Released: June 2006
Next Update: Late Summer 2006

Table B1. Summary Table: Total and Means of Floorspace, Number of Workers, and Hours of Operation for Non-Mall Buildings, 2003
  Number of Buildings (thousand) Total Floorspace (million square feet) Total
Workers
in All Buildings (thousand)
Mean
Square
Feet per Building (thousand)
Mean
Square
Feet per
Worker
Mean
Hours per Week
All Buildings*................................ 4,645 64,783 72,807 13.9 890 61
Building Floorspace
(Square Feet)
1,001 to 5,000 ................................ 2,552 6,789 9,936 2.7 683 57
5,001 to 10,000 .............................. 889 6,585 7,512 7.4 877 61
10,001 to 25,000 ............................ 738 11,535 10,787 15.6 1,069 67
25,001 to 50,000 ............................ 241 8,668 8,881 35.9 976 72
50,001 to 100,000 .......................... 129 9,057 8,432 70.4 1,074 80
100,001 to 200,000 ........................ 65 9,064 11,632 138.8 779 89
200,001 to 500,000 ........................ 25 7,176 6,883 289.0 1,043 100
Over 500,000 ................................. 7 5,908 8,744 896.1 676 115
Principal Building Activity
Education ....................................... 386 9,874 12,489 25.6 791 50
Food Sales ..................................... 226 1,255 1,430 5.6 877 107
Food Service ................................. 297 1,654 3,129 5.6 528 86
Health Care .................................... 129 3,163 6,317 24.6 501 59
  Inpatient ....................................... 8 1,905 3,716 241.4 513 168
  Outpatient .................................... 121 1,258 2,600 10.4 484 52
Lodging .......................................... 142 5,096 2,457 35.8 2,074 167
Retail (Other Than Mall).................. 443 4,317 3,463 9.7 1,246 59
Office ............................................. 824 12,208 28,154 14.8 434 55
Public Assembly ............................ 277 3,939 2,395 14.2 1,645 50
Public Order and Safety ................ 71 1,090 1,347 15.5 809 103
Religious Worship .......................... 370 3,754 1,706 10.1 2,200 32
Service .......................................... 622 4,050 3,667 6.5 1,105 55
Warehouse and Storage ............... 597 10,078 4,369 16.9 2,306 66
Other .............................................. 79 1,738 1,819 21.9 956 63
Vacant ........................................... 182 2,567 Q 14.1 Q Q
Year Constructed
Before 1920 ................................... 330 3,769 3,045 11.4 1,238 48
1920 to 1945 .................................. 527 6,871 6,122 13.0 1,122 51
1946 to 1959 .................................. 562 7,045 6,646 12.5 1,060 52
1960 to 1969 .................................. 579 8,101 8,708 14.0 930 63
1970 to 1979 .................................. 731 10,772 12,597 14.7 855 65
1980 to 1989 .................................. 707 10,332 15,032 14.6 687 62
1990 to 1999 .................................. 876 12,360 16,181 14.1 764 71
2000 to 2003 .................................. 334 5,533 4,476 16.6 1,236 68
Census Region and Division
Northeast ....................................... 726 12,905 14,908 17.8 866 67
  New England ............................... 233 2,964 3,155 12.7 939 71
  Middle Atlantic .............................. 493 9,941 11,752 20.1 846 65
Midwest ......................................... 1,266 17,080 16,373 13.5 1,043 59
  East North Central ........................ 696 11,595 11,489 16.7 1,009 61
  West North Central ...................... 571 5,485 4,883 9.6 1,123 58
South ............................................. 1,775 23,489 27,078 13.2 867 60
  South Atlantic .............................. 874 12,258 16,757 14.0 732 60
  East South Central ....................... 348 3,393 3,060 9.8 1,109 61
  West South Central ...................... 553 7,837 7,261 14.2 1,079 60
West .............................................. 878 11,310 14,448 12.9 783 62
  Mountain ...................................... 299 3,675 4,281 12.3 858 64
  Pacific .......................................... 580 7,635 10,168 13.2 751 61
