.5 5.6 0.8 2.2 6.9
Office Equipment .................... 75.5 34.4 5.8 5.0 3.0 13.3 1.7 4.2 0.7 1.3 6.2
                       
See "Guide to the Tables" or "Glossary" for further explanations of the terms used in this table. Both can be accessed from the CBECS web site - http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/.
* Data in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. In the 1999 CBECS, malls represented 6.6 percent of total consumption.
a The total in the "Electricity" row has been revised and does not match published value in consumption Table C3 (http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/archive/cbecs/cbecs2003/detailed_tables_2003/detailed_tables_2003.html).
b The total in the "Electricity" row has been revised and does not match published value in consumption Table C3.
(*)=Value rounds to zero in the units displayed.
Q=Data withheld because fewer than 20 buildings were sampled for any cell, or because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent for a cell in the "Total" column.
Notes: ● Due to rounding, data may not sum to totals. ● HVAC = Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Form EIA-871A, C, and E of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.