Released: Dec2006
Next CBECS will be conducted in 2007

Table C38. District Heat Consumption and Expenditure Intensities for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003
  District Heat Consumption District Heat Expenditures
per
Building (million Btu)
per
Square Foot (thousand Btu)
per
Worker (million Btu)
per
Building (thousand dollars)
per
Square Foot
(dollars)
per
Thousand Pounds (dollars)
All Buildings* ............................... 9,475 116.44 62.2 108.3 1.33 11.43
Building Floorspace
(Square Feet)
1,001 to 5,000 ................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
5,001 to 10,000 .............................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
10,001 to 25,000 ............................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
25,001 to 50,000 ............................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
50,001 to 100,000 .......................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
100,001 to 200,000 ........................ 17,452 118.10 Q Q Q Q
200,001 to 500,000 ........................ 34,658 121.16 143.2 Q Q Q
Over 500,000 ................................. 85,182 99.92 52.4 911.2 1.07 10.70
Principal Building Activity
Education ....................................... 5,223 116.63 Q Q Q Q
Food Service ................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Health Care .................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Inpatient ....................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Outpatient .................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Lodging .......................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Retail (Other Than Mall).................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Office ............................................. 7,933 81.53 35.7 89.4 0.92 11.27
Public Assembly ............................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
Public Order and Safety ................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
Religious Worship .......................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Service .......................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Warehouse and Storage ............... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other .............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Vacant ........................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Year Constructed
Before 1920 ................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
1920 to 1945 .................................. 10,610 107.03 130.0 116.9 1.18 11.02
1946 to 1959 .................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
1960 to 1969 .................................. 8,787 137.56 108.5 Q Q Q
1970 to 1979 .................................. 13,255 131.66 80.8 Q Q Q
1980 to 1989 .................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
1990 to 1999 .................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
2000 to 2003 .................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Census Region and Division
Northeast ....................................... 9,423 120.80 67.0 Q 1.57 12.97
  New England ............................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Middle Atlantic .............................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Midwest ......................................... 17,217 136.50 158.8 Q 1.41 10.35
  East North Central ........................ 25,607 135.33 166.7 Q Q Q
  West North Central ...................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
South ............................................. 8,547 102.81 33.5 Q 1.17 11.36
  South Atlantic .............................. 8,059 94.14 Q Q Q Q
  East South Central ....................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
  West South Central ...................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
West .............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Mountain ...................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Pacific .......................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Climate Zone: 30-Year Average
Under 2,000 CDD and --
  More than 7,000 HDD ................... Q 106.35 123.8 Q Q Q
  5,500-7,000 HDD ......................... 9,453 142.89 132.6 Q Q Q
  4,000-5,499 HDD ......................... 10,354 103.48 54.8 128.9 1.29 12.45
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ................ 7,681 98.14 84.1 Q Q Q
2,000 CDD or More and --
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
Number of Floors
One ................................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
Two ............................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Three ............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Four to Nine ................................... 15,573 124.37 50.3 175.3 1.40 11.26
Ten or More ................................... 44,811 90.27 43.9 528.5 1.06 11.79
Number of Workers (main shift)
Fewer than 5 ................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
5 to 9 .............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
10 to 19 .......................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
20 to 49 .......................................... 5,854 143.70 191.2 Q Q Q
50 to 99 .......................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
100 to 249 ...................................... 13,794 118.34 91.9 Q Q Q
