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International Energy Statistics - Notes

Petroleum / Production

Total Oil Supply includes the production of crude oil (including lease condensate), natural gas plant liquids, and other liquids, and refinery processing gain.

Other Liquids includes biodiesel, ethanol, liquids produced from coal, gas, and oil shale, Orimulsion, and other hydrocarbons.

Crude Oil data for Canada include oil processed from Alberta oil sands.

Negative refinery processing gain data values indicate a net refinery processing loss.

The Liquefied Petroleum Gases category includes, where data are available, pentanes plus.

The Other Products category includes asphalt, coke, aviation gasoline, lubricants, naphthas, paraffin wax, petrochemical feedstocks, unfinished oils, white spirits, and blending components.

Petroleum / Consumption

Total Petroleum Consumption includes internal consumption, refinery fuel and loss, and bunkering. Also included, where available, is direct combustion of crude oil.

The Liquefied Petroleum Gases category also includes, where data are available, liquefied petroleum gases sold directly from natural gas processing plants for fuel or chemical uses and pentanes plus.

The Other Products category includes asphalt, coke, aviation gasoline, lubricants, naphthas, paraffin wax, petrochemical feedstocks, unfinished oils, white spirits, and blending components.

Total Petroleum Consumption includes internal consumption, refinery fuel and loss, and bunkering. Also included, where available, is direct combustion of crude oil.

Petroleum / Capacity

Data are as of January 1.

Data in thousand barrels per day are on a calendar day basis.

Catalytic cracking, thermal cracking, and reforming data for the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands are available only on a stream day basis. These figures have been converted to a calendar day basis by reducing the stream day data by an amount corresponding to the percentage reduction of crude oil distillation capacity from stream day to calendar day. Thus, the catalytic cracking, thermal cracking, and reforming data for the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Island are estimated.

Petroleum / Stocks

Petroleum stocks include crude oil (including strategic reserves), natural gas plant liquids, refinery feedstocks, additives and oxygenates, other hydrocarbons, and refined petroleum products.

Petroleum / Reserves

Proved reserves of crude oil as of January 1 of the report year are the estimated quantities of all liquids defined as crude oil, which geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be recoverable in future years from reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions.

Data for the United States are from the U.S. Energy Information Administration, and are as of December 31 of the prior year.

Data for other countries are from the Oil & Gas Journal.

Data for Kuwait and for Saudi Arabia each include one-half of the reserves in the Neutral Zone.

Reserve estimates for crude oil are very difficult to develop. As a convenience to the public, EIA makes available these crude oil reserve estimates from other sources, but it does not certify these data. Please carefully note the sources of the data when using and citing estimates of crude oil reserves.

Petroleum / Imports

The Liquefied Petroleum Gases category also includes, where data are available, liquefied petroleum gases sold directly from natural gas processing plants for fuel or chemical uses and pentanes plus.

The Other Products category includes asphalt, coke, aviation gasoline, lubricants, naphthas, paraffin wax, petrochemical feedstocks, unfinished oils, white spirits, and blending components.

Petroleum / Exports

The Liquefied Petroleum Gases category also includes, where data are available, liquefied petroleum gases sold directly from natural gas processing plants for fuel or chemical uses and pentanes plus.

The Other Products category includes asphalt, coke, aviation gasoline, lubricants, naphthas, paraffin wax, petrochemical feedstocks, unfinished oils, white spirits, and blending components.

Exports of refined petroleum products do not include bunker fuels where identifiable.

Petroleum / Carbon Dioxide Emissions

Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon equivalent by multiplying by 12/44.

Emissions from petroleum and coal account for differences in product-level consumption patterns and emissions factors. For example, in the case of petroleum, residual fuel oil has a significantly higher emissions factor than motor gasoline. The calculation methodology therefore applies emissions factors to individual petroleum product consumption data, and then sums to obtain total carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum.

Emissions data from the consumption of petroleum also incorporates carbon sequestration due to non-fuel use (for example, asphalt used for street paving). This is done by applying: (1) rates of non-fuel use and (2) sequestration rates of non-fuel use to individual products. Product-level emissions are accordingly reduced to account for carbon that is sequestered rather than combusted and emitted as carbon dioxide.

