Released: Dec 2006
Next CBECS will be conducted in 2007

Table C31. Natural Gas Consumption and Conditional Energy Intensity by Building Size for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003
  Total Natural Gas
Consumption
(billion cubic feet)
Total Floorspace of
Buildings Using Natural Gas
(million square feet)
Natural Gas
Energy Intensity
 (cubic feet/square foot)
1,001 to 10,000 Square
Feet
10,001 to 100,000 Square Feet Over 100,000 Square Feet 1,001 to 10,000
Square
Feet
10,001 to 100,000 Square
Feet
Over 100,000 Square
Feet
1,001 to 10,000 Square Feet 10,001 to 100,000 Square Feet Over 100,000 Square Feet
All Buildings* ............................... 445 786 638 6,776 19,761 16,931 65.7 39.8 37.7
Principal Building Activity
Education ....................................... Q 137 101 419 3,629 2,997 53.9 37.6 33.7
Food Sales ..................................... 16 Q Q 339 Q Q 46.6 Q Q
Food Service ................................. 149 48 N 774 622 N 192.5 77.2 N
Health Care .................................... 12 37 187 233 520 1,792 49.5 70.8 104.4
  Inpatient ....................................... N Q 181 N Q 1,662 N Q 109.0
  Outpatient .................................... 12 20 Q 233 377 Q 49.5 52.3 Q
Lodging .......................................... Q 83 113 Q 1,750 2,374 Q 47.6 47.4
Retail (Other Than Mall).................. 38 39 12 726 1,406 734 52.7 27.7 15.7
Office ............................................. 59 115 87 1,400 3,138 3,670 42.4 36.7 23.7
Public Assembly ............................ 19 54 26 464 1,259 1,000 41.5 42.9 Q
Public Order and Safety ................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Religious Worship .......................... 28 49 Q 663 1,785 Q 42.7 27.7 Q
Service .......................................... 55 71 Q 783 1,394 Q 69.8 50.7 Q
Warehouse and Storage ............... 18 66 45 522 2,538 2,434 34.2 26.0 18.4
Other .............................................. Q 42 38 Q 458 681 Q 91.1 Q
Vacant ........................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Year Constructed
Before 1920 ................................... 32 76 31 569 1,532 658 56.6 49.4 47.1
1920 to 1945 .................................. 61 90 71 987 1,917 1,776 62.1 47.2 39.9
1946 to 1959 .................................. 48 94 68 797 2,407 1,455 60.0 39.1 46.7
1960 to 1969 .................................. 47 123 78 867 2,894 1,873 53.8 42.5 41.7
1970 to 1979 .................................. 82 117 142 1,225 3,166 3,268 66.7 37.0 43.5
1980 to 1989 .................................. 60 114 108 855 2,727 2,887 70.2 41.9 37.5
1990 to 1999 .................................. 97 123 85 1,189 3,634 3,353 81.2 33.9 25.2
2000 to 2003 .................................. 19 48 55 287 1,484 1,660 65.7 32.6 33.4
Census Region and Division
Northeast ....................................... 84 155 176 1,134 3,795 4,251 74.4 40.7 41.5
  New England ............................... Q 28 Q Q 772 Q Q 35.7 Q
  Middle Atlantic .............................. 73 127 143 899 3,024 3,793 80.9 42.0 37.7
Midwest ......................................... 148 327 208 2,033 6,628 4,501 72.7 49.4 46.2
  East North Central ........................ 111 234 167 1,382 4,656 3,531 80.6 50.2 47.3
  West North Central ...................... 36 94 41 651 1,972 970 56.0 47.4 42.4
South ............................................. 129 175 156 2,218 5,808 5,285 58.2 30.2 29.5
  South Atlantic .............................. 59 72 79 946 2,508 2,873 61.9 28.9 27.6
  East South Central ....................... 18 53 27 418 1,387 476 43.7 38.3 57.5
  West South Central ...................... 52 50 49 854 1,914 1,936 61.3 26.0 25.4
West .............................................. 84 129 98 1,391 3,529 2,893 60.1 36.6 33.9
  Mountain ...................................... 35 69 58 532 1,318 947 66.4 52.1 61.3
  Pacific .......................................... 48 60 40 859 2,211 1,947 56.3 27.3 20.6
Climate Zone: 30-Year Average
