Released: Dec 2006
Next CBECS will be conducted in 2007

Table C32. Natural Gas Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Year Constructed for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003
  Total Natural Gas
Consumption
(billion cubic feet)
Total Floorspace of
Buildings Using Natural Gas
(million square feet)
Natural Gas
Energy Intensity
 (cubic feet/square foot)
1959 or Before 1960 to
1989
1990 to
2003
1959 or Before 1960 to
1989
1990 to
2003
1959 or Before 1960 to
1989
1990 to
2003
All Buildings* .............................. 571 871 427 12,097 19,763 11,608 47.2 44.1 36.8
Building Floorspace
(Square Feet)
1,001 to 5,000 ............................... 85 98 59 1,222 1,214 648 69.5 81.0 91.5
5,001 to 10,000 ............................. 56 90 56 1,131 1,733 828 49.8 51.9 67.7
10,001 to 25,000 ........................... 103 141 57 2,392 2,909 1,752 42.9 48.4 32.3
25,001 to 50,000 ........................... 90 102 58 1,827 2,700 1,498 49.3 37.7 38.7
50,001 to 100,000 ......................... 68 112 57 1,636 3,178 1,869 41.4 35.1 30.5
100,001 to 200,000 ....................... 63 120 59 1,501 2,745 2,399 42.0 43.6 24.5
200,001 to 500,000 ....................... 45 104 50 1,496 2,748 1,435 30.1 37.8 34.8
Over 500,000 ................................ 62 105 Q 893 2,535 Q 69.1 41.4 Q
Principal Building Activity
Education ...................................... 109 110 41 2,581 2,816 1,648 42.3 39.2 24.6
Food Sales .................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Food Service ................................ 47 72 78 491 422 482 95.8 169.4 162.6
Health Care ................................... 66 131 39 633 1,410 501 104.1 92.6 77.5
  Inpatient ...................................... 58 112 28 444 1,141 220 130.2 98.3 128.2
  Outpatient ................................... Q 18 11 Q 269 282 Q 68.4 37.9
Lodging ......................................... 38 129 41 Q 2,123 1,154 Q 61.0 35.7
Retail (Other Than Mall)................. 34 27 27 675 1,028 1,162 50.5 26.7 23.4
Office ............................................ 91 129 42 2,109 4,459 1,640 43.0 29.0 25.3
Public Assembly ........................... 30 43 26 1,047 965 711 Q 45.0 36.4
Public Order and Safety ............... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Religious Worship ......................... 37 29 14 1,086 943 600 33.7 31.2 22.7
Service ......................................... 35 64 37 608 1,278 610 57.0 49.9 59.8
Warehouse and Storage .............. 35 64 29 1,039 2,667 1,788 33.8 24.0 16.4
Other ............................................. Q Q 29 Q 408 521 Q 75.7 Q
Vacant .......................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Census Region and Division
Northeast ...................................... 185 153 76 4,201 3,454 1,525 44.1 44.4 50.0
  New England .............................. 30 Q Q 677 Q Q 44.9 Q Q
  Middle Atlantic ............................. 155 131 57 3,525 2,985 1,206 44.0 43.7 47.2
Midwest ........................................ 245 310 129 4,201 5,898 3,064 58.2 52.5 42.1
  East North Central ....................... 180 242 91 3,138 4,321 2,110 57.2 56.0 42.9
  West North Central ..................... 65 68 38 1,063 1,577 954 61.3 42.9 40.4
South ............................................ 87 213 160 2,129 6,213 4,969 40.7 34.3 32.3
  South Atlantic ............................. Q 77 86 996 2,426 2,903 48.0 31.6 29.5
  East South Central ...................... 12 63 24 386 1,110 785 30.2 56.8 30.6
  West South Central ..................... 27 74 51 746 2,677 1,280 36.5 27.5 39.5
West ............................................. 54 195 62 1,566 4,198 2,049 34.8 46.4 30.1
  Mountain ..................................... 22 115 25 393 1,677 726 56.3 68.3 34.7
  Pacific ......................................... 32 80 36 1,173 2,521 1,323 27.6 31.8 27.5
Climate Zone: 30-Year Average
Under 2,000 CDD and --
  More than 7,000 HDD .................. 142 197 80 2,237 3,425 1,984 63.3 57.6 40.1