Climate Zone: 30-Year Average
Under 2,000 CDD and --
  More than 7,000 HDD ................... 855 10,622 10,305 12.4 1,031 60
  5,500-7,000 HDD ......................... 1,173 17,335 17,340 14.8 1,000 63
  4,000-5,499 HDD ......................... 673 11,504 14,007 17.1 821 66
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ................ 1,276 15,739 17,178 12.3 916 57
2,000 CDD or More and --
  Fewer than 4,000 HDD ................ 669 9,584 13,978 14.3 686 62
Number of Floors
One ................................................ 3,136 25,981 23,710 8.3 1,096 60
Two ............................................... 1,031 16,270 16,170 15.8 1,006 62
Three ............................................. 339 7,501 7,966 22.1 942 63
Four to Nine ................................... 128 10,085 15,910 78.7 634 87
Ten or More ................................... 12 4,947 9,051 420.0 547 112
Elevators and Escalators
(more than one may apply)
Any Elevators ................................ 309 24,617 36,562 79.7 673 78
Number of Elevators
  One .............................................. 208 8,221 9,079 39.5 905 67
  Two to Five .................................. 88 10,129 15,894 115.1 637 98
  Six or More .................................. 13 6,268 11,589 491.5 541 115
Any Escalators .............................. 6 2,350 4,048 388.7 580 84
Number of Workers (main shift)
Fewer than 5 ................................. 2,653 15,492 4,633 5.8 3,344 56
5 to 9 .............................................. 778 6,166 5,080 7.9 1,214 63
10 to 19 .......................................... 563 7,803 7,305 13.9 1,068 66
20 to 49 .......................................... 398 10,989 11,780 27.6 933 73
50 to 99 .......................................... 147 7,934 9,545 53.8 831 75
100 to 249 ...................................... 77 6,871 11,093 89.7 619 90
250 or More ................................... 30 9,528 23,371 320.4 408 99
Weekly Operating Hours
Fewer than 40 ............................... 1,002 6,863 3,293 6.9 2,084 13
40 to 48 .......................................... 1,117 11,622 13,765 10.4 844 42
49 to 60 .......................................... 1,062 15,723 19,146 14.8 821 54
61 to 84 .......................................... 591 10,334 11,630 17.5 889 74
85 to 167 ........................................ 400 7,092 10,473 17.7 677 107
Open Continuously ........................ 475 13,149 14,499 27.7 907 168
Ownership and Occupancy
Nongovernment Owned ................ 4,011 49,421 53,339 12.3 927 62
  Owner Occupied ......................... 1,841 23,591 27,111 12.8 870 60
  Nonowner Occupied ................... 2,029 23,914 26,228 11.8 912 69
  Unoccupied .................................. 141 1,916 N 13.6 N 0
Government Owned ...................... 635 15,363 19,468 24.2 789 55
  Federal ......................................... 46 1,956 2,432 42.9 804 66
  State ............................................ 164 3,808 7,204 23.2 529 57
  Local ............................................ 425 9,599 9,832 22.6 976 53
Vacancy Status
Completely Vacant ......................... 157 2,161 N 13.8 N 0
Mostly Vacant ................................ 25 406 Q 16.1 Q 49
Partially Vacant .............................. 548 12,382 16,997 22.6 729 67
Not At All Vacant ........................... 3,915 49,834 55,746 12.7 894 63
Number of Establishments
One ................................................ 3,754 45,144 44,071 12.0 1,024 64
2 to 5 .............................................. 643 10,960 13,001 17.1 843 61
6 to 10 ............................................ 55 1,958 Q 35.7 303 68
11 to 20 .......................................... 23 1,951 3,342 85.7 584 66
More than 20 .................................. 14 2,609 5,930 181.1 440 71
Currently Unoccupied .................... 157 2,161 N 13.8 N 0
Predominant Exterior
Wall Material
Brick, Stone or Stucco ................... 2,044 32,817 36,770 16.1 892 63
