Electricity in the U.S. Basics
Most of the electricity in the United States is produced using steam turbines
A turbine converts the kinetic energy of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) to mechanical energy. In a steam turbine, steam is forced against a series of blades mounted on a shaft. The steam rotates the shaft connected to the generator. The generator, in turn, converts its mechanical energy to electrical energy based on the relationship between magnetism and electricity.
In steam turbines powered by fossil fuels (coal, petroleum, and natural gas), the fuel is burned in a furnace to heat water in a boiler to produce steam.
Most of U.S. electricity is generated using fossil fuels
In 2015, coal was used for about 33% of the 4 trillion kilowatthours of electricity generated in the United States.
In addition to being burned to heat water for steam, natural gas can also be burned to produce hot combustion gases that pass directly through a natural gas turbine, spinning the turbine's blades to generate electricity. Natural gas turbines are commonly used when electricity use is in high demand. In 2015, nearly 33% of U.S. electricity was fueled by natural gas.
Petroleum can be burned to produce hot combustion gases to turn a turbine or to make steam that turns a turbine. Residual fuel oil and petroleum coke, products from refining crude oil, are the main petroleum fuels used in steam turbines. Distillate (or diesel) fuel oil is used in diesel-engine generators. Petroleum was used to generate less than 1% of all electricity in the United States in 2015.
Nuclear power provides about one-fifth of U.S. electricity
Nuclear power plants produce electricity with nuclear fission to create steam that spins a turbine to generate electricity. Most U.S. nuclear power plants are located in states east of the Mississippi River. Nuclear power was used to generate nearly 20% of all U.S. electricity in 2015.
Renewable energy sources provide 13% of U.S. electricity
Hydropower, the source of about 6% of U.S. electricity generation in 2015, is a process in which flowing water is used to spin a turbine connected to a generator. Most hydropower is produced at large facilities built by the federal government, like the Grand Coulee Dam. The West has many of the largest hydroelectric dams, but there are many hydropower facilities operating all around the country.
Wind power is produced by converting wind energy into electricity. Electricity generation from wind has increased significantly in the United States since 1970. Wind power provided almost 5% of U.S. electricity generation in 2015.
Biomass is material derived from plants or animals and includes lumber and paper mill wastes, food scraps, grass, leaves, paper, and wood in municipal solid waste (garbage). Biomass is also derived from forestry and agricultural residues such as wood chips, corn cobs, and wheat straw. These materials can be burned directly in steam-electric power plants, or they can be converted to a gas that can be burned in steam generators, gas turbines, or internal combustion engine-generators. Biomass accounted for about 2% of the electricity generated in the United States in 2015.
Geothermal power comes from heat energy buried beneath the surface of the earth. In some areas of the United States, enough heat rises close enough to the surface of the earth to heat underground water into steam, which can be tapped for use at steam-turbine plants. Geothermal power generated less than 1% of the electricity in the United States in 2015.
Solar power is derived from energy from the sun. Photovoltaic (PV) and solar-thermal electric are the two main types of technologies used to convert solar energy to electricity. PV conversion produces electricity directly from sunlight in a photovoltaic (solar) cell. Solar-thermal electric generators concentrate solar energy to heat a fluid and produce steam to drive turbines. In 2015, nearly 1% of U.S. electricity generation came from solar power.
How Electricity Gets to Your Home
Electricity is delivered to consumers through a complex network
Electricity is generated at power plants and moves through a complex network, or grid, of electricity substations, power lines, and distribution transformers before it reaches consumers. In the United States, the entire grid consists of more than 7,300 power plants, nearly 160,000 miles of high-voltage power lines, and millions of low-voltage power lines and distribution transformers connecting about 145 million customers.
Electricity comes from various sources and kinds of providers
Did you know?
Some residential, industrial, commercial, and institutional users of electricity produce electricity for themselves and then sell excess electricity to their utility.
The utility, distribution company, or retail service provider selling you power may be a not-for-profit municipal entity; an electric cooperative owned by its members; a private, for-profit company owned by stockholders (often called an investor-owned utility); or a power marketer. Some federally owned authorities—including the Bonneville Power Administration and the Tennessee Valley Authority, among others—also buy, sell, and distribute power.
The origin of the electricity that customers consume may vary. Utilities may generate all the electricity they sell using just the power plants they own. Utilities may also purchase some of their supply on the wholesale market from other utilities, power marketers, independent power producers, or from a market based on membership in a regional transmission reliability organization.
How the grid is organized
Most of the existing grid was built during a highly-structured, highly regulated era. The existing grid was designed to ensure that everyone in the United States had reasonable access to electricity service. Utility customers, through fees authorized and regulated by state regulatory commissions, generally pay for developing and maintaining the grid.
Many local grids are interconnected for reliability and commercial purposes, forming larger, more dependable networks that maximize coordination and planning of electricity supply. These networks extend throughout many states.
The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) was established to ensure that the grid in the United States was reliable, adequate, and secure. Some NERC members have formed regional organizations with similar missions.
These regional organizations are referred to as Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). These regional organizations are part of a national standard design advocated by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). Some organizations have members who connect to lines in Canada or Mexico. Most organizations, depending on the location and the utility, are indirectly connected to dozens and often hundreds of power plants. Some electricity consumed in the United States is imported from Canada and Mexico.