  5,500-7,000 HDD ........................ 212 327 120 4,168 5,882 2,800 50.9 55.6 42.7
  4,000-5,499 HDD ........................ 131 122 74 3,161 3,207 1,745 41.4 37.9 42.5
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ............... 70 168 110 1,966 5,054 3,489 35.4 33.2 31.5
2,000 CDD or More and --
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ............... 17 57 44 565 2,195 1,590 30.7 26.1 27.6
Number of Floors
One ............................................... 117 312 214 2,559 7,157 5,224 45.6 43.7 41.0
Two .............................................. 153 237 86 3,223 5,432 2,786 47.5 43.7 30.8
Three ............................................ 119 71 43 2,688 1,666 1,313 44.3 42.8 32.9
Four to Nine .................................. 132 176 60 2,602 3,266 1,802 50.6 53.8 33.0
Ten or More .................................. 51 74 Q 1,025 2,242 Q 49.4 33.1 Q
Number of Workers (main shift)
Fewer than 5 ................................ 100 112 53 2,447 2,975 1,601 40.7 37.7 32.8
5 to 9 ............................................. 66 80 46 1,359 1,696 1,029 48.7 47.1 44.8
10 to 19 ......................................... 85 89 60 2,026 1,886 1,406 42.2 47.4 42.8
20 to 49 ......................................... 117 172 94 2,622 3,332 2,258 44.7 51.6 41.4
50 to 99 ......................................... 62 116 56 1,136 3,005 2,016 54.9 38.5 27.8
100 to 249 ..................................... 62 111 55 1,147 2,613 1,367 53.9 42.5 40.0
250 or More .................................. 79 191 64 1,361 4,256 1,932 57.8 44.9 33.3
Weekly Operating Hours
Fewer than 40 .............................. 40 50 14 1,120 1,487 653 35.8 33.5 21.5
40 to 48 ......................................... 97 107 38 2,678 2,907 1,328 36.1 36.9 28.6
49 to 60 ......................................... 132 158 72 2,841 4,918 2,432 46.5 32.2 29.8
61 to 84 ......................................... 103 132 70 2,168 3,236 2,064 47.5 40.7 34.0
85 to 167 ....................................... 55 103 91 1,039 2,155 2,031 53.0 47.7 45.0
Open Continuously ....................... 144 321 141 2,251 5,059 3,101 64.2 63.5 45.6
Ownership and Occupancy
Nongovernment Owned ............... 441 666 350 9,318 15,243 8,756 47.4 43.7 40.0
  Owner Occupied ........................ 271 262 154 5,409 7,195 3,943 50.0 36.4 39.1
  Nonowner Occupied .................. 170 392 194 3,788 7,504 4,594 44.8 52.3 42.2
  Unoccupied ................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Government Owned ..................... 130 205 77 2,779 4,519 2,852 46.8 45.4 26.9
  Federal ........................................ 7 21 Q 163 569 Q 42.3 36.4 Q
  State ........................................... 16 67 12 477 1,360 601 32.7 49.6 20.7
  Local ........................................... 108 117 58 2,139 2,591 1,900 50.3 45.1 30.5
Vacancy Status
Completely Vacant ........................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Mostly Vacant ............................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Partially Vacant ............................. 125 135 48 2,555 4,155 1,737 49.0 32.5 27.6
Not At All Vacant .......................... 439 719 377 9,264 14,947 9,635 47.4 48.1 39.1
Number of Establishments
One ............................................... 421 670 327 8,689 13,334 8,496 48.4 50.3 38.5
2 to 5 ............................................. 99 125 74 2,172 3,365 2,056 45.3 37.1 36.1
6 to 10 ........................................... 15 19 Q 372 618 Q 40.2 31.2 Q
11 to 20 ......................................... Q 22 Q Q 689 Q Q 31.8 Q
More than 20 ................................. Q 22 Q Q 1,210 Q Q 18.5 Q
Currently Unoccupied ................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant Exterior
Wall Material
Brick, Stone or Stucco .................. 427 459 208 9,195 9,498 4,857 46.4 48.3 42.7
Concrete (Block or Poured) .......... 103 175 62 1,883 3,739 1,701 54.8 46.7 36.4