Concrete (Block or Poured) ........... 786 10,832 10,463 13.8 1,035 61
Concrete Panels ............................ 131 6,559 10,891 50.2 602 67
Siding or Shingles .......................... 779 4,120 4,567 5.3 902 58
Metal Panels ................................... 825 7,912 6,235 9.6 1,269 59
Window Glass ............................... 17 1,024 1,910 60.1 536 78
Other .............................................. 47 1,113 1,541 23.8 722 62
No One Major Type ........................ 18 406 430 22.9 945 53
Predominant Roof Material
Built-Up .......................................... 1,036 21,170 25,828 20.4 820 63
Shingles (Not Wood) ...................... 1,325 10,195 10,462 7.7 974 59
Metal Surfacing .............................. 1,288 11,944 8,461 9.3 1,412 58
Synthetic or Rubber ....................... 511 14,730 20,783 28.8 709 70
Slate or Tile .................................... 263 2,462 3,021 9.4 815 60
Wooden Materials .......................... 122 887 973 7.3 912 60
Concrete ........................................ 61 2,231 1,958 36.7 1,139 68
Other .............................................. 16 598 652 38.1 917 62
No One Major Type ........................ 25 565 669 22.7 844 84
Renovations in Buildings
Constructed Before 1980
(more than one may apply)
Any Type of Renovation
 Since 1980 .................................... 1,018 17,844 20,481 17.5 871 61
   Addition or Annex ....................... 256 6,551 6,668 25.6 982 68
   Reduction In Floorspace ............. 22 1,012 1,078 46.1 939 78
   Cosmetic Improvements .............. 741 13,119 15,890 17.7 826 62
   Wall or Roof Replacement .......... 370 8,070 10,121 21.8 797 60
   Interior Wall
    Re-Configuration ........................ 411 8,518 11,188 20.7 761 65
   HVAC Equipment Upgrade .......... 442 10,768 13,849 24.4 778 64
   Lighting Upgrade ......................... 455 10,275 12,452 22.6 825 62
   Window Replacement ................. 310 6,354 7,462 20.5 851 63
   Plumbing System Upgrade .......... 315 7,144 8,764 22.7 815 68
   Insulation Upgrade ...................... 227 4,015 5,019 17.7 800 56
   Other Renovation ........................ 19 523 476 27.3 1,097 75
No Renovations Since 1980 .......... 1,710 18,714 16,637 10.9 1,125 55
Building Newer than 1980 ............. 1,917 28,225 35,689 14.7 791 67
Energy Sources (more than
one may apply)
Electricity ....................................... 4,404 63,307 72,708 14.4 871 62
Natural Gas .................................... 2,391 43,468 51,956 18.2 837 65
Fuel Oil ........................................... 451 15,157 19,625 33.6 772 68
District Heat ................................... 67 5,443 10,190 81.4 534 79
District Chilled Water ...................... 33 2,853 7,189 86.7 397 79
Propane ......................................... 502 7,076 5,858 14.1 1,208 60
Wood ............................................. 62 289 262 4.6 1,105 46
Coal ................................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
Solar .............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other .............................................. 61 909 1,190 15.0 764 64
Space-Heating Energy Sources
(more than one may apply)
Electricity ....................................... 1,766 28,600 33,903 16.2 844 66
Natural Gas .................................... 2,165 36,959 40,933 17.1 903 62
Fuel Oil ........................................... 360 5,988 5,386 16.6 1,112 58
District Heat ................................... 65 5,198 9,939 79.7 523 78
Propane ......................................... 372 3,204 3,002 8.6 1,067 55
Wood ............................................. 59 261 191 4.4 1,367 45
Coal ................................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
Solar .............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Other .............................................. 41 475 527 11.6 901 61
Primary Space-Heating
Energy Source
Electricity ....................................... 1,258 15,996 19,392 12.7 825 65
