Released: Dec 2006
Next CBECS will be conducted in 2007

Table C23.  Total Natural Gas Consumption and Expenditures in Non-Mall Buildings, 2003
  All Buildings*
Using Natural Gas
Natural Gas
Consumption
Natural Gas Expenditures
Number of Buildings (thousand) Floorspace (million
square feet)
Floorspace
per Building
(thousand
square feet)
Total
(trillion
Btu)
Total
(billion
cubic feet)
Total
(million
dollars)
All Buildings* ............................... 2,391 43,468 18.2 1,928 1,870 14,525
Building Floorspace
(Square Feet)
1,001 to 5,000 ................................ 1,110 3,084 2.8 250 243 2,155
5,001 to 10,000 .............................. 496 3,692 7.4 209 202 1,689
10,001 to 25,000 ............................ 450 7,053 15.7 309 300 2,524
25,001 to 50,000 ............................ 168 6,025 35.8 258 250 1,865
50,001 to 100,000 .......................... 95 6,683 70.6 244 236 1,868
100,001 to 200,000 ........................ 48 6,645 138.4 249 241 1,737
200,001 to 500,000 ........................ 19 5,679 292.6 205 199 1,343
Over 500,000 ................................. 5 4,606 919.5 204 198 1,344
Principal Building Activity
Education ....................................... 213 7,045 33.1 268 260 1,889
Food Sales ..................................... 98 747 7.6 39 37 332
Food Service ................................. 226 1,396 6.2 203 197 1,615
Health Care .................................... 72 2,544 35.5 243 235 1,538
  Inpatient ....................................... 7 1,805 257.0 204 198 1,241
  Outpatient .................................... 65 739 11.4 38 37 297
Lodging .......................................... 86 4,256 49.7 215 208 1,581
Retail (Other Than Mall).................. 245 2,866 11.7 91 89 719
Office ............................................. 488 8,208 16.8 269 261 2,201
Public Assembly ............................ 146 2,723 18.6 102 99 775
Public Order and Safety ................ 36 637 17.7 29 28 234
Religious Worship .......................... 220 2,629 11.9 82 80 664
Service .......................................... 281 2,496 8.9 139 135 1,096
Warehouse and Storage ............... 187 5,494 29.4 132 128 976
Other .............................................. 45 1,252 27.9 87 85 684
Vacant ........................................... 49 1,176 24.2 28 27 220
Year Constructed
Before 1920 ................................... 200 2,759 13.8 143 139 1,134
1920 to 1945 .................................. 338 4,679 13.9 229 223 1,708
1946 to 1959 .................................. 313 4,659 14.9 216 210 1,610
1960 to 1969 .................................. 309 5,635 18.2 255 248 1,872
1970 to 1979 .................................. 391 7,659 19.6 351 341 2,466
1980 to 1989 .................................. 303 6,469 21.3 291 282 2,270
1990 to 1999 .................................. 419 8,177 19.5 314 305 2,452
2000 to 2003 .................................. 118 3,431 29.1 127 123 1,012
Census Region and Division
Northeast ....................................... 397 9,181 23.1 428 415 3,553
  New England ............................... 74 1,465 19.8 75 73 673
  Middle Atlantic .............................. 323 7,716 23.9 353 343 2,880
Midwest ......................................... 802 13,163 16.4 705 683 4,844
  East North Central ........................ 546 9,570 17.5 528 512 3,649
  West North Central ...................... 255 3,593 14.1 177 171 1,195
South ............................................. 714 13,311 18.6 474 460 3,866
  South Atlantic .............................. 308 6,326 20.5 217 210 1,934
  East South Central ....................... 155 2,281 14.7 102 99 817
  West South Central ...................... 251 4,704 18.7 156 151 1,115
West .............................................. 479 7,813 16.3 320 311 2,261
  Mountain ...................................... 190 2,797 14.7 167 162 1,089
  Pacific .......................................... 289 5,016 17.4 153 149 1,172
Climate Zone: 30-Year Average
Under 2,000 CDD and --
  More than 7,000 HDD ................... 493 7,645 15.5 431 418 3,076
  5,500-7,000 HDD ......................... 718 12,850 17.9 679 659 4,901
  4,000-5,499 HDD ......................... 347 8,113 23.4 337 327 2,702
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ................ 646 10,509 16.3 358 347 2,920
2,000 CDD or More and --
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ................ 187 4,350 23.2 122 119 925
Number of Floors
One ................................................ 1,431 14,940 10.4 664 644 5,406
