Uranium (nuclear) Basics
Did you know?
All nuclear power in the United States is used to generate electricity.
Nuclear energy is energy in the core of an atom
Atoms are the tiny particles in the molecules that make up gases, liquids, and solids. Atoms themselves are made up of three particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons. An atom has a nucleus (or core) containing protons and neutrons, which is surrounded by electrons. Protons carry a positive electrical charge and electrons carry a negative electrical charge. Neutrons do not have an electrical charge. There is enormous energy present in the bonds that hold the nucleus together. This nuclear energy can be released when those bonds are broken. The bonds can be broken through nuclear fission, and this energy can be used to produce electricity.
In nuclear fission, atoms are split apart, which releases energy. All nuclear power plants use nuclear fission, and most nuclear power plants use uranium atoms. During nuclear fission, a neutron hits a uranium atom and splits it, releasing a large amount of energy in the form of heat and radiation. More neutrons are also released when a uranium atom splits. These neutrons go on to hit other uranium atoms, and the process repeats itself over and over again. This is called a nuclear chain reaction. This reaction is controlled in nuclear power plant reactors to produce a desired amount of heat.
Nuclear energy can also be released in nuclear fusion, in which atoms are combined or fused together to form a larger atom. This is the source of energy in the sun and stars. Nuclear fusion is the subject of ongoing research as a source of energy for heat and electricity generation, but it is not yet clear whether or not it will be a commercially viable technology because of the difficulty of controlling a fusion reaction.
Uranium is the fuel most widely used by nuclear plants for nuclear fission. Uranium is considered to be a nonrenewable energy source, even though it is a common metal found in rocks worldwide. Nuclear power plants use a certain kind of uranium, referred to as U-235, for fuel because its atoms are easily split apart. Although uranium is about 100 times more common than silver, U-235 is relatively rare.
Most U.S. uranium ore is mined in the western United States. Once uranium is mined, the U-235 must be extracted and processed before it can be used as a fuel.
Nuclear Power Plants
Nuclear power comes from nuclear fission
Most power plants, including nuclear power plants, use heat to produce electricity. Power plants rely on steam from heated water to spin large turbines that generate electricity. Instead of burning fossil fuels to produce steam, nuclear power plants use heat produced during nuclear fission.
In nuclear fission, atoms are split apart to form smaller atoms, releasing energy. Fission takes place inside the reactor of a nuclear power plant. At the center of the reactor is the core, which contains the uranium fuel.
The uranium fuel is formed into ceramic pellets. Each ceramic pellet produces roughly the same amount of energy as 150 gallons of oil. These energy-rich pellets are stacked end-to-end in 12-foot metal fuel rods. A bundle of fuel rods, sometimes hundreds, is called a fuel assembly. A reactor core contains many fuel assemblies.
The heat produced during nuclear fission in the reactor core is used to boil water into steam, which turns the turbine blades. As the turbine blades turn, they drive generators that make electricity. Afterward, the steam is cooled back into water in a separate structure at the power plant called a cooling tower. The water can then be reused.
Nuclear power plants generate about 20% of U.S. electricity
The United States has 61 operating nuclear power plants with 99 nuclear reactors.1 Of the 61 operating nuclear power plants, 35 of the plants have 2 or more reactors. There are nuclear power plants in 30 U.S. states, and 46 plants are located east of the Mississippi River. Nuclear power has supplied about one-fifth of annual U.S. electricity each year since 1990. Nuclear power provides about as much electricity as the total electricity used in California, New York, and Texas combined.
The United States generates more nuclear power than any other country
Of the 30 countries in the world that have commercial nuclear power plants, the United States has the most nuclear capacity and generation. France, the country with the second-highest nuclear capacity, relies on nuclear power for nearly 75% of its electricity. Fourteen other countries generate more than 20% of their electricity from nuclear power.
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration
Types of Nuclear Reactors
Nuclear reactors are machines that contain and control nuclear chain reactions while releasing heat at a controlled rate.
A nuclear power plant uses the heat supplied by a nuclear reactor to turn water into steam, which then drives turbine generators that generate electricity.
There are two types of reactors used in the United States
Boiling-water reactors and pressurized-water reactors are the two types of reactors used in the United States.
In a boiling-water reactor, water heated by the reactor core turns directly into steam in the reactor vessel, and the steam is then used to power the turbine generator.
In a pressurized-water reactor, water heated by the reactor core is kept under pressure so that it does not turn to steam at all, it remains liquid. This hot radioactive water flows through a piece of equipment called a steam generator.
A steam generator is a giant cylinder with thousands of tubes that hot radioactive water can flow through to heat up. Outside these hot tubes in the steam generator is nonradioactive water (or clean water), which eventually boils and turns to steam.
The radioactive water flows back to the reactor core, where it is reheated and then sent back to the steam generator. The clean water may come from one of several sources like oceans, lakes, or rivers.
What are Small Modular Reactors?
Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) are about one-third the size of the reactors currently under construction. SMRs have simple compact designs that can be assembled in a factory and transported by train or truck directly to the power plant site, potentially reducing the time it takes to construct a new nuclear power plant. The U.S. Department of Energy is supporting the design, certification, and commercialization of SMRs in the United States.
Getting (Producing) Uranium
Uranium is the fuel most widely used by nuclear power plants for nuclear fission. In nuclear fission, energy is released when atoms are split apart to form smaller atoms. Nuclear power plants use the heat from nuclear fission to produce electricity.
Uranium is a common metal, but it must be processed into a fuel
Uranium is a common metal found in rocks all over the world. Uranium occurs in combination with small amounts of other elements.
Nuclear power plants use a certain type of uranium, U-235, as fuel because its atoms are easily split apart. Although uranium is about 100 times more common than silver, U-235 is relatively rare.
Economically recoverable uranium deposits have been discovered primarily in the western United States, Australia, Canada, Central Asia, Africa, and South America. After uranium is mined, the U-235 must be extracted and processed before it can be used as a fuel. Mined uranium ore typically yields one to four pounds of uranium concentrate (U3O8 or yellowcake) per ton, or 0.05% to 0.20% U3O8.