Under 2,000 CDD and --
  More than 7,000 HDD ................... 103 202 114 1,304 3,972 2,369 78.8 50.8 48.1
  5,500-7,000 HDD ......................... 134 278 247 1,923 6,102 4,824 69.9 45.5 51.1
  4,000-5,499 HDD ......................... 62 143 121 948 3,289 3,877 65.1 43.6 31.3
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ................ 114 122 111 2,001 4,792 3,717 57.2 25.4 29.8
2,000 CDD or More and --
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ................ 32 41 46 601 1,606 2,144 52.8 25.8 21.2
Number of Floors
One ................................................ 301 287 56 4,443 7,865 2,632 67.7 36.5 21.3
Two ............................................... 100 268 109 1,638 6,281 3,522 60.8 42.7 30.8
Three ............................................. 39 116 78 614 3,190 1,864 64.3 36.3 41.9
Four to Nine ................................... Q 110 252 Q 2,339 5,250 Q 46.9 48.0
Ten or More ................................... N Q 143 N Q 3,663 N Q 39.1
Number of Workers (main shift)
Fewer than 5 ................................. 175 77 Q 3,395 3,081 Q 51.6 25.2 Q
5 to 9 .............................................. 108 80 Q 1,575 2,330 Q 68.6 34.2 Q
10 to 19 .......................................... 96 120 Q 1,110 3,353 Q 86.8 35.8 Q
20 to 49 .......................................... 59 279 45 635 5,694 1,883 92.4 49.1 23.8
50 to 99 .......................................... Q 140 87 Q 3,265 2,834 Q 42.8 30.8
100 to 249 ...................................... Q 75 153 Q 1,709 3,414 Q 43.6 44.8
250 or More ................................... N 15 319 N 329 7,220 N 45.8 44.2
Weekly Operating Hours
Fewer than 40 ............................... 55 37 Q 1,239 1,460 Q 44.5 25.4 Q
40 to 48 .......................................... 74 132 36 1,787 3,605 1,521 41.5 36.6 23.4
49 to 60 .......................................... 88 209 66 1,636 5,552 3,003 53.8 37.7 21.9
61 to 84 .......................................... 90 153 62 945 3,915 2,607 95.3 39.1 23.6
85 to 167 ........................................ 94 104 52 691 2,141 2,393 135.5 48.5 21.6
Open Continuously ........................ 44 151 412 477 3,088 6,846 92.1 48.9 60.2
Ownership and Occupancy
Nongovernment Owned ................ 403 601 453 6,048 15,230 12,039 66.7 39.5 37.7
  Owner Occupied ......................... 166 272 248 3,099 7,592 5,856 53.7 35.8 42.4
  Nonowner Occupied ................... 234 323 198 2,881 7,222 5,783 81.4 44.8 34.2
  Unoccupied .................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Government Owned ...................... 42 185 185 728 4,531 4,891 57.4 40.9 37.8
  Federal ......................................... Q Q 23 Q Q 765 Q Q 30.3
  State ............................................ Q 39 44 Q 1,036 1,295 Q 37.3 34.0
  Local ............................................ 27 138 118 583 3,215 2,831 46.3 42.9 41.6
Vacancy Status
Completely Vacant ......................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Mostly Vacant ................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Partially Vacant .............................. 29 130 150 618 2,912 4,916 46.3 44.5 30.5
Not At All Vacant ........................... 413 641 480 6,071 16,209 11,565 68.1 39.5 41.5
Number of Establishments
One ................................................ 384 604 430 5,549 14,298 10,672 69.2 42.2 40.3
2 to 5 .............................................. 54 139 105 1,065 3,911 2,617 50.6 35.5 40.1
6 to 10 ............................................ Q 25 18 Q 625 664 Q 39.3 27.4
11 to 20 .......................................... N 8 25 N 386 885 N 21.3 28.3
More than 20 .................................. Q Q 51 Q Q 1,655 Q Q 31.1
Currently Unoccupied .................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant Exterior
Wall Material
Brick, Stone or Stucco ................... 270 454 370 3,722 11,431 8,398 72.5 39.7 44.0
Concrete (Block or Poured) ........... 75 165 100 1,102 3,702 2,520 67.9 44.6 39.7