Natural Gas / All Flows

Imports and Exports each include liquefied natural gas (LNG).

Consumption includes stock change (not shown in the table).

Natural Gas / Production

To assure comparability of data across countries, natural gas production numbers exclude nonhydrocarbon gases for all countries.

Natural Gas / Reserves

Proved reserves of natural gas as of January 1 of the report year are the estimated quantities which analysis of geological and engineering data demonstrate with reasonable certainty to be recoverable in future years from reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions.

Data for the United States are from the U.S. Energy Information Administration, and are as of December 31 of the prior year.

Data for other countries are from the Oil & Gas Journal.

Data for Kuwait and for Saudi Arabia each include one-half of the reserves in the Neutral Zone.

Reserve estimates for natural gas are very difficult to develop. As a convenience to the public, EIA makes available these natural gas reserve estimates from other sources, but it does not certify these data. Please carefully note the sources of the data when using and citing estimates of natural gas reserves.

Natural Gas / Imports

Imports include liquefied natural gas (LNG).

Natural Gas / Exports

Exports include liquefied natural gas (LNG).

Natural Gas / Carbon Dioxide Emissions

Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon equivalent by multiplying by 12/44.

Coal / All Flows

Imports and Exports each include metallurgical coke.

Consumption is the sum of Production plus Imports minus Exports (from this table) minus stock change (not shown in this table).

United States data are from Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review.

Coal / Production

United States coal production is from Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review.

Coal includes anthracite, subanthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, lignite, brown coal, and for Estonia, oil shale.

Coal / Consumption

United States coal consumption is from Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Review.

Coal consumption includes anthracite, subanthracite, bituminous, subbituminous, lignite, brown coal, and for Estonia, oil shale. It also includes net imports of metallurgical coke.

Coal / Reserves

Data are as of December 31. Data for the United States are from the Energy Information Administration.

Data for other countries are from the World Energy Council. World Energy Council definition of "Proved Recoverable Reserves": Proved Recoverable Reserves are the tonnage within the Proved Amount in Place that can be recovered (extracted from the earth in raw form) under present and expected local economic conditions with existing available technology.

Data for the United States represent both measured and indicated tonnage, as of January 1, of the most recent full year. The U.S. term "measured" approximates the term "proved" used by the World Energy Council. The U.S. "measured and indicated" data have been combined prior to depletion adjustments and cannot be recaptured as "measured alone."

The estimates in this table are dependent on the judgment of each reporting country to interpret local economic conditions and its own mineral assessment criteria in terms of specified standards of the World Energy Council. Consequently, the data may not all meet the same standards of reliability and some data, including the Energy Information Administration's (EIA)'s, may not represent reserves of coal that are known to be recoverable under current economic conditions and regulations. Some data, including the EIA's, represent estimated recovery rates for highly reliable estimates of coal quantities in the ground that have physical characteristics like those of coals currently being profitably mined.

U.S. coal rank approximations are based partly on Btu and may not match precisely borderline geologic ranks. Further, data in this table may represent different base years. Data for the U.S. represent recoverable coal estimates as of January 1 of the most recent full year. Data for other countries are as of the most recent period for which they are available. The Energy Information Administration does not certify the international reserves data but reproduces the information as a matter of convenience for the reader.

Coal / Imports

Coal Imports include metallurgical coke.

Coal / Exports

Coal Exports include metallurgical coke.

Coal / Carbon Dioxide Emissions

Metric tons of carbon dioxide can be converted to metric tons of carbon equivalent by multiplying by 12/44.

Emissions from petroleum and coal account for differences in product-level consumption patterns and emissions factors. For example, in the case of petroleum, residual fuel oil has a significantly higher emissions factor than motor gasoline. The calculation methodology therefore applies emissions factors to individual petroleum product consumption data, and then sums to obtain total carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum.

Coal / Heat Content

Gross Heat Content of Coal Production

Heat contents are calculated based on individual heat contents for anthracite, bituminous, and lignite.