Natural Gas .................................... 1,999 32,970 36,773 16.5 897 61
Fuel Oil ........................................... 282 3,818 2,669 13.5 1,430 58
District Heat ................................... 63 4,907 9,729 77.4 504 77
Propane ......................................... 308 1,955 1,915 6.4 1,021 53
Wood ............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Coal ................................................ Q Q Q Q Q Q
Solar............................................... N N N N N N
Other .............................................. Q Q Q Q Q Q
Cooling Energy Sources
(more than one may apply)
Electricity ....................................... 3,589 54,321 63,221 15.1 859 64
Natural Gas .................................... 17 1,018 1,342 58.9 759 72
District Chilled Water ...................... 33 2,853 7,189 86.7 397 79
Water-Heating Energy Sources
(more than one may apply)
Electricity ....................................... 1,910 27,490 32,638 14.4 842 59
Natural Gas .................................... 1,445 28,820 35,740 19.9 806 70
Fuel Oil ........................................... 94 1,880 2,036 19.9 923 81
District Heat ................................... 27 3,088 4,193 113.1 736 95
Propane ......................................... 128 1,422 1,527 11.1 931 80
Cooking Energy Sources
(more than one may apply)
Electricity ....................................... 410 13,161 16,034 32.1 821 81
Natural Gas .................................... 457 15,438 19,011 33.8 812 85
Propane ......................................... 108 1,460 1,866 13.6 782 77
Energy End Uses (more than
one may apply)
Buildings with Space Heating ........ 3,982 60,028 70,778 15.1 848 61
Buildings with Cooling .................... 3,625 56,940 70,153 15.7 812 64
Buildings with Water Heating ......... 3,472 56,478 69,224 16.3 816 65
Buildings with Cooking ................... 801 22,237 27,242 27.8 816 81
Buildings with Manufacturing ........ 119 3,138 2,879 26.5 1,090 54
Buildings with Electricity.................
 Generation .................................... 149 12,821 19,273 85.9 665 99
Percent of Floorspace Heated
Not Heated ..................................... 663 4,756 2,029 7.2 2,344 60
1 to 50 ............................................ 523 6,850 4,135 13.1 1,656 56
51 to 99 .......................................... 498 8,107 9,618 16.3 843 64
100 ................................................. 2,962 45,071 57,024 15.2 790 62
Percent of Floorspace Cooled
Not Cooled ..................................... 1,020 7,843 2,654 7.7 2,956 52
1 to 50 ............................................ 985 16,598 11,094 16.8 1,496 60
51 to 99 .......................................... 629 13,211 16,510 21.0 800 70
100 ................................................. 2,011 27,132 42,549 13.5 638 63
Percent Lit When Open
Zero ............................................... 47 293 Q 6.3 Q 115
1 to 50 ............................................ 929 10,203 4,414 11.0 2,312 64
51 to 99 .......................................... 1,108 18,288 26,635 16.5 687 60
100 ................................................. 2,176 32,789 41,552 15.1 789 64
Building Never Open/
 Electricity Not Used ....................... 386 3,210 111 8.3 28,892 34
Percent Lit When Closed
Zero ............................................... 1,964 17,385 18,080 8.9 962 42
1 to 50 ............................................ 1,882 30,948 37,362 16.4 828 58
51 to 100 ........................................ 136 2,093 2,777 15.4 754 59
Building Never Closed/
 Electricity Not Used ....................... 664 14,357 14,588 21.6 984 127
Heating Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Heat Pumps .................................... 476 8,814 10,754 18.5 820 64
  Packaged Heat Pumps ................. 278 5,442 7,472 19.6 728 64
  Split-System Heat Pumps ............. 166 2,581 2,769 15.5 932 61
  Individual Room Heat Pumps ........ 58 2,691 2,979 46.5 903 84