Concrete Panels ........................... Q 114 55 Q 2,597 1,942 Q 43.7 28.2
Siding or Shingles ......................... 24 30 29 553 685 759 42.7 44.4 37.8
Metal Panels .................................. Q 65 51 Q 2,163 1,647 Q 30.1 31.0
Window Glass .............................. Q 8 Q Q 361 Q Q 23.0 Q
Other ............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No One Major Type ....................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant Roof Material
Built-Up ......................................... 254 358 108 4,836 7,622 2,751 52.5 47.0 39.2
Shingles (Not Wood) ..................... 122 119 60 2,074 2,762 1,683 58.6 43.2 35.5
Metal Surfacing ............................. 17 86 85 504 2,438 2,839 33.6 35.3 30.1
Synthetic or Rubber ...................... 130 248 148 2,731 5,411 3,696 47.6 45.8 40.1
Slate or Tile ................................... 28 21 16 740 477 357 37.5 43.0 46.0
Wooden Materials ......................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Concrete ....................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other ............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No One Major Type ....................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Renovations in Buildings
Constructed Before 1980
(more than one may apply)
Any Type of Renovation
 Since 1980 ................................... 348 316 N 6,712 6,558 N 51.8 48.1 N
   Addition or Annex ...................... 128 167 N 2,246 2,791 N 57.1 59.9 N
   Reduction In Floorspace ............ Q Q N Q Q N Q Q N
   Cosmetic Improvements ............. 238 244 N 5,105 4,967 N 46.5 49.2 N
   Wall or Roof Replacement ......... 120 149 N 3,225 3,103 N 37.3 48.2 N
   Interior Wall
    Re-Configuration ....................... 151 181 N 3,465 3,554 N 43.5 50.8 N
   HVAC Equipment Upgrade ......... 229 224 N 4,163 4,319 N 54.9 51.9 N
   Lighting Upgrade ........................ 191 195 N 4,254 3,850 N 44.9 50.6 N
   Window Replacement ................ 141 95 N 3,280 1,720 N 42.9 55.0 N
   Plumbing System Upgrade ......... 146 132 N 3,137 2,578 N 46.5 51.3 N
   Insulation Upgrade ..................... 69 59 N 1,595 1,364 N 43.3 43.0 N
   Other Renovation ....................... Q Q N Q Q N Q Q N
No Renovations Since 1980 ......... 224 273 N 5,385 6,735 N 41.6 40.5 N
Building Newer than 1980 ............ N 282 427 N 6,469 11,608 N 43.7 36.8
Energy Sources (more than
one may apply)
Electricity ...................................... 571 871 427 12,091 19,763 11,608 47.2 44.1 36.8
Natural Gas ................................... 571 871 427 12,097 19,763 11,608 47.2 44.1 36.8
Fuel Oil .......................................... 138 249 104 3,084 4,932 2,367 44.6 50.6 44.1
District Heat .................................. Q 25 Q 667 1,135 Q Q 22.3 Q
District Chilled Water ..................... Q 23 Q Q 883 Q Q 26.6 Q
Propane ........................................ Q 55 15 Q 1,250 724 Q 43.8 20.7
Other ............................................. Q 24 Q Q 484 Q Q 48.9 Q
Space-Heating Energy Sources
Natural Gas ................................... 541 814 394 10,050 17,081 9,828 53.9 47.6 40.1
  Natural Gas Main ........................ 520 754 362 9,431 15,149 8,390 55.1 49.8 43.2
  Natural Gas Secondary .............. 22 59 32 619 1,932 1,438 35.1 30.7 22.1
Other Excluding Natural Gas ........ 26 51 26 1,937 2,502 1,576 Q 20.3 16.7
Buildings without Heating ............. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Primary Space-Heating
Energy Source
Electricity ...................................... 29 90 52 726 3,223 2,213 40.5 27.8 23.6
Natural Gas ................................... 520 754 362 9,431 15,149 8,390 55.1 49.8 43.2
Fuel Oil .......................................... 13 Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
District Heat .................................. 4 16 Q 514 968 Q 7.6 16.3 Q
Propane ........................................ N N Q N N Q N N Q