Concrete Panels ............................ Q 59 101 Q 1,217 3,292 Q 48.1 30.7
Siding or Shingles .......................... 42 33 Q 720 996 Q 58.0 33.5 Q
Metal Panels ................................... 38 62 26 903 1,991 1,129 41.5 31.4 23.4
Window Glass ............................... Q Q 9 Q Q 549 Q Q 17.1
Other .............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No One Major Type ........................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant Roof Material
Built-Up .......................................... 149 297 275 1,736 6,828 6,644 85.8 43.4 41.4
Shingles (Not Wood) ...................... 108 133 59 2,009 3,345 1,165 54.0 39.7 50.9
Metal Surfacing .............................. 64 100 25 1,350 3,225 1,206 47.1 30.9 20.7
Synthetic or Rubber ....................... 80 189 257 922 4,482 6,434 86.7 42.1 40.0
Slate or Tile .................................... 28 33 Q 418 935 Q 67.2 35.8 Q
Wooden Materials .......................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Concrete ........................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other .............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No One Major Type ........................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Renovations in Buildings
Constructed Before 1980
(more than one may apply)
Any Type of Renovation
 Since 1980 .................................... 118 273 271 1,767 5,857 5,646 67.0 46.7 48.0
   Addition or Annex ....................... 28 110 157 391 2,028 2,618 72.9 54.3 59.8
   Reduction In Floorspace ............. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
   Cosmetic Improvements .............. 85 195 202 1,296 4,379 4,398 65.5 44.5 46.0
   Wall or Roof Replacement .......... 40 91 139 736 2,253 3,338 54.1 40.3 41.7
   Interior Wall
    Re-Configuration ........................ 46 108 178 770 2,479 3,769 59.7 43.5 47.1
   HVAC Equipment Upgrade .......... 51 181 220 769 3,566 4,148 66.8 50.8 53.1
   Lighting Upgrade ......................... 46 153 187 793 3,286 4,025 58.0 46.5 46.4
   Window Replacement ................. 34 99 102 539 2,206 2,255 63.9 44.9 45.1
   Plumbing System Upgrade .......... 44 91 142 570 2,049 3,095 77.8 44.6 46.0
   Insulation Upgrade ...................... 18 49 60 341 1,285 1,334 54.2 38.4 44.9
   Other Renovation ........................ Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
No Renovations Since 1980 .......... 151 227 119 2,678 6,058 3,384 56.5 37.4 35.1
Building Newer than 1980 ............. 175 286 248 2,331 7,845 7,900 75.3 36.4 31.4
Energy Sources (more than
one may apply)
Electricity ....................................... 445 786 638 6,775 19,761 16,926 65.7 39.8 37.7
Natural Gas .................................... 445 786 638 6,776 19,761 16,931 65.7 39.8 37.7
Fuel Oil ........................................... Q 97 385 Q 2,030 8,102 Q 47.5 47.5
District Heat ................................... Q Q 40 Q Q 1,955 Q Q 20.3
District Chilled Water ...................... Q Q 21 Q Q 1,375 Q Q 15.5
Propane ......................................... Q 26 67 Q 696 1,672 Q 37.1 40.2
Other .............................................. Q 17 24 Q 437 334 Q 39.4 72.3
Space-Heating Energy Sources
Natural Gas .................................... 401 740 608 6,187 17,733 13,038 64.8 41.7 46.6
  Natural Gas Main ......................... 376 689 572 5,741 15,927 11,302 65.4 43.2 50.6
  Natural Gas Secondary ............... 25 51 36 446 1,807 1,736 56.2 28.5 20.9
Other Excluding Natural Gas ......... 30 43 29 454 1,878 3,683 66.9 23.1 7.9
Buildings without Heating .............. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Primary Space-Heating
Energy Source
Electricity ....................................... 52 85 35 749 2,816 2,597 69.4 30.0 13.3
Natural Gas .................................... 376 689 572 5,741 15,927 11,302 65.4 43.2 50.6
Fuel Oil ........................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