Electricity / Generation

Fossil Fuels electricity generation consists of electricity generated from coal, petroleum, and natural gas.

Hydroelectric generation excludes generation from hydroelectric pumped storage, where separately reported.

The term biomass and waste used here is similar to the term combustible renewables and waste.

Generation data consist of both utility and nonutility sources.

Data are reported as net generation as opposed to gross generation. The difference between gross and net generation is generally about 6% for conventional thermal stations, 1% for hydro stations, and 5% for all others.  Net generation excludes the energy consumed by the generating units.  Generation from hydroelectric pumped storage plants is included in total generation.

Electricity / Consumption

For the United States, total electric power consumption is equal to the data in the Total column under End Use from Table 8.1 of the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Review. 

For all other countries except the United States, total electric power consumption = total net electricity generation + electricity imports - electricity exports – electricity transmission and distribution losses.

Data are reported as net consumption as opposed to gross consumption. Net consumption excludes the energy consumed by the generating units.

Electricity / Capacity

Electricity capacity data is as of December 31.

Capacity data consist of both utility and nonutility sources.

Electricity / Net Imports

Data in this table are calculated as electricity imports less electricity exports for each country and year.

Negative data values indicate net electricity exports.

Electricity / Transmission and Distribution Losses

For the United States, electricity transmission and distribution losses are equal to the data in the T & D Losses and Unaccounted for column from Table 8.1 of the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Review

For countries for which data are not available, electricity transmission and distribution losses are estimated as being approximately 7 percent of total net electricity generation.

Electricity / Heat Content

Gross Heat Content of Hydroelectric Power

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has chosen to use as the annual gross heat content (or thermal conversion factor) for net hydroelectric power generation for all countries the annual approximate heat rate for fossil-fueled plants in the United States reported in Table A.6 of EIA's Annual Energy Review. Some other energy organizations have chosen to use the thermal conversion factor for electricity consumption which is 3,412 British thermal units (Btu) per kilowatthour.

Gross Heat Content of Nuclear Electric Power

The average heat content of net electricity generated by nuclear power plants is calculated by dividing the heat content of electricity consumed in nuclear generating units (3,412 Btu per kilowatthour) by the estimated efficiency factor (the ratio of output to input) for each nuclear power plant.

Gross Heat Content of Geothermal Electric Power

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has chosen to use as the annual gross heat content (or thermal conversion factor) for geothermal electric power generation for all countries the annual approximate heat rate for geothermal energy plants in the United States reported in Table A.6 of EIA's Annual Energy Review.

Gross Heat Content of Solar, Tide, Wave, and Fuel Cell Electric Power

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has chosen to use as the annual gross heat content (or thermal conversion factor) for net solar, tide, wave, and fuel cell electric power generation for all countries the annual approximate heat rate for fossil-fueled plants in the United States reported in Table A.6 of EIA's Annual Energy Review.

Gross Heat Content of Wind Electric Power

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has chosen to use as the annual gross heat content (or thermal conversion factor) for net wind electric power generation for all countries the annual approximate heat rate for fossil-fueled plants in the United States reported in Table A.6 of EIA's Annual Energy Review.

Gross Heat Content of Biomass and Waste Electric Power

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has chosen to use as the annual gross heat content (or thermal conversion factor) for net biomass and waste electric power generation for all countries the annual approximate heat rate for fossil-fueled plants in the United States reported in Table A.6 of EIA's Annual Energy Review.

Renewables / Electricity Generation

Hydroelectric generation for the United States and other countries excludes generation from hydroelectric pumped storage, where separately reported.

The term biomass and waste used here is similar to the term combustible renewables and waste.

Generation data consist of both utility and nonutility sources.

Data are reported as net generation as opposed to gross generation. Net generation excludes the energy consumed by the generating units and also excludes generation from hydroelectric pumped storage.

Renewables / Electricity Consumption

Data are reported as net consumption as opposed to gross consumption. Net consumption excludes the energy consumed by the generating units.

Renewables / Heat Content

Gross Heat Content of Hydroelectric Power

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has chosen to use as the annual gross heat content (or thermal conversion factor) for net hydroelectric power generation for all countries the annual approximate heat rate for fossil-fueled plants in the United States reported in Table A.6 of EIA's Annual Energy Review. Some other energy organizations have chosen to use the thermal conversion factor for electricity consumption which is 3,412 British thermal units (Btu) per kilowatthour.

Gross Heat Content of Geothermal Electric Power

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has chosen to use as the annual gross heat content (or thermal conversion factor) for geothermal electric power generation for all countries the annual approximate heat rate for geothermal energy plants in the United States reported in Table A.6 of EIA's Annual Energy Review.

Gross Heat Content of Solar, Tide, Wave, and Fuel Cell Electric Power

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has chosen to use as the annual gross heat content (or thermal conversion factor) for net solar, tide, wave, and fuel cell electric power generation for all countries the annual approximate heat rate for fossil-fueled plants in the United States reported in Table A.6 of EIA's Annual Energy Review.

Gross Heat Content of Wind Electric Power

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has chosen to use as the annual gross heat content (or thermal conversion factor) for net wind electric power generation for all countries the annual approximate heat rate for fossil-fueled plants in the United States reported in Table A.6 of EIA's Annual Energy Review.

Total Energy / Production

Total primary energy production reported in this table includes the production of petroleum (crude oil and natural gas plant liquids), dry natural gas, and coal, and the net generation of nuclear, hydroelectric, and non-hydroelectric renewable electricity.

Total primary energy production for the United States also includes the production of biomass, geothermal, and, solar energy not used for electricity generation.

Total Energy / Consumption

Total primary energy consumption reported in this table includes the consumption of petroleum, dry natural gas, coal, and net nuclear, hydroelectric, and non-hydroelectric renewable electricity.

Total primary energy consumption for each country also includes net electricity imports (electricity imports minus electricity exports).

Electricity net imports are included because the net electricity consumption by energy type data, noted above, are really net electricity generation data that have not been adjusted to include electricity imports and exclude electricity exports. Total primary energy consumption for the United States also includes the consumption of biomass, geothermal, and solar energy not used for electricity generation.

Total primary energy consumption per Capita is calculated by dividing the data on total primary energy consumption in quadrillion British thermal units for each country and year by the population in millions for each country and year.  Energy intensity using market exchange rates is calculated by dividing the data on total primary energy consumption in quadrillion British thermal units for each country and year by the gross domestic product using market exchange rates in billions of (2000) U.S. dollars for each available country and year from Global Insight.  Energy intensity using purchasing power parities is calculated by dividing the data on total primary energy consumption in quadrillion British thermal units for each country and year by the gross domestic product using purchasing power parities in billions of (2000) U.S. dollars for each available country and year from Global Insight.

Indicators / CO2 Emissions

International data for carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of energy include emissions due to the consumption of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, and also from natural gas flaring. Carbon dioxide emissions are calculated for each individual fuel, with some refinements that are detailed below, by applying carbon emission coefficients - or million metric tons of carbon dioxide emitted per quadrillion Btu of fuel consumed - to international consumption and flaring data.

Emissions from petroleum and coal account for differences in product-level consumption patterns and emissions factors. For example, in the case of petroleum, residual fuel oil has a significantly higher emissions factor than motor gasoline. The calculation methodology therefore applies emissions factors to individual petroleum product consumption data, and then sums to obtain total carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of petroleum.

Emissions data from the consumption of petroleum also incorporates carbon sequestration due to non-fuel use (for example, asphalt used for street paving). This is done by applying: (1) rates of non-fuel use and (2) sequestration rates of non-fuel use to individual products. Product-level emissions are accordingly reduced to account for carbon that is sequestered rather than combusted and emitted as carbon dioxide.

Carbon emission coefficients for petroleum, coal, and natural gas consumption and natural gas flaring are from Energy Information Administration (EIA), Documentation for Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2006 (October 2008), Tables 6.1 and 6.2. Sequestration rates for non-fuel use of petroleum products are from the same report, found throughout the text of Chapter 1. International data for carbon dioxide emissions from the consumption of energy do not include emissions from geothermal power generation, cement production and other industrial process, or municipal solid waste combustion.