250 or More ................................... 42,936 105.81 30.2 463.4 1.14 10.79
Weekly Operating Hours
Fewer than 40 ............................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
40 to 48 .......................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
49 to 60 .......................................... 9,574 110.41 75.1 111.3 1.28 11.62
61 to 84 .......................................... 6,414 92.92 92.0 Q Q Q
85 to 167 ........................................ 10,530 115.52 Q Q Q Q
Open Continuously ........................ 18,825 130.78 86.8 Q 1.55 11.84
Ownership and Occupancy
Nongovernment Owned ................ 10,055 114.95 70.9 111.8 1.28 11.12
  Owner Occupied ......................... 11,348 129.95 76.9 127.7 1.46 11.26
  Nonowner Occupied ................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Unoccupied .................................. Q Q . Q Q Q
Government Owned ...................... 9,139 117.42 57.7 106.3 1.37 11.63
  Federal ......................................... Q Q Q Q Q 11.62
  State ............................................ 6,986 110.99 36.7 Q Q Q
  Local ............................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
Vacancy Status
Completely Vacant ......................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Mostly Vacant................................. N N N N N N
Partially Vacant .............................. 13,117 110.42 53.8 136.8 1.15 10.43
Not At All Vacant ........................... 8,535 120.21 64.5 100.5 1.42 11.77
Number of Establishments
One ................................................ 8,549 125.34 116.3 97.1 1.42 11.36
2 to 5 .............................................. 10,135 119.61 92.8 Q Q Q
6 to 10 ............................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
11 to 20 .......................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
More than 20 .................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Currently Unoccupied .................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant Exterior
Wall Material
Brick, Stone or Stucco ................... 7,715 120.66 105.9 89.4 1.40 11.59
Concrete (Block or Poured) ........... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Concrete Panels ............................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
Siding or Shingles .......................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Metal Panels ................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Window Glass ............................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other .............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
No One Major Type ........................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant Roof Material
Built-Up .......................................... 11,269 100.88 66.0 134.7 1.21 11.95
Shingles (Not Wood) ...................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Metal Surfacing .............................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Synthetic or Rubber ....................... 9,814 127.60 Q Q Q Q
Slate or Tile .................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Wooden Materials .......................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Concrete ........................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other .............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
No One Major Type ........................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
Renovations in Buildings
Constructed Before 1980
(more than one may apply)
Any Type of Renovation
 Since 1980 .................................... 10,177 111.11 70.6 112.1 1.22 11.01
   Addition or Annex ....................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
   Reduction In Floorspace ............. Q Q Q Q Q Q
   Cosmetic Improvements .............. 12,076 110.29 66.5 134.5 1.23 11.14
   Wall or Roof Replacement .......... Q 110.32 60.4 Q 1.27 Q
   Interior Wall
    Re-Configuration ........................ 17,959 113.58 71.2 191.0 1.21 10.64
   HVAC Equipment Upgrade .......... 12,723 93.03 58.0 150.5 1.10 11.83
   Lighting Upgrade ......................... 9,807 110.92 75.6 106.8 1.21 10.89
   Window Replacement ................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
   Plumbing System Upgrade .......... Q 107.28 59.6 Q 1.26 11.72
   Insulation Upgrade ...................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
   Other Renovation ........................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
No Renovations Since 1980 .......... 6,959 122.02 137.9 Q Q 12.17
Building Newer than 1980 ............. 14,178 115.89 Q Q Q Q
Energy Sources (more than
one may apply)
Electricity ....................................... 9,475 116.44 62.2 108.3 1.33 11.43
Natural Gas .................................... Q 124.63 43.8 Q 1.46 11.74
Fuel Oil ........................................... 40,191 102.33 61.1 444.6 1.13 11.06
District Heat ................................... 9,475 116.44 62.2 108.3 1.33 11.43
District Chilled Water ...................... 12,509 133.95 47.5 Q Q 12.03
Propane ......................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other .............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Space-Heating Energy Sources
District Heat ................................... 9,709 121.82 63.7 111.0 1.39 11.43
  District Heat Main ......................... 9,746 125.84 63.5 111.9 1.44 11.48