Two ............................................... 617 11,441 18.5 491 476 3,627
Three ............................................. 242 5,668 23.5 241 234 1,816
Four to Nine ................................... 93 7,670 82.1 378 367 2,560
Ten or More ................................... 9 3,749 437.6 154 149 1,116
Number of Workers (main shift)
Fewer than 5 ................................. 1,082 7,023 6.5 272 264 2,308
5 to 9 .............................................. 474 4,084 8.6 198 192 1,666
10 to 19 .......................................... 359 5,317 14.8 242 235 1,841
20 to 49 .......................................... 289 8,212 28.5 395 383 2,951
50 to 99 .......................................... 113 6,156 54.7 241 234 1,780
100 to 249 ...................................... 52 5,127 98.1 235 228 1,652
250 or More ................................... 23 7,549 333.2 344 334 2,327
Weekly Operating Hours
Fewer than 40 ............................... 382 3,259 8.5 107 104 892
40 to 48 .......................................... 569 6,913 12.1 249 242 2,018
49 to 60 .......................................... 607 10,191 16.8 374 363 2,928
61 to 84 .......................................... 374 7,468 20.0 314 305 2,373
85 to 167 ........................................ 233 5,225 22.4 257 249 1,906
Open Continuously ........................ 225 10,411 46.2 626 607 4,407
Ownership and Occupancy
Nongovernment Owned ................ 2,078 33,317 16.0 1,503 1,458 11,558
  Owner Occupied ......................... 1,044 16,548 15.8 708 686 5,361
  Nonowner Occupied ................... 997 15,886 15.9 779 756 6,070
  Unoccupied .................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Government Owned ...................... 313 10,150 32.4 425 412 2,967
  Federal ......................................... 23 1,083 46.3 35 34 226
  State ............................................ 72 2,438 33.8 98 95 748
  Local ............................................ 218 6,630 30.4 291 283 1,993
Vacancy Status
Completely Vacant ......................... 37 933 25.6 18 18 142
Mostly Vacant ................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
Partially Vacant .............................. 264 8,446 32.0 318 308 2,477
Not At All Vacant ........................... 2,079 33,845 16.3 1,582 1,534 11,828
Number of Establishments
One ................................................ 1,912 30,518 16.0 1,462 1,418 10,950
2 to 5 .............................................. 382 7,593 19.9 307 298 2,377
6 to 10 ............................................ 39 1,355 34.5 48 47 366
11 to 20 .......................................... 12 1,271 102.6 34 33 248
More than 20 .................................. 9 1,797 Q 58 56 441
Currently Unoccupied .................... 37 933 25.6 18 18 142
Predominant Exterior
Wall Material
Brick, Stone or Stucco ................... 1,292 23,551 18.2 1,127 1,093 8,403
Concrete (Block or Poured) ........... 423 7,323 17.3 351 340 2,622
Concrete Panels ............................ 83 4,680 56.4 180 174 1,326
Siding or Shingles .......................... 261 1,997 7.7 85 83 735
Metal Panels ................................... 276 4,023 14.6 130 126 1,059
Window Glass ............................... 11 696 65.0 14 14 83
Other .............................................. 33 898 26.9 35 34 248
No One Major Type ........................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
Predominant Roof Material
Built-Up .......................................... 649 15,208 23.4 743 720 5,529
Shingles (Not Wood) ...................... 677 6,519 9.6 310 301 2,482
Metal Surfacing .............................. 436 5,781 13.2 194 188 1,516
Synthetic or Rubber ....................... 363 11,838 32.7 542 526 3,905
Slate or Tile .................................... 152 1,574 10.4 67 65 562
Wooden Materials .......................... 59 526 8.9 21 20 160
Concrete ........................................ 34 Q Q 24 23 168
Other .............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
No One Major Type ........................ 13 378 29.1 16 16 124
Renovations in Buildings
Constructed Before 1980
(more than one may apply)
Any Type of Renovation
 Since 1980 .................................... 641 13,270 20.7 684 663 4,851
   Addition or Annex ....................... 158 5,036 31.8 304 295 1,982
   Reduction In Floorspace ............. 18 964 53.6 52 50 390
   Cosmetic Improvements .............. 477 10,073 21.1 497 482 3,587
   Wall or Roof Replacement .......... 234 6,328 27.0 278 270 1,966
   Interior Wall