District Heat ................................... Q Q 18 Q Q 1,672 Q Q 11.0
Propane ......................................... N Q N N Q N N Q N
Other .............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling Energy Sources
Natural Gas .................................... Q Q 66 Q Q 683 Q Q 96.1
Other Excluding Natural Gas ......... 397 725 554 6,098 18,102 15,806 65.2 40.1 35.1
Buildings without Cooling ............... 43 42 Q 641 1,362 Q 66.8 31.0 Q
Water-Heating Energy Sources
Natural Gas .................................... 316 604 543 3,995 13,529 11,296 79.1 44.6 48.1
Other Excluding Natural Gas ......... 107 153 91 2,024 4,942 5,348 52.8 30.9 17.0
Bldgs without Water Heating ......... 22 29 Q 757 1,290 Q 29.1 22.9 Q
Cooking Energy Sources
Natural Gas .................................... 173 246 412 1,190 4,975 9,273 145.1 49.3 44.5
Other Excluding Natural Gas ......... 13 53 70 201 1,549 1,468 63.1 34.5 47.9
Buildings without Cooking .............. 260 487 156 5,385 13,237 6,190 48.2 36.8 25.2
Energy End Uses (more than
one may apply)
Buildings with Space Heating ........ 431 783 637 6,641 19,611 16,722 64.9 40.0 38.1
Buildings with Cooling .................... 402 744 620 6,135 18,399 16,489 65.6 40.4 37.6
Buildings with Water Heating ......... 423 757 634 6,019 18,471 16,644 70.3 41.0 38.1
Buildings with Cooking ................... 185 299 483 1,391 6,524 10,741 133.3 45.8 44.9
Buildings with Manufacturing ........ Q 47 43 Q 938 1,164 Q 49.8 36.8
Buildings with Electricity
 Generation .................................... Q 124 388 Q 2,431 7,893 Q 50.9 49.1
Percent of Floorspace Heated
Not Heated ..................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
1 to 50 ............................................ 34 51 9 712 2,271 1,024 48.3 22.6 8.4
51 to 99 .......................................... 60 97 103 930 2,420 2,615 64.1 40.2 39.3
100 ................................................. 337 635 526 4,999 14,920 13,083 67.4 42.5 40.2
Percent of Floorspace Cooled
Not Cooled ..................................... 43 42 Q 641 1,362 Q 66.8 31.0 Q
1 to 50 ............................................ 84 250 104 1,708 6,358 4,066 49.2 39.3 25.6
51 to 99 .......................................... 79 154 205 1,136 3,879 4,717 69.1 39.6 43.5
100 ................................................. 240 340 310 3,291 8,162 7,706 72.8 41.7 40.3
Heating Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Heat Pumps .................................... 19 82 116 294 2,402 2,857 65.8 34.0 40.7
  Packaged Heat Pumps ................. Q 45 79 Q 1,359 1,801 Q 33.0 43.9
  Split-System Heat Pumps ............. Q 22 12 Q 738 600 Q 30.5 20.7
  Individual Room Heat Pumps ........ Q 33 46 Q 881 1,298 Q 38.0 35.4
Furnaces ....................................... 234 278 140 4,068 7,668 3,568 57.6 36.3 39.3
Individual Space Heaters ............... 65 169 134 1,210 4,315 3,444 53.4 39.2 38.9
District Heat ................................... Q Q 32 Q Q 1,813 Q Q 17.7
Boilers ............................................ 66 405 538 741 7,270 10,163 89.3 55.7 52.9
Packaged Heating Units ................. 134 235 196 1,633 6,393 5,592 81.8 36.7 35.1
Other .............................................. Q 23 14 Q 636 941 Q 36.1 15.2
Cooling Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Residential-Type Central
 Air Conditioners ............................ 112 164 103 2,034 3,775 2,173 55.1 43.4 47.6
Heat Pumps .................................... 28 82 117 415 2,373 3,043 68.2 34.4 38.4
  Packaged Heat Pumps ................. Q 44 79 Q 1,315 1,784 Q 33.6 44.0
  Split-System Heat Pumps ............. Q 23 12 Q 753 589 Q 30.6 20.2
  Individual Room Heat Pumps ........ Q 33 48 Q 851 1,513 Q 39.1 31.4
Individual Air Conditioners ............. 53 177 168 922 4,330 3,862 58.0 40.9 43.4
District Chilled Water ...................... Q Q 21 Q Q 1,375 Q Q 15.5
Central Chillers ............................... Q 120 363 Q 2,163 6,896 Q 55.5 52.7
Packaged Air Conditioning