Other ............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling Energy Sources
Natural Gas ................................... Q 38 Q Q 419 Q Q 90.1 Q
Other Excluding Natural Gas ........ 468 806 403 10,345 18,622 11,038 45.2 43.3 36.5
Buildings without Cooling .............. 68 27 Q 1,428 722 Q 47.8 37.7 Q
Water-Heating Energy Sources
Natural Gas ................................... 439 681 343 8,044 13,116 7,661 54.6 51.9 44.7
Other Excluding Natural Gas ........ 107 168 76 3,013 5,766 3,534 35.5 29.1 21.4
Bldgs without Water Heating ........ 25 22 Q 1,041 881 Q 24.2 24.8 Q
Cooking Energy Sources
Natural Gas ................................... 264 364 203 4,847 6,307 4,284 54.4 57.7 47.4
Other Excluding Natural Gas ........ 41 74 22 727 1,755 736 57.0 41.9 29.3
Buildings without Cooking ............. 266 434 203 6,523 11,701 6,588 40.8 37.1 30.8
Energy End Uses (more than
one may apply)
Buildings with Space Heating ....... 567 865 420 11,988 19,582 11,404 47.3 44.2 36.8
Buildings with Cooling ................... 503 844 419 10,669 19,041 11,313 47.2 44.3 37.0
Buildings with Water Heating ........ 546 849 419 11,057 18,882 11,195 49.4 45.0 37.4
Buildings with Cooking .................. 305 437 225 5,574 8,062 5,020 54.7 54.3 44.7
Buildings with Manufacturing ....... 35 42 20 648 1,229 424 54.5 34.4 46.9
Buildings with Electricity
 Generation ................................... 123 285 110 1,836 5,646 2,920 67.1 50.5 37.6
Percent of Floorspace Heated
Not Heated .................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
1 to 50 ........................................... 31 35 28 1,344 1,565 1,097 23.3 22.3 25.6
51 to 99 ......................................... 105 92 63 2,111 2,231 1,623 49.8 41.2 38.7
100 ................................................ 431 738 329 8,532 15,787 8,683 50.5 46.7 37.9
Percent of Floorspace Cooled
Not Cooled .................................... 68 27 Q 1,428 722 Q 47.8 37.7 Q
1 to 50 ........................................... 178 185 74 4,377 5,173 2,582 40.8 35.8 28.8
51 to 99 ......................................... 137 185 115 2,879 4,188 2,666 47.7 44.3 43.0
100 ................................................ 187 473 230 3,414 9,680 6,065 54.9 48.9 37.9
Heating Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Heat Pumps ................................... 52 108 58 1,122 2,673 1,757 46.0 40.5 32.7
  Packaged Heat Pumps ................ Q 78 24 519 1,899 904 64.2 41.1 26.7
  Split-System Heat Pumps ............ Q 18 19 Q 736 545 Q 24.4 34.2
  Individual Room Heat Pumps ....... 21 33 27 642 785 768 33.1 42.0 35.0
Furnaces ...................................... 221 274 158 4,508 6,468 4,327 49.0 42.3 36.6
Individual Space Heaters .............. 116 157 95 2,594 3,986 2,389 44.8 39.4 39.7
District Heat .................................. Q 19 Q 652 996 Q Q 19.3 Q
Boilers ........................................... 374 472 162 6,850 8,165 3,160 54.7 57.8 51.3
Packaged Heating Units ................ 117 260 187 2,183 6,825 4,610 53.5 38.2 40.6
Other ............................................. Q 24 14 Q 870 672 Q 27.5 21.2
Cooling Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Residential-Type Central
 Air Conditioners ........................... 140 149 90 2,694 3,429 1,860 52.1 43.5 48.4
Heat Pumps ................................... 61 107 59 1,182 2,705 1,945 51.8 39.5 30.2
  Packaged Heat Pumps ................ Q 76 24 596 1,855 902 68.2 41.2 26.6
  Split-System Heat Pumps ............ Q 18 19 Q 730 566 Q 24.1 33.4
  Individual Room Heat Pumps ....... 21 33 28 605 867 907 35.1 38.6 30.7
Individual Air Conditioners ............ 186 156 56 4,111 3,461 1,542 45.3 45.0 36.2
District Chilled Water ..................... Q 23 Q Q 883 Q Q 26.6 Q
Central Chillers .............................. 114 274 97 1,869 5,296 1,936 61.0 51.8 50.3
Packaged Air Conditioning
 Units ............................................. 283 495 280 5,894 10,897 7,015 48.0 45.4 39.9