  District Heat Secondary ............... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other Excluding District Heat ......... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Buildings without Heating .............. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Primary Space-Heating
Energy Source
Electricity ....................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Natural Gas .................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Fuel Oil............................................ N N N N N N
District Heat ................................... 9,746 125.84 63.5 111.9 1.44 11.48
Propane.......................................... N N N N N N
Other............................................... N N N N N N
Cooling Energy Sources
District Heat ................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other Excluding District Heat ......... 9,102 117.19 53.8 106.1 1.37 11.66
Buildings without Cooling ............... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Water-Heating Energy Sources
District Heat ................................... 12,041 106.49 78.4 135.1 1.19 11.22
Other Excluding District Heat ......... 5,786 125.93 Q Q Q 11.81
Bldgs without Water Heating ......... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooking Energy Sources
District Heat ................................... 47,088 130.34 99.8 Q Q Q
Other Excluding District Heat ......... Q 106.36 55.2 Q 1.16 10.87
Buildings without Cooking .............. 7,166 117.96 60.6 83.7 1.38 11.69
Energy End Uses (more than
one may apply)
Buildings with Space Heating ........ 9,502 117.81 62.3 108.6 1.35 11.43
Buildings with Cooling .................... 9,726 114.90 52.8 110.6 1.31 11.37
Buildings with Water Heating ......... 8,591 112.97 52.6 98.3 1.29 11.44
Buildings with Cooking ................... Q 113.68 65.4 Q 1.24 10.95
Buildings with Manufacturing ........ Q Q Q Q Q Q
Buildings with Electricity
 Generation .................................... 34,643 111.97 63.7 404.4 1.31 11.67
Percent of Floorspace Heated
Not Heated ..................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
1 to 50 ............................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
51 to 99 .......................................... Q 90.46 57.2 Q Q Q
100 ................................................. 9,543 121.88 62.8 110.2 1.41 11.54
Heating Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Heat Pumps .................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Packaged Heat Pumps ................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Split-System Heat Pumps ............. Q Q Q Q Q Q
  Individual Room Heat Pumps ........ Q Q Q Q Q Q
Furnaces ....................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Individual Space Heaters ............... 10,195 82.45 58.3 Q Q Q
District Heat ................................... 9,685 121.56 63.8 110.7 1.39 11.43
Boilers ............................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
Packaged Heating Units ................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other .............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Water Heating Equipment
Centralized System ........................ 6,647 107.14 86.4 75.9 1.22 11.41
Distributed System ......................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Combination of Centralized
 and Distributed System ................. 13,682 115.22 Q 145.6 1.23 10.64
Energy-Related Space Functions
(more than one may apply)
Commercial Food Preparation ........ Q 113.68 65.4 Q 1.24 10.95
Activities with Large
 Amounts of Hot Water .................. 14,656 120.84 86.8 161.3 1.33 11.00
Separate Computer Area ............... 19,658 114.53 68.8 224.9 1.31 11.44
HVAC Conservation Features
(more than one may apply)
Variable Air-Volume System ......... 14,271 121.86 47.8 162.4 1.39 11.38
Economizer Cycle .......................... 15,337 109.59 43.7 179.1 1.28 11.68
HVAC Maintenance ....................... 10,171 118.71 60.9 116.2 1.36 11.42
Energy Management and
 Control System (EMCS) ................ 18,226 115.02 76.7 207.1 1.31 11.36
Equipment Usage Reduced
When Building Not In Full Use
(more than one may apply)a
Heating ........................................... 11,880 113.38 72.8 135.1 1.29 11.37
Cooling ........................................... 13,500 115.39 46.4 154.5 1.32 11.44
Lighting .......................................... 8,207 111.90 52.5 91.8 1.25 11.18
Office Equipment ........................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
See "Guide to the Tables" or "Glossary" for further explanations of the terms used in this table. Both can be accessed from the CBECS web site - http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/.
 * Figures in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. Mall buildings add an estimated 213 thousand buildings comprising 6.9 billion square feet. In the 1999 CBECS,  In the 1999 CBECS, there were no responding malls in the sample using district heat.
a The definition for one or more of these row items has changed and may not be directly comparable with past CBECS estimates. See "Guide to the Tables" for discussion of the differences.
Q=Data withheld because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent, or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N=No responding cases in sample that use district heat.
Notes: ● Statistics for the "Energy End Uses" category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. ● HVAC = Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. ● Due to rounding, data may not sum to totals.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Forms EIA-871A, C, and E of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.