Furnaces ....................................... 1,864 19,615 18,616 10.5 1,054 57
Individual Space Heaters ............... 819 12,545 12,878 15.3 974 61
District Heat ................................... 65 5,166 9,838 79.7 525 78
Boilers ............................................ 579 20,423 23,472 35.3 870 70
Packaged Heating Units ................. 953 18,021 22,588 18.9 798 69
Other .............................................. 205 3,262 3,475 15.9 939 63
Cooling Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Residential-Type Central
 Air Conditioners ............................ 1,006 11,035 11,438 11.0 965 57
Heat Pumps .................................... 492 9,041 10,961 18.4 825 63
  Packaged Heat Pumps ................. 288 5,426 7,489 18.9 725 62
  Split-System Heat Pumps ............. 174 2,606 2,764 15.0 943 60
  Individual Room Heat Pumps ........ 58 2,940 3,262 50.7 901 84
Individual Air Conditioners ............. 742 12,558 11,477 16.9 1,094 66
District Chilled Water ...................... 33 2,853 7,189 86.7 397 79
Central Chillers ............................... 111 11,636 17,545 105.1 663 81
Packaged Air Conditioning
 Units .............................................. 1,613 29,969 35,810 18.6 837 69
Swamp Coolers ............................. 122 1,561 1,655 12.8 943 71
Other .............................................. 40 1,232 1,682 31.1 732 75
Main Equipment Replaced Since
1990 (more than one may apply)
Heating ........................................... 1,197 16,403 16,978 13.7 966 61
Cooling ........................................... 1,356 20,995 24,553 15.5 855 64
Water Heating Equipment
Centralized System ........................ 2,513 34,671 39,948 13.8 868 66
Distributed System ......................... 785 11,540 11,842 14.7 974 57
Combination of Centralized
 and Distributed System ................. 175 10,267 17,434 58.8 589 79
Lighting Equipment Types
(more than one may apply)
Incandescent ................................. 2,184 38,528 48,802 17.6 789 66
Standard Fluorescent .................... 3,943 59,688 70,943 15.1 841 62
Compact Fluorescent ..................... 941 27,571 36,563 29.3 754 73
High Intensity Discharge ................ 455 20,643 26,080 45.4 792 71
Halogen .......................................... 565 17,703 22,892 31.3 773 71
Other .............................................. 8 269 604 31.7 445 111
Refrigeration Equipment
(more than one may apply)a
Any Refrigeration........................... 3,176 52,974 65,564 16.7 808 66
  Commercial Refrigeration ............. 1,007 26,768 32,287 26.6 829 86
    Walk-In Units .............................. 666 20,254 25,289 30.4 801 93
    Cases or Cabinets ..................... 825 20,424 25,417 24.8 804 87
  Residential-Type Units ................. 2,370 38,884 47,846 16.4 813 60
  Vending Machines ....................... 996 35,335 45,904 35.5 770 78
No Refrigeration ............................. 1,469 11,809 7,243 8.0 1,630 51
Office Equipment (more
than one may apply)
Computers ..................................... 3,081 55,627 69,046 18.1 806 65
  With Flat Screen Monitors ............ 877 26,417 42,188 30.1 626 68
Dedicated Servers ......................... 1,175 36,338 52,509 30.9 692 68
Laser Printers ................................ 1,970 33,012 40,085 16.8 824 64
Inkjet Printers ................................. 1,420 32,210 43,906 22.7 734 67
FAX Machines ............................... 2,715 52,373 66,994 19.3 782 66
Photocopiers .................................. 1,939 46,257 61,340 23.9 754 63
Number of Computers
None .............................................. 1,565 9,156 3,761 5.9 2,435 54
1 to 4 .............................................. 1,670 12,395 8,684 7.4 1,427 63
5 to 9 .............................................. 559 7,179 6,010 12.8 1,195 63
10 to 19 .......................................... 370 6,610 6,847 17.9 965 65
20 to 49 .......................................... 255 7,414 9,387 29.1 790 70