 Units .............................................. 232 444 381 3,180 10,963 9,663 73.0 40.5 39.4
Swamp Coolers ............................. 23 41 Q 218 703 Q 105.9 58.0 Q
Other .............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q
Main Equipment Replaced Since
1990 (more than one may apply)
Heating ........................................... 123 301 162 1,980 6,674 3,621 62.3 45.2 44.7
Cooling ........................................... 152 349 255 2,507 7,544 5,997 60.4 46.2 42.6
Water Heating Equipment
Centralized System ........................ 333 528 328 4,557 12,516 8,279 73.1 42.2 39.6
Distributed System ......................... 77 108 62 1,283 3,389 2,887 59.7 31.9 21.5
Combination of Centralized
 and Distributed System ................. Q 120 244 Q 2,566 5,478 Q 46.9 44.6
Energy-Related Space Functions
(more than one may apply)
Commercial Food Preparation ........ 185 298 483 1,391 6,512 10,741 133.3 45.8 44.9
Activities with Large
 Amounts of Hot Water .................. 157 290 455 1,022 5,671 9,329 153.5 51.2 48.8
Separate Computer Area ............... 28 307 513 578 7,533 12,505 49.3 40.8 41.0
HVAC Conservation Features
(more than one may apply)
Variable Air-Volume System ......... 67 213 409 665 4,638 9,292 100.5 45.8 44.0
Economizer Cycle .......................... 63 271 447 704 5,534 10,418 88.9 49.0 42.9
HVAC Maintenance ....................... 312 669 628 4,256 16,257 16,471 73.4 41.1 38.1
Energy Management and
 Control System (EMCS) ................ Q 155 287 Q 3,554 7,882 Q 43.7 36.4
Equipment Usage Reduced
When Building Not In Full Use
(more than one may apply)a
Heating ........................................... 300 548 405 4,846 14,185 12,149 61.9 38.6 33.4
Cooling ........................................... 302 551 396 4,731 14,114 12,593 63.8 39.0 31.5
Lighting .......................................... 388 613 212 5,980 15,710 9,381 64.8 39.0 22.6
Office Equipment ........................... 137 246 79 2,579 6,854 3,237 53.1 36.0 24.3
Annual Consumption
(hundred cubic feet)
1,000 or Less ................................ 32 3 Q 2,069 1,293 974 15.7 2.1 0.2
1,001 to 5,000 ................................ 168 72 2 3,508 5,095 1,128 47.9 14.1 1.4
5,001 to 10,000 .............................. 107 127 5 714 4,273 1,266 150.2 29.8 3.6
10,001 to 25,000 ............................ 93 239 17 390 5,306 2,071 239.5 45.0 8.0
25,001 to 50,000 ............................ Q 193 47 Q 2,755 2,685 Q 70.0 17.5
50,001 to 100,000 .......................... N 108 103 N 844 3,125 N 127.4 33.1
Over 100,000 ................................. N Q 465 N Q 5,681 N Q 81.8
Provider of Natural Gas
(more than one may apply)
Local Utility ..................................... 422 707 453 6,480 18,272 13,611 65.1 38.7 33.3
Some Other Provider ..................... 26 100 251 336 1,653 4,383 77.2 60.7 57.2
See "Guide to the Tables" or "Glossary" for further explanations of the terms used in this table. Both can be accessed from the CBECS web site - http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/.
 * Figures in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. Mall buildings add an estimated 213 thousand buildings comprising 6.9 billion square feet. In the 1999 CBECS, malls represented 3.8 percent of total natural gas consumption.
a The definition for one or more of these row items has changed and may not be directly comparable with past CBECS estimates. See "Guide to the Tables" for discussion of the differences.
Q=Data withheld because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent, or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N=No responding cases in sample that use natural gas.
Notes: ● Statistics for the "Energy End Uses" category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. ● HVAC = Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. ● Due to rounding, data may not sum to totals.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Forms EIA-871A, C, and E of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.