Pakistan - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
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Pakistan  

Country Analysis Note

  • Pakistan's economy has continued to struggle with underemployment, slow economic growth, and high inflation. Pakistan's inability to meet domestic energy demand has resulted in electricity outages, which is a key political and economic issue in the country.
  • The electricity industry faces problems with power generation theft, poor collection rates, line losses, and the poor financial position of generation companies. These issues have led to load-shedding, the temporary shut-down of electric lines when demand is greater than supply, which has costs the economy an estimated $13.5 billion per year, the Wall Street Journal recently reported.
  • Electricity net consumption has increased from 47 billion kilowatthours (KWh) in 2000 to 74 billion KWh in 2010. According to the latest World Bank estimates, Pakistan had an electrification rate of 67 percent in 2010.
  • Pakistan is a net importer of crude oil and refined products. Oil production in Pakistan has fluctuated between 55,000 to 70,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) since the 1990s.The country produced 62,000 bbl/d of oil in 2012. Oil consumption has grown over time and averaged 440,000 bbl/d in 2012. Pakistan currently has six oil refineries with a total crude oil distillation capacity of 186,000 bbl/d, which run mostly on imported crude oil.
  • The Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) dominates Pakistan's oil industry. The Pakistani government owns a majority share in OGDCL, with the remainder owned by the public. BP and Eni are the leading foreign oil firms operating in Pakistan.
  • Dry natural gas production has grown by more than 70 percent over the past decade from 809 billion cubic feet (Bcf) in 2002 to 1,383 Bcf in 2011, all of which was domestically consumed. Despite the growth of natural gas production, the country's demand is still constrained. Pakistan currently does not import natural gas because it lacks the infrastructure. The country plans to build a liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification plant to relieve some pressure from its growing demand, although development efforts to build a terminal have moved slowly.
  • Pakistan's main natural gas producers include Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. (PPL) and OGDCL, as well as international companies such as BP, ENI, OMV, and BHP. The leading gas distributors are Sui Southern Gas Company (SSGC) and Sui Northern Gas Pipelines (SNGP).
  • The Pakistani government has stated that overcoming the energy crisis in the country is a primary goal. Potential policy options include increasing imports of energy efficient items such as hybrid cars and LED bulbs, resolving the circular debt issue in the energy industry, and increasing production and imports of alternative fuel sources.

Analysis Last Updated: August 2013


Overview data for Pakistan

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Petroleum (Thousand Barrels per Day)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Pakistan
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
    
Pakistan
Total Oil Production 11.2000 , 11.2000 , 13.2000 , 14.2000 , 18.2000 , 36.2000 , 42.1093 , 42.0704 , 45.1443 , 48.0305 , 62.0385 , 63.3410 , 63.6747 , 62.5494 , 57.6510 , 61.9478 , 57.6238 , 59.5604 , 57.8434 , 56.5718 , 56.7628 , 63.3744 , 67.9307 , 64.3302 , 66.5916 , 68.1262 , 69.2566 , 68.6869 , 62.6039 , 59.8465 , 67.3203 , 68.3342 , 67.7495 , 64.2437
(1980-2013)
67.75 9,024 89,690 55   64.24
Crude Oil Production 10.0000 , 10.0000 , 12.0000 , 13.0000 , 17.0000 , 35.0000 , 42.0000 , 42.0000 , 45.0000 , 48.0000 , 62.0000 , 62.0000 , 61.3530 , 60.3580 , 55.0000 , 57.1000 , 55.0000 , 57.0000 , 54.9123 , 53.0000 , 54.4208 , 59.8700 , 64.2680 , 60.0000 , 62.0000 , 65.6259 , 65.6655 , 65.1949 , 58.5792 , 55.3699 , 63.0000 , 64.0000 , 63.4153 , 59.9096
(1980-2013)
63.42 7,674 75,888 50   59.91
Consumption 104.0000 , 113.0000 , 134.0000 , 137.0000 , 140.0000 , 159.6715 , 165.7485 , 180.4252 , 194.2014 , 205.6347 , 220.0507 , 221.0589 , 227.2102 , 256.4202 , 282.1702 , 298.0938 , 326.9029 , 333.0363 , 346.8352 , 368.5690 , 365.0144 , 360.1245 , 355.8949 , 336.5988 , 326.8461 , 336.1863 , 357.0768 , 382.2595 , 389.7516 , 390.9353 , 392.3003 , 418.0000 , 440.1073
(1980-2012)
418.00 28,743 88,744 33   440.11
Estimated Petroleum Net Exports -92.8000 , -101.8000 , -120.8000 , -122.8000 , -121.8000 , -123.4715 , -123.6392 , -138.3548 , -149.0571 , -157.6041 , -158.0122 , -157.7179 , -163.5355 , -193.8708 , -224.5193 , -236.1460 , -269.2791 , -273.4759 , -288.9918 , -311.9972 , -308.2516 , -296.7501 , -287.9641 , -272.2686 , -260.2545 , -268.0601 , -287.8202 , -313.5726 , -327.1477 , -331.0888 , -324.9800 , -349.6658 , -372.3579
(1980-2012)
-349.67 -19,742 -- 198   -372.36
Refinery Capacity 98.0000 , 122.0000 , 133.0000 , 133.0000 , 126.0000 , 129.0000 , 130.0000 , 130.0000 , 130.0000 , 130.0000 , 121.0000 , 121.0000 , 120.9750 , 120.9750 , 132.9000 , 138.8500 , 137.3250 , 137.3250 , 137.3250 , 138.8500 , 143.3500 , 238.8500 , 238.8500 , 233.8500 , 268.9750 , 268.9750 , 268.9750 , 268.9750 , 266.6750 , 276.0500 , 286.3060 , 286.3060 , 186.3060
(1980-2012)
286 24,875 88,097 51   186
Proved Reserves(Billion Barrels) 0.2000 , 0.1965 , 0.2400 , 0.1963 , 0.0829 , 0.0820 , 0.1090 , 0.0960 , 0.0960 , 0.1704 , 0.1186 , 0.1621 , 0.1620 , 0.4120 , 0.2033 , 0.2033 , 0.2033 , 0.2080 , 0.2080 , 0.2080 , 0.2080 , 0.2080 , 0.2982 , 0.3104 , 0.2887 , 0.2887 , 0.2892 , 0.2892 , 0.2892 , 0.3390 , 0.3130 , 0.3130 , 0.2806 , 0.2475 , 0.3419
(1980-2014)
0.25 45 1,646 51   0.34
Natural Gas (Billion Cubic Feet)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Pakistan
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
 
Pakistan
Production 286.0500 , 315.6000 , 354.0000 , 342.0000 , 354.0000 , 365.0000 , 392.0000 , 419.2000 , 444.6100 , 474.9900 , 482.0000 , 534.0000 , 550.7150 , 583.0000 , 627.1900 , 645.9100 , 696.4118 , 698.5307 , 709.8315 , 783.9930 , 855.6825 , 774.4580 , 808.7135 , 889.9380 , 967.6310 , 1087.7020 , 1275.5778 , 1299.5920 , 1341.9700 , 1367.0437 , 1399.5335 , 1382.5823 , 1462.2572
(1980-2012)
1,382.58 17,008 116,255 22   1,462.26
Consumption 286.0500 , 315.6000 , 354.0000 , 342.0000 , 354.0000 , 365.0000 , 392.0000 , 419.2000 , 444.6100 , 474.9900 , 482.0000 , 534.0000 , 550.7150 , 583.0000 , 627.1900 , 645.9100 , 696.4118 , 698.5307 , 709.8315 , 783.9930 , 855.6825 , 774.4580 , 808.7135 , 889.9380 , 967.6310 , 1087.7020 , 1275.5778 , 1299.5920 , 1341.9700 , 1367.0437 , 1399.5335 , 1382.5823 , 1462.2572
(1980-2012)
1,382.58 22,220 116,395 23   1,462.26
Net Export/Imports(-) 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000 , 0.0000
(1990-2012)
0.00 -4,825 -- 64   0.00
Proved Reserves
(Trillion Cubic Feet)
15.8000 , 15.1000 , 16.4000 , 18.5400 , 15.8000 , 15.7600 , 15.4000 , 18.7000 , 22.4000 , 17.7220 , 18.0000 , 19.4490 , 22.6000 , 31.0000 , 22.9400 , 27.5000 , 27.0000 , 22.0000 , 21.0000 , 21.6000 , 21.6000 , 21.6000 , 25.0780 , 26.3650 , 26.8300 , 26.8300 , 28.1530 , 28.0000 , 28.0000 , 31.2660 , 29.6710 , 29.6710 , 26.6200 , 24.0010 , 26.6500
(1980-2014)
24.00 521 6,846 29   26.65
Coal (Million Short Tons)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Pakistan
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
 
Pakistan
Production 1.9053 , 1.8834 , 2.1446 , 1.9551 , 2.1234 , 2.3897 , 2.3309 , 2.3774 , 3.0065 , 2.8872 , 3.0329 , 3.1832 , 3.3876 , 3.3889 , 3.5433 , 3.3542 , 3.8196 , 3.8542 , 3.8151 , 3.4910 , 3.4106 , 3.6685 , 3.6509 , 3.6101 , 5.0563 , 5.3694 , 4.0157 , 4.5459 , 4.1215 , 3.8371 , 3.8041 , 3.9827 , 3.4072
(1980-2012)
3.983 5,529 8,444 36   3.407
Consumption 2.1808 , 2.2383 , 2.7818 , 2.4732 , 2.7716 , 3.1238 , 3.3263 , 3.3783 , 3.9137 , 3.8748 , 4.0249 , 4.2544 , 4.4734 , 4.5948 , 4.7515 , 4.5502 , 4.7456 , 4.9124 , 4.8182 , 4.5459 , 4.4577 , 4.8601 , 5.3903 , 6.6844 , 8.7016 , 8.5032 , 8.7016 , 11.1455 , 9.2506 , 8.9717 , 8.5076 , 8.4547 , 7.0129
(1980-2012)
8.455 5,482 8,285 41   7.013
Net Export/Imports(-) -382.5020 , -354.9443 , -637.1360 , -573.2019 , -541.2349 , -789.2549 , -939.1693 , -1011.9218 , -940.2716 , -987.6710 , -992.0802 , -1071.1380 , -1085.7767 , -1205.9286 , -1208.1333 , -1196.0078 , -925.9415 , -1058.2189 , -1003.1033 , -1054.9120 , -1047.1958 , -1191.5986 , -1739.4473 , -3074.3464 , -3645.3437 , -3133.8712 , -4685.9256 , -6599.5381 , -5129.0548 , -5134.5663 , -4703.5626 , -4472.0772 , -3605.6605
(1980-2012)
-4.472 -39 -- 27   -3.606
Electricity (Billion Kilowatthours)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Pakistan
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
 
Pakistan
Net Generation 14.5120 , 15.5600 , 19.8080 , 21.9170 , 24.5630 , 26.4870 , 29.0460 , 32.2600 , 37.0760 , 38.7500 , 36.3480 , 39.5630 , 46.2410 , 45.1182 , 52.0560 , 51.8466 , 52.2560 , 57.8550 , 59.9410 , 62.4920 , 63.4000 , 68.8590 , 72.4430 , 77.4830 , 81.1430 , 89.8160 , 94.4430 , 90.8024 , 87.7356 , 91.0072 , 89.7317 , 89.8800
(1980-2011)
89.73 7,682 20,254 34   89.88
Net Consumption 10.1570 , 11.4170 , 15.4100 , 16.9770 , 19.0740 , 21.8200 , 23.8550 , 26.0110 , 29.9040 , 31.8010 , 30.5400 , 31.4090 , 35.4090 , 33.5732 , 39.8640 , 38.8526 , 38.4020 , 42.5570 , 40.0430 , 44.9380 , 46.8540 , 49.9800 , 52.4020 , 57.1840 , 60.0740 , 67.0510 , 72.4280 , 72.1994 , 68.5486 , 72.2142 , 74.5477 , 73.7650
(1980-2011)
74.55 7,060 18,501 36   73.77
Installed Capacity (GWe) 3.7630 , 4.1230 , 4.7840 , 4.7870 , 6.5850 , 6.8750 , 7.4850 , 7.8850 , 8.0550 , 8.2060 , 7.7270 , 8.3440 , 9.3570 , 10.5740 , 11.3070 , 12.0880 , 12.9570 , 14.6770 , 15.8160 , 17.3870 , 17.7370 , 18.0010 , 17.9210 , 19.2150 , 19.3450 , 19.4130 , 19.3820 , 19.3830 , 19.7550 , 20.8900 , 22.1210 , 22.7410
(1980-2011)
22.12 1,903 5,086 34   22.74
Total Primary Energy (Quadrillion Btu)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Pakistan
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
 
Pakistan
Production 0.4270 , 0.4611 , 0.5130 , 0.5202 , 0.5446 , 0.5919 , 0.6478 , 0.6899 , 0.7419 , 0.7773 , 0.8184 , 0.8880 , 0.9366 , 0.9441 , 1.0149 , 1.0381 , 1.0565 , 1.0697 , 1.0602 , 1.0958 , 1.1459 , 1.1238 , 1.1427 , 1.2527 , 1.3191 , 1.4874 , 1.6477 , 1.6419 , 1.6443 , 1.6605 , 1.7402 , 1.7096
(1980-2011)
1.740 148 505 42   1.710
Consumption 0.6314 , 0.6851 , 0.7819 , 0.7921 , 0.8194 , 0.8724 , 0.9327 , 1.0065 , 1.0784 , 1.1344 , 1.1766 , 1.2487 , 1.3100 , 1.3577 , 1.5331 , 1.5813 , 1.6689 , 1.6919 , 1.7187 , 1.8042 , 1.8461 , 1.7993 , 1.8134 , 1.9119 , 1.9663 , 2.1391 , 2.3842 , 2.4815 , 2.4684 , 2.5051 , 2.5610 , 2.5778
(1980-2011)
2.561 190 507 33   2.578
Energy Intensity
(Btu per 2005 U.S. Dollars)
4795.7049 , 4821.4967 , 5165.4859 , 4900.4757 , 4824.7227 , 4774.6239 , 4838.4477 , 4904.6616 , 4882.7055 , 4893.7383 , 4858.9163 , 4908.2584 , 4780.7718 , 4869.4351 , 5300.3122 , 5208.5128 , 5242.8027 , 5261.7755 , 5212.2317 , 5278.1785 , 5180.2620 , 4950.7207 , 4833.6536 , 4860.7780 , 4656.0030 , 4704.3378 , 4938.2546 , 4863.4492 , 4761.7861 , 4663.2295 , 4577.9484 , 4501.7877
(1980-2011)
4,578 7,821 7,401 120   4,502
Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Million Metric Tons of CO₂)
Previous Year
Latest Year
   
History
Pakistan
Asia & Oceania
World
Rank
 
Pakistan
Total from Consumption of Fossil Fuels
33.6744 , 36.3611 , 42.4157 , 41.5704 , 42.4769 , 46.6073 , 50.7873 , 56.0324 , 58.2176 , 62.0864 , 66.9837 , 68.0882 , 70.1680 , 77.7935 , 84.9598 , 87.6905 , 95.2235 , 95.7947 , 97.3739 , 105.5983 , 108.1492 , 103.1485 , 102.6098 , 104.5551 , 109.0577 , 115.5087 , 129.9256 , 140.1087 , 138.7724 , 141.0188 , 141.8863 , 139.6644
(1980-2011)
141.89 13,840 31,502 33   139.66

-- = Not applicable; NA = Not available; E = Estimate value
Sources: EIA. For more detailed data, see International Energy Statistics.

Data last updated: May 30, 2013

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