Swamp Coolers ............................ Q 56 Q Q 905 Q Q 61.8 Q
Other ............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Main Equipment Replaced Since
1990 (more than one may apply)
Heating .......................................... 221 365 N 4,630 7,645 N 47.8 47.8 N
Cooling .......................................... 274 482 N 6,085 9,963 N 45.0 48.4 N
Water Heating Equipment
Centralized System ....................... 343 577 270 6,539 12,019 6,795 52.4 48.0 39.7
Distributed System ........................ 92 91 63 2,462 3,051 2,046 37.5 29.9 30.9
Combination of Centralized
 and Distributed System ................ 111 181 86 2,055 3,813 2,354 54.0 47.5 36.4
Energy-Related Space Functions
(more than one may apply)
Commercial Food Preparation ....... 304 437 225 5,563 8,062 5,020 54.7 54.3 44.7
Activities with Large
 Amounts of Hot Water ................. 249 437 217 4,152 7,176 4,694 59.9 60.9 46.2
Separate Computer Area .............. 238 418 192 5,023 10,078 5,514 47.4 41.5 34.9
HVAC Conservation Features
(more than one may apply)
Variable Air-Volume System ........ 160 335 194 2,616 7,289 4,689 61.0 45.9 41.4
Economizer Cycle ......................... 156 429 196 2,876 8,712 5,068 54.2 49.3 38.7
HVAC Maintenance ...................... 456 760 393 9,645 16,923 10,416 47.3 44.9 37.7
Energy Management and
 Control System (EMCS) ............... 111 241 112 2,167 6,029 3,431 51.1 39.9 32.5
Equipment Usage Reduced
When Building Not In Full Use
(more than one may apply)a
Heating .......................................... 409 569 275 8,877 14,453 7,850 46.1 39.4 35.1
Cooling .......................................... 387 566 296 8,632 14,308 8,498 44.9 39.6 34.8
Lighting ......................................... 415 523 274 9,376 13,751 7,944 44.3 38.0 34.5
Office Equipment .......................... 164 189 109 4,362 4,975 3,333 37.7 37.9 32.8
Annual Consumption
(hundred cubic feet)
1,000 or Less ............................... 14 15 7 1,617 1,670 1,049 8.5 8.9 6.5
1,001 to 5,000 ............................... 90 99 53 2,818 4,392 2,522 31.8 22.5 21.1
5,001 to 10,000 ............................. 75 100 65 1,466 2,803 1,984 51.1 35.6 32.5
10,001 to 25,000 ........................... 117 153 79 2,316 3,187 2,265 50.6 47.9 34.8
25,001 to 50,000 ........................... 75 127 82 1,497 2,376 1,661 50.4 53.4 49.1
50,001 to 100,000 ......................... 52 118 42 810 2,293 866 63.6 51.4 48.0
Over 100,000 ................................ 149 260 101 1,572 3,042 1,261 94.8 85.4 79.9
Provider of Natural Gas
(more than one may apply)
Local Utility .................................... 463 733 385 10,701 17,234 10,427 43.2 42.6 37.0
Some Other Provider .................... 131 188 57 1,773 3,432 1,167 74.1 54.9 48.9
See "Guide to the Tables" or "Glossary" for further explanations of the terms used in this table. Both can be accessed from the CBECS web site - http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/.
 * Figures in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. Mall buildings add an estimated 213 thousand buildings comprising 6.9 billion square feet. In the 1999 CBECS, malls represented 3.8 percent of total natural gas consumption.
a The definition for one or more of these row items has changed and may not be directly comparable with past CBECS estimates. See "Guide to the Tables" for discussion of the differences.
Q=Data withheld because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent, or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N=No responding cases in sample that use natural gas.
Notes: ● Statistics for the "Energy End Uses" category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. ● HVAC = Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. ● Due to rounding, data may not sum to totals.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Forms EIA-871A, C, and E of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.