Electricity & the Environment
Although electricity is a clean and relatively safe form of energy, there are environmental impacts associated with its production and transmission. Nearly all types of electric power plants have an effect on the environment, some more than others.
The two coal-fired power plants of the Crystal River North Steam Complex in Crystal River, Florida
Hunter Power Plant, a coal-fired power plant south of Castle Dale, Utah
The United States has laws to reduce the environmental impacts associated with electricity production and transmission. The Clean Air Act establishes regulations for the control of air pollutant emissions from most power plants. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers the Clean Air Act and sets emissions standards for power plants through various programs like the Acid Rain Program. The Clean Air Act has helped to substantially reduce emissions of some of the major types of air pollutants in the United States.
The impact of power plants on the landscape
All power plants have a physical footprint (the location of the power plant). Some power plants are located inside, on, or next to an existing building, so the impact of the footprint is limited. Most large power plants require land clearing to locate the power plant. Some power plants may also require the construction of access roads, railroads, and pipelines for fuel delivery; electricity transmission lines; and cooling water supplies.
Power plants that burn solid fuels may have areas where the ash from combustion is stored.
Many power plants are large physical structures that alter the visual landscape. In general, the larger the area disturbed, the more likely it is for the power plant to affect the landscape.
Fossil fuel, biomass, and waste burning power plants
In the United States, fossil fuels (mainly coal, oil, and natural gas), materials that come from plants (biomass), and municipal and industrial wastes are used to generate most of the electricity people use (about 68% in 2014). Emissions that result from the combustion of these fuels include:
- Carbon dioxide (CO2)
- Carbon monoxide (CO)
- Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
- Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
- Particulate matter (PM)
- Heavy metals such as mercury
Nearly all combustion byproducts have negative impacts on the environment and human health:
- CO2 is a greenhouse gas, and it contributes to global warming.1
- SO2 causes acid rain, which is harmful to plants and to animals that live in water. SO2 also exacerbates respiratory illnesses and heart diseases, particularly in children and the elderly.
- NOx contribute to ground level ozone, which irritates and damages the lungs.
- PM results in hazy conditions in cites and scenic areas, and coupled with ozone, contributes to asthma and chronic bronchitis, especially in children and the elderly. Very small, or fine PM is also believed to cause emphysema and lung cancer.
- Heavy metals such as mercury are hazardous to human and animal health.
Power plants use air emission controls to limit their environment impact
Power plants are required to meet standards that limit the amounts of some of the substances they release into the air. There are different ways that power plants meet these standards:
- Coal-fired power plants can burn coal that is low in sulfur content. Coal can also be pretreated and processed before use to reduce the level of undesirable compounds in combustion gases.
- PM emissions are controlled by devices that clean combustion gases before they exit the power plant:
- Bag-houses use large filters.
- Electrostatic precipitators use charged plates.
- Wet scrubbers use a liquid solution.
- SO2 emissions are controlled by wet and dry scrubbers, which mix lime in the fuel (coal) or spray a lime solution into the combustion gases. Fluidized bed combustion can also be used to control SO2.
- NOx emissions can be controlled by low NOx burners during the combustion phase or by selective catalytic and non-catalytic converters during the post combustion phase.
Some power plants also produce liquid and solid wastes
The solid residue that results from burning solid fuels such as coal, biomass, and municipal solid waste is called ash. The largest particles collect at the bottom of the combustion chamber (bottom ash) and are removed and quenched with water. Smaller and lighter particulates (fly ash) are collected in air emission control devices, and are usually mixed with the bottom ash. The resulting sludge, which contains all the hazardous materials that were captured by the pollution control devices, may be stored in retention ponds, sent to landfills, or sold for use in making concrete blocks or asphalt. Many coal-fired power plants have large sludge ponds. Several of these ponds have burst and caused extensive damage and pollution downstream.
Most power plants produce greenhouse gases
Electricity generation is one of the leading sources of greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Power plants that burn fossil fuels or materials made from fossil fuels, and some geothermal power plants, are the source of about 40% of total U.S. carbon dioxide emissions.
Nuclear power plants produce different kinds of waste
Nuclear power plants are not a source of greenhouse gases or other hazardous air emissions, but they do produce two kinds of radioactive waste:
- Low-level radioactive waste is stored at nuclear power plants until the radioactivity in the waste decays to a level where it is allowed to be disposed of as ordinary trash, or a level where it can be sent to a low-level radioactive waste disposal site.
- Spent (used) nuclear fuel assemblies are highly radioactive and must initially be stored in specially designed pools resembling large swimming pools that cool the fuel and act as a radiation shield. Spent nuclear fuel may also be stored in specially designed dry storage containers. An increasing number of reactor operators now store older spent nuclear fuel in dry storage facilities using special outdoor concrete or steel containers with air cooling. All commercial nuclear power plants store spent nuclear fuel assemblies at the plant because, at this time, there are no other places (repositories) for storing the waste that have been approved by the federal government.
Electric power lines and other distribution infrastructure also has a footprint
There are also environmental impacts associated with distribution infrastructure and power transmission lines that carry electricity from power plants to customers. Most transmission lines are above ground on large towers. The towers and lines alter the visual landscape, especially when they pass through natural areas. Trees near the wires may be disturbed and may have to be continually managed to keep limbs from touching the wires. These activities can affect native plant populations and wildlife. Power lines can be placed underground, but this is more expensive and may result in a greater landscape disturbance than overhead lines.
1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Climate Change State of Knowledge