    Re-Configuration ........................ 278 7,019 25.2 342 331 2,430
   HVAC Equipment Upgrade .......... 306 8,482 27.7 467 453 3,281
   Lighting Upgrade ......................... 304 8,104 26.7 397 386 2,868
   Window Replacement ................. 195 5,000 25.6 242 235 1,734
   Plumbing System Upgrade .......... 213 5,714 26.8 287 278 2,051
   Insulation Upgrade ...................... 142 2,960 20.8 132 128 978
   Other Renovation ........................ 12 443 37.4 26 25 Q
No Renovations Since 1980 .......... 910 12,120 13.3 512 497 3,939
Building Newer than 1980 ............. 840 18,077 21.5 732 710 5,734
Energy Sources (more than
one may apply)
Electricity ....................................... 2,390 43,461 18.2 1,927 1,869 14,523
Natural Gas .................................... 2,391 43,468 18.2 1,928 1,870 14,525
Fuel Oil ........................................... 129 10,383 80.4 507 492 3,539
District Heat ................................... 25 2,444 99.5 47 46 323
District Chilled Water ...................... 17 1,765 101.7 35 34 244
Propane ......................................... 47 2,470 52.7 106 103 751
Other .............................................. 39 903 23.4 47 46 330
Space-Heating Energy Sources
Natural Gas .................................... 2,165 36,959 17.1 1,803 1,749 13,515
  Natural Gas Main ......................... 1,999 32,970 16.5 1,687 1,636 12,586
  Natural Gas Secondary ............... 166 3,989 24.0 116 113 929
Other Excluding Natural Gas ......... 179 6,015 33.6 106 103 862
Buildings without Heating .............. 47 494 10.6 Q Q Q
Primary Space-Heating
Energy Source
Electricity ....................................... 281 6,162 21.9 177 171 1,434
Natural Gas .................................... 1,999 32,970 16.5 1,687 1,636 12,586
Fuel Oil ........................................... 38 Q 42.3 20 20 162
District Heat ................................... 24 2,117 90.0 23 22 172
Propane ......................................... Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other .............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling Energy Sources
Natural Gas .................................... 17 1,018 58.9 92 89 672
Other Excluding Natural Gas ......... 2,136 40,006 18.7 1,729 1,677 13,046
Buildings without Cooling ............... 238 2,444 10.3 107 104 807
Water-Heating Energy Sources
Natural Gas .................................... 1,445 28,820 19.9 1,509 1,463 11,092
Other Excluding Natural Gas ......... 681 12,313 18.1 361 350 2,933
Bldgs without Water Heating ......... 265 2,334 8.8 57 56 500
Cooking Energy Sources
Natural Gas .................................... 457 15,438 33.8 856 830 6,157
Other Excluding Natural Gas ......... 107 3,218 30.0 141 137 1,007
Buildings without Cooking .............. 1,827 24,812 13.6 931 903 7,361
Energy End Uses (more than
one may apply)
Buildings with Space Heating ........ 2,344 42,974 18.3 1,909 1,852 14,377
Buildings with Cooling .................... 2,153 41,023 19.1 1,821 1,766 13,718
Buildings with Water Heating ......... 2,126 41,134 19.3 1,870 1,814 14,025
Buildings with Cooking ................... 564 18,656 33.1 997 967 7,163
Buildings with Manufacturing ........ 70 2,301 33.1 100 97 718
Buildings with Electricity
 Generation .................................... 104 10,402 99.7 534 518 3,718
Percent of Floorspace Heated
Not Heated ..................................... 47 494 10.6 Q Q Q
1 to 50 ............................................ 231 4,006 17.4 97 94 831
51 to 99 .......................................... 317 5,965 18.8 268 260 2,078
100 ................................................. 1,796 33,002 18.4 1,544 1,498 11,468
Percent of Floorspace Cooled
Not Cooled ..................................... 238 2,444 10.3 107 104 807
1 to 50 ............................................ 601 12,132 20 452 438 3,465
51 to 99 .......................................... 402 9,732 24 451 438 3,341
100 ................................................. 1,150 19,159 17 918 890 6,912
Heating Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Heat Pumps .................................... 152 5,552 37 224 217 1,804
  Packaged Heat Pumps ................. 86 3,323 39 140 135 1,115
  Split-System Heat Pumps ............. 50 1,453 29 42 41 361
  Individual Room Heat Pumps ........ 32 2,195 69 84 81 648
Furnaces ....................................... 1,314 15,304 12 673 653 5,095
Individual Space Heaters ............... 429 8,969 21 379 368 2,720
District Heat ................................... 24 2,291 95 39 38 269
Boilers ............................................ 432 18,174 42 1,040 1,009 7,418
Packaged Heating Units ................. 586 13,618 23 582 564 4,477
Other .............................................. 85 1,801 21 47 46 368
Cooling Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Residential-Type Central
 Air Conditioners ............................ 652 7,982 12 391 379 2,867
Heat Pumps .................................... 176 5,832 33 234 227 1,887
  Packaged Heat Pumps ................. 100 3,352 33 145 141 1,163
  Split-System Heat Pumps ............. 59 1,489 25 45 43 382
  Individual Room Heat Pumps ........ 31 2,380 76 85 83 660
Individual Air Conditioners ............. 392 9,114 23 410 398 3,040
District Chilled Water ...................... 17 1,765 102 35 34 244
Central Chillers ............................... 78 9,100 117 501 486 3,461
Packaged Air Conditioning
 Units .............................................. 1,116 23,806 21 1,090 1,057 8,210
Swamp Coolers ............................. 78 1,265 16 81 78 520
Other .............................................. 16 808 50 52 51 377
Main Equipment Replaced Since
1990 (more than one may apply)
Heating ........................................... 734 12,275 17 605 587 4,519
Cooling ........................................... 873 16,047 18 779 756 5,761
Water Heating Equipment
Centralized System ........................ 1,560 25,353 16 1,226 1,189 9,346
Distributed System ......................... 438 7,559 17 254 247 1,989
Combination of Centralized
 and Distributed System ................. 128 8,222 64 390 378 2,691
Energy-Related Space Functions
(more than one may apply)
Commercial Food Preparation ........ 563 18,644 33 996 966 7,156
Activities with Large
 Amounts of Hot Water .................. 404 16,023 40 931 903 6,466
Separate Computer Area ............... 373 20,615 55 875 849 6,230
HVAC Conservation Features
(more than one may apply)
Variable Air-Volume System ......... 290 14,594 50 710 688 5,070
Economizer Cycle .......................... 348 16,655 48 805 781 5,703
HVAC Maintenance ....................... 1,576 36,984 24 1,659 1,609 12,356
Energy Management and
 Control System (EMCS) ................ 155 11,626 75 477 463 3,318
Equipment Usage Reduced
When Building Not In Full Use
(more than one may apply)a
Heating ........................................... 1,727 31,179 18 1,292 1,253 9,840
Cooling ........................................... 1,676 31,437 19 1,288 1,249 9,785
Lighting .......................................... 2,043 31,070 15 1,250 1,213 9,710
Office Equipment ........................... 863 12,670 15 476 462 3,666
Annual Consumption
(hundred cubic feet)
1,000 or Less ................................ 674 4,336 6 37 35 411
1,001 to 5,000 ................................ 1,011 9,732 10 249 242 2,223
5,001 to 10,000 .............................. 339 6,254 19 247 239 2,042
10,001 to 25,000 ............................ 232 7,767 34 360 349 2,796
25,001 to 50,000 ............................ 85 5,534 65 293 284 2,161
50,001 to 100,000 .......................... 30 3,969 132 218 211 1,450
Over 100,000 ................................. 21 5,875 285 525 510 3,441
Provider of Natural Gas
(more than one may apply)
Local Utility ..................................... 2,255 38,362 17 1,631 1,582 12,577
Some Other Provider ..................... 149 6,372 43 389 377 2,537
See "Guide to the Tables" or "Glossary" for further explanations of the terms used in this table. Both can be accessed from the CBECS web site - http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/.
 * Figures in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. Mall buildings add an estimated 213 thousand buildings comprising 6.9 billion square feet. In the 1999 CBECS, malls represented 3.8 percent of total natural gas consumption.
a The definition for one or more of these row items has changed and may not be directly comparable with past CBECS estimates. See "Guide to the Tables" for discussion of the differences.
Q=Data withheld because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent, or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N=No responding cases in sample that use natural gas.
Notes: ● Statistics for the "Energy End Uses" category represent total consumption in buildings that have the end use, not consumption specifically for that particular end use. ● HVAC = Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. ● Due to rounding, data may not sum to totals.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Forms EIA-871A, C, and E of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.