50 to 99 .......................................... 110 5,376 6,937 48.9 775 69
100 to 249 ...................................... 79 6,690 8,865 84.3 755 71
250 or More ................................... 38 9,963 22,316 264.3 446 89
Number of Dedicated Servers
None .............................................. 3,471 28,445 20,298 8.2 1,401 59
1 to 4 .............................................. 1,060 24,116 26,711 22.8 903 67
5 to 9 .............................................. 58 3,864 6,045 67.0 639 83
10 to 19 .......................................... 30 3,027 8,615 100.1 351 84
20 to 49 .......................................... 17 2,583 4,793 150.0 539 77
50 or More ..................................... 10 2,748 6,345 276.6 433 87
Number of Photocopiers
None .............................................. 2,706 18,526 11,467 6.8 1,616 60
One ................................................ 1,250 15,475 12,549 12.4 1,233 60
2 to 4 .............................................. 549 15,082 17,284 27.5 873 65
5 to 9 .............................................. 85 5,515 10,674 64.7 517 83
10 or More ..................................... 54 10,185 20,833 187.2 489 80
Energy-Related Space Functions
(more than one may apply)
Commercial Food Preparation ........ 799 22,223 27,242 27.8 816 81
Activities with Large
 Amounts of Hot Water .................. 567 19,482 21,756 34.4 895 93
Separate Computer Area ............... 553 26,873 37,820 48.6 711 68
HVAC Conservation Features
(more than one may apply)
Variable Air-Volume System ......... 466 19,597 30,768 42.1 637 71
Economizer Cycle .......................... 508 21,108 32,317 41.5 653 76
HVAC Maintenance ....................... 2,581 51,163 63,597 19.8 804 66
Energy Management and
 Control System (EMCS) ................ 252 15,630 21,642 62.0 722 69
Window and Interior Lighting
Features (more than one
may apply)
Multipaned Windows ..................... 2,201 38,910 43,977 17.7 885 65
Tinted Window Glass .................... 1,323 29,887 40,426 22.6 739 63
Reflective Window Glass .............. 308 8,544 12,301 27.8 695 65
External Overhangs
 or Awnings ................................... 1,233 17,242 22,365 14.0 771 66
Skylights or Atriums ....................... 331 12,546 14,163 37.9 886 70
Daylighting Sensors ....................... 74 2,868 3,775 38.7 760 80
Specular Reflectors ....................... 928 26,118 33,030 28.2 791 65
Electronic Ballasts ......................... 2,577 46,882 59,003 18.2 795 65
Energy Management and
 Control System (EMCS)
 for Lighting .................................... 60 4,781 7,098 80.1 674 81
Equipment Usage Reduced
When Building Not In Full Use
(more than one may apply)a
Heating ........................................... 2,878 42,722 49,300 14.8 867 56
Cooling ........................................... 2,761 43,205 53,990 15.6 800 59
Lighting .......................................... 3,685 46,987 56,421 12.7 833 52
Office Equipment ........................... 1,504 19,397 20,147 12.9 963 51
See "Guide to the Tables" or "Glossary" for further explanations of the terms used in this table. Both can be accessed from the CBECS web site - http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/.
 * Figures in this table do not include enclosed malls and strip malls. Mall buildings add an estimated 213 thousand buildings comprising 6.9 billion square feet.
a The definition for one or more of these row items has changed and may not be directly comparable with past CBECS estimates. See "Guide to the Tables" for discussion of the differences.
Q=Data withheld because the Relative Standard Error (RSE) was greater than 50 percent, or fewer than 20 buildings were sampled.
N=No responding cases in sample.
Notes: ● HVAC = Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. ● Due to rounding, data may not sum to totals.
Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, Form EIA-871A of the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey.